Medieval Church History

Here is a wealth of resources on Medieval Church history which will answer just about any question you have about it.  We have harvested the public domain on the topic for you and have found many of the standard sources on the subject, in addition to contemporary scholarship as well.

In particular, in the midst of the liberal, popular opinion that Islam is a peaceful religion, get the truth here. We highly recommend the works of Bat Ye’or, who has thoroughly and impartially shown at length and in detail what it was like to be a ‘dhimmi’ (non-muslim) under Islam historically and through the modern era, with first-rate scholarship.

Medieval Church History & Renaissance

Early Church History

We have collected the harvest of histories on the early Church from the public domain.

The early Church will always be dear to the one to whom the Lord Jesus is dear to, as these early Christians came right off the heels of Christ’s commissioned apostles themselves.  As always though, as some of the most-in-depth sources have been written by liberals and secularists, discernment is needed to separate the wheat from the chaff.

For those who are a bit further along and know some Greek and Latin, but have not yet attempted to jump into the 161 volumes of Greek patristic writings and 221 volumes of Latin patristic writings (which is not easy to do), but desire to make some progress herein, we have some easy directions and tools in our Primary Sources section that will allow you to do just this.  It is the only place on the net that we know of which provides such a key to opening these treasures.

We hope that you find this of great value:

Early Church History

Church History

We have collected the cream of the crop of Church histories that span the whole of the Christian era for you off of the internet.

Have a question about something in Church history?  You will find a larger wealth of information on the topic here than you ever desired.

The beginner will find a number of great recommendations to start with.  The advanced material is amazing, though one must read with discernment.  Please enjoy the best of Church history in the public domain!

Church History

[The subsections on specific periods in Church history, such as the early church, medieval church, etc. are still under construction]

Historical Theology

Historical theology is Scriptural theology organized and viewed through the way it has been recognized and developed through the history of the Church.

Why is historical theology dearly precious?  Because nearly every aspect of Scriptural teaching has been hammered out in more profound earnestness and depth by the godly giants of the past, and their personal stories, than we can comprehend.

Here is a collection of the major historical theologies on the net:

Historical Theology

May you find it a blessing.

We now have rather full collections at ReformedBooksOnline of the three main divisions of theology: Historical, Biblical and Systematic.

Infra & Supralapsarianism

What is Infra and Supralapsarianism, and what does one make of it?

In the predestination of God, does He conceive of the clay of mankind (Rom. 9:21) from which he forms vessels to honor and dishonor as sinful (infra) or pure (supra)?

Both views have been respected in reformed history.  Here is a comprehensible introduction to them.  Unlike many introductions to this subject, this one provides answers.  If you have opinions on the topic, get ready to be challenged and to learn.

Please enjoy the largest collection of resources on the net on this topic, and may we be humbled and give glory to our infinitely great God whose ways are past finding out.

Infralapsarianism and Supralapsarianism

Psalters Online

Are you able to sing with David that “your statutes have been my songs in the house of my pilgrimage”? – Ps. 119:54

In order that you may find as rich treasure and grace in singing the Lord’s psalms as David did, we have collected as many psalters online as we could.  Previously we had around 60 through Church history.  Now the rather complete collection consists of over 115+, there being many new additions in the 1700’s-1900’s time-frame.

There are also new subsections on psalters for chanting, histories of composers and more:

Psalters Online


“Sing us one of the songs of Zion.”

Ps. 137:3

How did the First Human Sin Happen?

It is often wondered how the first human sin came into the world.  How did sin come from Adam’s holy soul?  Did he have free-will in the matter, or was he necessitated to do what he did?  Could he have done otherwise?  What were his motives, and did sinful desires precede his eating of the forbidden fruit?

Your questions are about to be answered to your full satisfaction.  See here:

How did the First Human Sin Happen?

The Reformed Freedom of the Will vs. Determinism

Much of Calvinism today conceives of the outworking of predestination as a physical determinism, like pool balls hitting each other.  Thus, due to the forces of the created order, the choices people make could not be otherwise.

This paradigm is a departure from the reformed theology of the Reformation and Confessional era, which taught that God’s decree does not fall out simply by necessary causation, but also by free and contingent causes.  Sinners, even under the spiritual bondage of sin, have the power of contrary choice in the external, civil and common affairs of daily life.

The Reformation doctrine of a theological and spiritual bondage of the will has been largely turned into a doctrine of natural necessity, thanks to the Enlightenment.

Return to the old paths by learning more about the Biblical teaching on the subject here:

The Reformed Freedom of the Will vs. Determinism

Antinomiansim = ‘Against the Law’

Antinomiansim is rife in the Christian world today.  Jesus says, ‘If you love me, keep my commandments.’ (Jn. 14:15)  And yet how often do Christians say that trying to keep God’s commandments is legalism?

We seek to keep God’s commandments not to earn our salvation, but in being saved by grace through faith, apart from our works, we seek to obey God by his Spirit in order to glorify Him.  As long as we are creatures, God’s Moral Law by Creation morally binds us.  Faith does not make the Law void, but rather establishes it. (Rom. 3:31)

John ‘Rabbi’ Duncan called Antinomianims the only heresy.  Find out why, and many more things on this page we put together on the topic:


You will learn much from this webpage; it is worth your time.



Godly Children’s Books

We have put together a collection of godly stories and books for children and youth, which we hope will be a blessing to you and your kids, especially if you don’t have a lot of money.

Many of the older children’s books that are sold by Christian publishers are free on the net.  We have gathered as many of them as we could.

My (Travis Fentiman’s) children enjoyed being read to off of our laptop, and most of these books have formats available for your hand-held devices.

We have sections on Bible stories, theology, books for boys, books for girls, biographies from the Reformation, and be sure to check out the 16 different versions of Pilgrim’s Progress for children that we found.  My kids loved them!

Godly Stories & Books for Children & Youth


“Come, ye children, hearken unto me: I will teach you the fear of the Lord.”

Ps. 34:11


Family Worship

Do you love God and your family?

If you love God, you love more than anything in life communing with Him and worshipping Him, above the distractions of life.

If you love your family, you desire to provide them the best things.

And if you love both God and your family, you will find worshipping God with your family to be of the utmost desire. 

Learn more of what the Bible teaches about family worship, how to start doing it, be encouraged in continuing on with it, and find resources for help with it through the resources here:

Family Worship

The Covenant of Redemption

The Covenant of Redemption is the eternal covenant between the Father and the Son whereby the Son guarantees to purchase and bring God’s chosen people to eternal life and Heaven forever, laying the foundation for the Covenant of Grace as it is offered and entered into by mankind-sinners in time through the preaching of the Gospel.

The Covenant of Redemption often does not receive the attention it deserves, and is sometimes denied.

For your help and growth in grace in Scripture’s exceedingly certain and precious promises, here are numerous resources on this topic (the most on the net):

The Covenant of Redemption

(We previously had some material up on this page previously, but we greatly beefed it up)

Experiential Religion

What is Experiential Religion?

Jonathan Edwards:

“A gracious experience arises from operations and influences which are spiritual, from an inward principle which is divine, a communication of God, a participation of the divine nature [2 Pet. 1:4]: Christ living in the heart, the Holy Spirit dwelling there in union with the faculties of the soul as an internal principle, exerting his own proper nature in the exercise of those faculties.”

Thus all of that which we go through in life in its various seasons, circumstances and experiences as we live before the Face of God, becomes sanctified and beneficial to our faith and precious to the saint.

Experiential Religion deeply values the experiential aspect of the Scriptures and the Christian faith.

Here is a field of jewels from Church history on experiential religion, on one page:

Experiential Religion

What does Keeping the Lord’s Day Entail?

Seeing as the Sabbath is a perpetually, morally binding obligation from the Lord’s institution of it at Creation, and that it has changed to the first day of the week at Christ’s Resurrection by God’s authority:

How are we to keep the Lord’s Day holy to the Lord?  What are the practical nuts and bolts of it?

Is our main focus upon enjoying and worshipping the Lord only for public worship in the morning, or is it to extend to the whole day?  Is it ok to eat out at restaurants over lunch?  To buy and sell on the Lord’s Day?  What about doing outdoors work around the house, or watching sports and entertainment?

Search the Scriptures in order to become more acquainted with God’s will on the matter.  These resources will be of great help to you in learning more.  

For those long acquainted with the blessings of Sabbath rest, we have included numerous longer puritan treatments that will give deep satisfaction to your soul:

What does Keeping the Lord’s Day Entail?

Calvin on Common Grace

We are pleased to announce that the most exhaustive work documenting (in 175 pages) John Calvin’s doctrine of common grace from his writings is now, for the first time, free online:

Kuiper, Herman – Calvin on Common Grace  1928

Kuiper (1889-1963) was a minister in the Christian Reformed Church (C.R.C.) and a professor at Calvin Seminary.  Kuiper studied under Louis Berkhof, A.A. Hodge, Geerhardus Vos and B.B. Warfield.  This work of his was historically significant during the debates that followed the C.R.C.’s assertion of the 3 Points of Common Grace in 1924.

This is the most detailed, careful and definitive work (being an anthology of extended quotes with analysis) that demonstrates that Calvin explicitly, repeatedly and frequently taught throughout his Institutes and commentaries that:

(1) God gives common grace to all men,
(2) that God’s common grace in the Covenant extends to the reprobate, and
(3) that God desires all men to embrace the gospel and be saved.

Read Calvin for yourself and see what he says.

The appendix to the book (p. 239) gives a survey of the doctrine of common grace in the theological writings (many of which remain in Latin or Dutch) of Peter van Mastricht, Johannes Marck, Wilhelmus a Brakel, Bernhardinus de Moor, Jonathan Edwards, Charles Hodge, A.A. Hodge, Herman Bavinck, Abraham Kuyper and V. Hepp.

Kuiper’s work is very hard to come buy on the used market, if it is available at all, and is very pricey if one can find it at all.

May this work be a blessing to you, and may you love your enemies and show yourself to be a child of God, who is kind (in the Greek: merciful) to the unthankful and evil (Lk. 6:34-36).

For more on this topic, see our pages:

John Calvin Quotes on Common Grace

John Calvin Quotes on God’s Love for all Mankind

John Calvin on the Sincere Free Offer of the Gospel

Common Grace

The Westminster Standards and Divines on Common Grace

Historic Reformed Quotes on Common Grace

Sincere Free Offer of the Gospel

Sincere Free Offer Historic Quotes

Reformation & Puritan Bible Commentaries

“For the earth shall be full of the knowledge of the Lord, as the waters cover the sea.”

Isa. 11:9

We believe that everyone should have the basic human right to have free access to the best, godly, rich and savory puritan Bible commentaries ever written, from across the world.

So…   here they are.  620+ of them, in the order of the books of the Bible, on one page:

Reformation & Puritan Bible Commentaries

Keep in mind that it is reported that the largest private library in Europe in the early 1500’s only had 700 or so volumes.  God has made us rich beyond degree.  

Drink to your heart’s desire from this font till you can drink no more, and give glory to God.

“By all means read the Puritans, they are worth more than all the modern stuff put together.”

Charles Spurgeon

The Best Bible Commentary Collection on the Net

We are humbled to introduce the best and largest Bible Commentary collection on the net:

Bible Commentaries  2,200+

This collection includes:

– Every commentary that Charles Spurgeon recommended (his recommendatory notes are included);

-Every Reformed and/or Puritan commentary we could find on the net (in English);

– Most every Bible commentary before 1975 that a Bible-believer would be interested in,

– and all of the major Early and Medieval Church commentaries that have been translated into English.

The majority of these commentaries are fully available and free online.  The best commentaries are categorized at the top of each of the pages.

We give praise to God that now, for the first time, the bulk of the best commentaries on each book of the Bible throughout Church history is made conveniently available to pastors, missionaries, translators and all lovers of God’s Word throughout the world for free.  Send this page to them.

While one may find a benefit in spending money to buy a contemporary commentary, there is no need to.  There is at least just as much, and usually more scholarship in some of the older commentaries than in newer ones.

Contemporary commentaries, also, as a whole (with few exceptions), are seriously deficient in deep, savory, godliness.  They will feed you information, but not your eternal soul.  In reading older puritan commentaries, on the other hand, one not only grows in knowledge, but finds depths of soul-stirring communion with our Eternal and Beloved God.

May the Lord greatly use this collection of commentaries on his Word to feed his people, build up his Kingdom, and to destroy the works of darkness throughout the world.  Jesus come quickly!  and we shall know Him, not through books, but face to face.

Soli Deo Gloria