On what day of the week was Christ crucified?
The answer greatly affects how one understands the events of Christ’s whole Last Week (which events form a significant share of the Gospels).
The options are Wednesday, Thursday or Friday. Wednesday is a bit fringe, but surprisingly popular. The Thursday view has risen greatly in popularity in the last several decades amongst evangelical scholars.
This webpage provides in-depth resources defending the majority view of Church History, that Christ ate the Passover on Thursday, the 14th of Nisan, and was crucified on Friday the 15th of Nisan.
Christ was Crucified on Friday, the 15th of Nisan
Here are the most significant whole Old Testament commentaries from Church history in Latin. The works are subdivided into Early Church, Medieval Church, Reformed, Lutheran, etc.:
Whole Old Testament Commentaries
And, as a bonus, here is a brief section on Prolegomena from one of the reformed orthodox writers, Lucas Trelcatius, Jr., which is otherwise unavailable on the net:
Trelcatius, Jr., Lucas – ‘Of the Principles of Sacred Divinity’ 1610 5 pp from A Brief Institution of the Common Places of Sacred Divinity, pp. 1-11.
Trelcatius, Jr. (1573-1607) was a professor of theology at the University of Leiden, Netherlands and one of the key participants in a number of debates with Jacob Arminius.
Here is every major whole Bible commentary in Latin through Church history (which has survived and is on the net): 38 total. The titles have been translated into English.
If you have not begun learning Latin yet, start, and in 3 years you will be able to dip into some of the greatest treasure Christ has gifted the Church.
Whole Bible Commentaries in Latin
What is theology? Can we meaningfully speak of God? What method ought one to go about in learning or setting forth all of theology? How do faith and reason relate?
These are the sorts of questions that Prolegomena (before-speaking) asks and answers. On every front modern theology (and much of evangelical Christian theology) is answering these questions wrong.
Go back to the old paths. You will find them on this webpage of reformed resources from Church history on prolegomena.
For those that have an interest in Latin, some of the most extensive, reformed, treatments of prolegomena are in Latin from the 1600’s. The links will take you straight to the section in the work.
May you be built up in the true faith of our Lord, and may He get the glory.
Prolegomena to Theology
William Attersoll (d. 1640) was an English puritan who wrote a massive commentary on the Book of Numbers.
William Attersoll on the Sincere Free Offer of the Gospel
Is it morally lawful to make love to one’s wife while she is menstruating? The Bible says quite a bit about the topic, and as it is a practical question, it is worth considering.
The answer of reformed history has been mixed. If an answer will be found, it will be by searching the Scriptures. We give both sides of the argument in a newly written article on the topic.
The article fully examines the relevant Scriptures and delves into the details of Natural Law. The article concludes that the Scriptural prohibitions to this act were ceremonial in nature (not moral), and that Natural Law does not absolutely prohibit making love during menstruation.
Whatever your thoughts are on the subject, you will likely learn a thing or two (or much more) from the article. It is at the bottom of our page on eating and drinking blood (as the two issues are related):
On Eating & Drinking Blood, & Marital Relations During Menstruation
According to Scripture, may Christians eat or drink blood and animals that died by strangling?
The nearly universal answer of the Reformed Church from the era of the Reformation and puritans was ‘Yes’. Find out the plethora of Biblical reasons why.
This question delves deep into the related issues of natural and ceremonial law, Church power and ordinances, and conscience. You will learn a lot from the Introduction and the mass of historic reformed resources on the subject.
On Eating and Drinking Blood
A major share of the Reformation and puritan era held to post-millennialism, that only after the majority of the nations convert to Christianity (in the Millennium, Ps. 22:26-31; Isa. 2:2-5; Rev. 20:4; etc.) will Christ come again.
It is sometimes posed as an objection to this that Christ may come back at any time; therefore post-millennialism is not true. Yet most of Church history has recognized from Scripture that there are prophecies which must occur before Christ comes again; hence Christ cannot come at any time.
This article demonstrates from the Scriptures that the Lord’s standing at the door and coming quickly is consistent with a robust postmillennialism.
Fentiman, Travis – Postmillennialism and the Imminent Return of Christ 2018 22 pp.
As Scripture teaches that the Sabbath was enjoined upon all people at Creation (Gen. 2:2-4), as the moral, Fourth Commandment commands it (Ex. 20:8-11) and as the New Testament upholds keeping the weekly Sabbath on the first day of the week (Jn. 20:19; Acts 20:7-11; 1 Cor. 16:2; Heb. 4:9; etc.), so the question of when the Sabbath begins should be of concern to every person.
In the most comprehensive treatment to-date on the subject, Rev. Fentiman in this academic article demonstrates from Scripture that the Sabbath has always been from dawn-to-dawn since Creation throughout the Bible, without exception.
Fentiman, Travis – The Biblical Sabbath is from Dawn to Dawn 2018 97 pp.
To give a brief summary of the Biblical evidence:
The word ‘morning’ in the Creation account in Gen. 1 is more accurately translated as ‘dawn’, the phrase signifying that each day of Creation ended with dawn, with the next day beginning therefrom. The Old Testament speaks of days starting from the morning or dawn in over 30 verses. The Israelites kept the Sabbath morning to morning in Ex. 16 and the rest of Old Testament history is consistent with this reckoning.
The New Testament throughout its pages likewise reckons days to start in the morning. The Temple in the New Testament counted the hours of the day from 6 A.M. The disciples’ buying of spices in the evening after the death of Jesus is shown to be inconsistent with an evening-to-evening reckoning of the Sabbath. The Resurrection accounts of Christ rising from the dead at dawn assume continuity with the Old Testament reckoning. Christ celebrates the Lord’s Day in Jn. 20:19 with the disciples in the evening of the 1st day of the week, which the apostles continued to practice in Acts 20:7-11.
The corruption of the Sabbath by Jewish traditionalism in keeping the Sabbath from evening to evening likely started in the inter-Testamental era and was preserved in their Talmuds. A very full survey of the inter-Testamental and extra-Biblical literature is surveyed on the issue, as well as reformed history.
Assure your mind and heart on this Scriptural subject and make the Sabbath a delight! (Isa. 58:13-14)
“Quench not the Spirit.”
1 Thess. 5:19
Jeremiah Dyke (d. 1620), an English puritan, preached one of the best and most convicting, sobering and experimental sermons this webmaster has ever come across. The message is vital and deeply applicable to every person.
Take the time to genuinely try your heart upon this rock of Scripture, be humbled and follow the motions of the Holy Spirit to cling to your Savior.
Dyke, Jeremiah – ‘Of Quenching and Not Quenching of the Spirit’ d. 1620 60 pp. a sermon on 1 Thess. 5:19
It was said of the Scottish reformers: “The ministers that were took not their pattern from any Kirk [Church] in the world… but, laying God’s Word before them, made reformation according thereunto…” (John Row, 1637)
It is no exaggeration to say that the worship of God from the Scottish Reformation is the most important in Church history, it being the most closely aligned according to Scripture.
Here is a treasure of resources on the history of Scottish worship that will provide a plethora of information on every aspect of it, in every era.
The History of Scottish Worship
In Biblical worship, why does the minister close the worship service with an inspired Benediction, standing with up-lifted hands facing God’s people?
Here is a page of Biblical and historic, reformed resources on the Benediction, a Biblical practice not so easy to find resources on.
Some have said that the Benediction is not a prayer.. While acknowledging the special features of the Benediction, this article demonstrates from Scripture and Westminster that the Benediction is a special prayer:
Fentiman, Travis – The Benediction is a Special Prayer per Scripture and Westminster
Should Christians give at least 10% of their income to the Lord by giving to his Church?
While the reformers and puritans largely argued that the Levitical statute of tithing 10% was not directly binding upon Christians (contra the Anglican bishops who argued hard for it), yet their answer was still, from principles of natural law and general equity that Christians for the most part ought to give at least 10% of their income to the Lord.
God twice owns Christians: being our Creator and our Redeemer. May the Introduction on the page and the collection of resources from historic, reformed figures shed much light from Scripture on a knotty question for you, and may we be cheerful givers!
Tithes & Offerings
Free is better than not-free.. Here are collections of the main Hebrew and Greek dictionaries available online.
We hope these resources will prove an easy online reference for you.. Be sure to check out the exegetical and theological dictionaries on the pages, which are very valuable for the serious student of God’s Word:
Biblical Hebrew Dictionaries
Have a question about something in the Bible or in Church history? The resources on this page will answer your question and provide a nearly, comprehensive system of theology and Biblical knowledge.
They just don’t make encyclopedias like they used to.. The large and multi-volume dictionaries and encyclopedias at the end of the 1800’s and early-1900’s are some of the most scholarly and in-depth that have ever been printed, especially in the field of history, and cover topics too specific, detailed and lengthy for modern abridgments.
More and more contemporary works of scholarship are also becoming available on the internet through online loan.. We hope this page of resources will of great help to you:
Dictionaries & Encyclopedias: Biblical, Theological, Church History & Religious
The doctrine of Eternal Justification has been a luring trap for some, is the first stepping stone to Hyper-Calvinism and is contrary to the Westminster Confession of Faith.
Save yourself from doctrinal perversity, find out why this error still lurking around today is wrong and come to have a much more detailed and deeper understanding of the truth as it is in Jesus.
You won’t find more resources on this subject anywhere else.
We are to only worship God, and yet Jesus, a man, was worshipped in his earthly ministry. How is this so? The answer is that we worship Jesus, the God-man, not insofar as He is a creature, but insofar as his Person is God.
This precious jewel of theology is argued by the reformed theologians linked on the page below in a bit of detail that will be clear to the simplest, and make the most knowledgeable cry out: “Oh! the depths and the riches! (Rom. 11:33)
The Grounds of Christ the Mediator Receiving Divine Worship
What is to be made of Presumptive Regeneration, which has become so popular in the modern, Reformed Church?
Jesus told Nicodemus, who was a teacher in Israel and externally in the Covenant in good standing, “You must be born again.” (Jn. 3:7)
It is largely not known that the classical era of Presbyterianism in the 1600’s largely argued against Presumptive Regeneration in their controversy with the Separatists, Independents and Congregationalists, who all advocated it.
Here is a dozen of the most detailed and extensive writings against Presumptive Regeneration in Church history (all from presbyterians: Rutherford, Dickson, Fergusson, Rathband, Apollonius, etc.), with an extensive and Scripturally detailed Introduction to the topic:
There is a special section in the Introduction, at the end, on ‘Raising Children in the Covenant’.
The view on the relation between Church and State during the Reformation and the Westminster Assembly was the Establishment Principle, that the State is to uphold all of the 10 Commandments and to profess, protect, promote and civilly establish the True Religion (circa sacra).
It is commonly thought that the American revisions of the Westminster documents removed the Establishment Principle from them. This is not the case.
As is documented in detail in this article, the American Westminster Standards teach that the civil magistrate is to establish the Christian religion in the land, albeit a general, non-denominational Christianity.
See for yourself what your presbyterian church officers have vowed to teach and uphold. And more than this, come into a greater acquaintance with what the Word of God teaches about Church-State relations.
The Establishment Principle in the American Westminster Standards and Early American States
A Church’s constitution, subordinate to the Word of God, defines its being and public testimony.
Officers’ vows define the officers’ relationship to the Church and obligates them to uphold the Church’s constitution, as opposed to undermining it. The constitution serves as a legal security to minorities who seek to uphold the acknowledged principles of the Church. A change in the constitution, apart from the lawful process thereto, effectively breaks the terms of union by which persons are bound to the Church.
Learn more about the principles of Constitutionalism here, with the most mature, balanced and developed resources on the topic from Church history.
Here is much needed health for the Church today.