The History of Scottish Worship

 

John Knox preaching before the Lords of the Congregation, 10th June, 1559

“The ministers that were took not their pattern from any Kirk in the world, no, not from Geneva itself; but, laying God’s Word before them, made reformation according thereunto…”

John Row  1637
History of the Kirk of Scotland, p. 12

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Subsections

Scottish Religious Life

Scottish Books of Discipline

Defenses of Scottish Covenanting and the Indulgence and Occasional Hearing Controversies, 1661-1688

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Order of Contents

The Main Works
More
.       Books

     Articles
Westminster Directory & the Scots

Texts & Service Books
Specific Time Periods
Special Topics
    Sabbath
.      Holy Days
.      Reading the Word
    Preaching
    Prayer
    Psalm Singing
    Instrumental Music
    Sacraments
    Spiritual Conferencing of Elders
     Offerings & Tithes
    Architecture
     Episcopal Worship

Journal
Bibliographies
Treatises on Worship


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The Main Works

Overview of the Whole Span

Articles

Short & Concise

Maxwell, William – Pt. 4, Section 5, ‘The Reformed Rites and their Successors in Scotland’  in An Outline of Christian Worship, its Development and Forms, p.120-136  1936

Maxwell was a leading proponent of Liturgical Renewal in Scotland in the late-1800’s, which philosophy of worship was at variance with the practice of the Biblical, simplicity of worship agreed upon by Westminster.

Forrester, D.B.

‘Worship’  in Dictionary of Scottish Church History and Theology  1993  Concisely surveys the whole history of Scottish worship

Ch. 14, ‘The Reformed Tradition in Scotland’  in ed. Wainwright & Tucker, The Oxford History of Christian Worship, 473-483  2006  A liberal, academic assessment.

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Lengthy & Dense

Leishman, Thomas – ‘The Ritual of the Church’  in ed. Story, Robert – The Church of Scotland, Past and Present, vol. 5, pp. 306-426  1890 ff.  A dense and lengthy article treating of the whole span of the Scottish Church.

Leishman was a leader in the Liturgical Renewal movement in late-1800’s Scotland (the thrust of which was directly contrary to the Biblical doctrine of the purity of worship, as exemplified in the Westminster Standards), but he here provides very valuable historical information.

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Books

1800’s

M’Crie, Charles G. – The Public Worship of Presbyterian Scotland Historically Treated  1892  490 pp.  Cunningham Lectures  M’Crie was of the Free Church of Scotland.

From a review by David Hay Fleming, ‘Scottish Presbyterian Worship’:  “Mr. M’Crie has tried to write impartially–as one holding no brief, and receiving instructions from no party–and has succeeded better than most writers…  while a presbyterian by birth and conviction, his tastes would rather lead him into the modern renaissance [of worship in Scotland at that time]…  This work on the whole can be recommended as thoroughly reliable in its presentation of facts…”

Sprott, George – The Worship and Offices of the Church of Scotland, or the Celebration of Public Worship, the Administration of the Sacraments, and other Divine Offices, according to the order of the Church of Scotland; being Lectures…  1882  270 pp.

Sprott was a chief proponent of the Liturgical Renewal movement in Scotland, but provides helpful historical data.

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1900’s

Maxwell, William – A History of Worship in the Church of Scotland  Buy  1955  Baird Lectures

Maxwell was a chief proponent of the Liturgical Renewal movement in Scotland..  Here is a review by John Lamb in the journal of the Church Service Society (which was a leading organ of the Liturgical Renewal movement).

Forrester, Duncan & Douglas Murray – Studies in the History of the Worship in Scotland  Buy  1984  Liberal, academic scholarship

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The 1500’s through the Early-1700’s

Books

Steuart of Pardovan, Walter – Collections and Observations Concerning the Worship, Discipline and Government of the Church of Scotland  1709  330 pp.

This is a classic..  Steuart, at the beginning of the 1700’s, intended to preserve the knowledge of the ways in which the presbyterian Church of Scotland had done things since the Reformation.

Leishman, Thomas – The Westminster Directory  1901  205 pp.  The Introduction is 35 pp, followed by the Directory.  The notes afterward, commenting through the sections of the Directory, are 75 pp.

This is the most historically detailed commentary on the Directory, though do be aware that Leishman (1825-1904) was part of the Liturgical Renewal movement in late-1800’s Scotland, which philosophy of worship was directly contrary to the Biblical simplicity of worship contained in the Westminster Directory..   This work is fuller and substantially different than the similar one linked below on this page, written 33 years earlier.

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The Reformation

On John Knox’s Genevan Liturgy  1556-59

Maxwell, William –The Liturgical Portions of the Genevan Service Book Used by John Knox While a Minister of the English Congregation of Marian Exiles at Geneva, 1556-1559  Buy  1931

The significant Introduction and notes closely examine the origins of Scottish reformed worship.  Knox’s Genevan liturgy formed a significant basis for the Scottish Book of Common Order of 1564.

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On the Book of Common Order, c. 1564-1645

Sprott, George W. – The Book of Common Order of the Church of Scotland Commonly Known as John Knox’s Liturgy… with Historical Introductions and Illustrative Notes  Buy  1868

From the Introduction:  “As an introduction to the Book of Common Order, we purpose giving an account of the law and usage of the Church, as to worship, from the Reformation till 1645.”

Mitchell, Alexander – Ch. 7, ‘The Book of Common Order’  in The Scottish Reformation: its Epochs, Episodes, Leaders, and Distinctive Characteristics 1900  ed. David H. Fleming

Mitchell (1822-99) was a Church of Scotland ecclesiastical historian, known for his studies on the Westminster Assembly.

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1500’s-1640’s

McMillan, William – The Worship of the Scottish Reformed Church, 1550-1638  Buy  1931

Baird, Charles – Chs. 5-7, ‘John Knox and the Church of Scotland’, ‘The First Sacrament in Scotland’ & ‘Traces of the Scottish Liturgy’  in Eutaxia, or the Presbyterian Liturgies: Historical Sketches, pp. 91-137  1855  Surveys up to Westminster.

Baird, a presbyterian, was an initial and leading figure in the Liturgical Renewal in America in the mid-1800’s.

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The Era of the Protesters

Article

Sprott, George W. – The Worship of the Church of Scotland during the Covenanting Period, 1638-1661, the Lee Lecture of 1893  48 pp.

Sprott was part of the Liturgical Renewal in late-1800’s Scotland, which affects his selection of evidence, interpretation of evidence and the opinions that he gives along the way..  He is in no way friendly to the Biblically simple worship of the covenanters during the time he surveys.

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Book

Langley, Christopher R. – Times of Trouble and Deliverance: Worship in the Kirk of Scotland, 1645-1658  Pre  unpublished PhD thesis (University of Aberdeen, 2012)


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More Books

More books on specific time periods are in the sections below.

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1800’s

A Churchman – The Worship, Rites and Ceremonies of the Church of Scotland Compared with those of the Other Reformed Churches and of the Primitive Church  1863  54 pp.

Lee, Robert – The Reform of the Church of Scotland in Worship, Government and Doctrine: Part 1, Worship  1866

Lee (1804-1868) was a chief innovator in worship in the Church of Scotland, specifically popularizing the organ as well as numerous other variant practices (including standing for singing).

Gibson, James –  The Public Worship of God: its Authority and Modes, Hymns and Hymn Books  1869  186 pp.  Gibson was a professor in the Free Church of Scotland, and here defends exclusive psalmody.

Duncan, Andrew – The Scottish Sanctuary as it Was and as it Is, or Recent Changes in the Public Worship of the Presbyterian Churches in Scotland  1882?  185 pp.

Bannerman, David Douglas – The Worship of the Presbyterian Church with Special Reference to the Question of Liturgies  1884  120 pp.  Douglas Bannerman was not as strong on the purity of worship as his father James Bannerman.

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1900’s

Wotherspoon, H.J. & J.M. Kirkpatrick – A Manual of Church Doctrine  1919  200 pp. 

Wotherspoon was part of the Liturgical Renewal movement in Scotland.

Barkley, John – The Worship of the Reformed Church: an Exposition and Critical Analysis of the Eucharistic, Baptismal, and Confirmation Rites in the Scottish, English-Welsh, and Irish Liturgies  Buy  1967  John Knox Press, liberal

Ross, John MacDonald – Four Centuries of Scottish Worship  Buy  1972  St. Andrews Press


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More Articles

More articles on specific time periods are in the sections below.

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1800’s

Lorimer, John – Review of ‘The Liturgy of the Church of Scotland, or John Knox’s Book of Common Order’ etc.  in Edinburgh Review (Jan.-Apr. 1852), pp. 453-81  A major article in its day.

Edgar, Andrew – ‘Lecture 2: Public Worship in Olden Times’  in Old Church Life in Scotland: Lectures on Kirk Session and Presbytery Records, vol. 1  1885-6  about the 1500’s-1700’s

Kennedy, John – Ch. 4, ‘The Religion of Ross-Shire’ in The Days of the Fathers in Ross-shire, pp. 113-156  Buy  1895

Kennedy was a Free Church of Scotland minister.  This was his most well known work, which sought to preserve the heritage of the generation before him (in the early-1800’s) in his part of the Highlands.

Leishman, Thomas – ‘The Moulding of the Scottish Reformation’  The Lee Lecture of 1897

The Lee Lectures were named after Robert Lee (see above) and were intended to promote Liturgical Renewal in Scotland.

Here is a review by David Hay Fleming.  Sometimes the discretionary forms for prayer in the Book of Common Order are construed to be an historical example of the near equivalent of ministers regularly relying on reading prayers in the administration of public worship (as in a liturgy)..  On pp. 246-249 Fleming gives the abundant evidence that many or most of the ministers of that day freely inputted their own free prayer apart from the forms.

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1900’s

Fleming, David Hay – ‘Scottish Presbyterian Worship’  in Critical Reviews Relating Chiefly to Scotland, 488-92  1912  Being a review of Charles M’Crie’s The Public Worship of Presbyterian Scotland Historically Treated.

Fleming, one of the greatest historians of the Scottish Church, demonstrates on pp. 490-1 that the use of the uninspired Doxology in Scottish worship does not go back (as often alleged) to the Book of Common Order (1564) at the Reformation, but only started being printed in the Book of Common Order around 1575 and following.

Gwynne, Walker – ‘The Scottish, American and Irish Revisions’  in Primitive Worship and the Prayer Book: Rationale, History and Doctrine of the English, Irish, Scottish and American Books, p. 120 ff.  1917

McMillan, William – ‘The Anglican Book of Common Prayer in the Church of Scotland’  Scottish Church History Society  1932  McMillan surveys from the Reformation till 1735.


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On the Westminster Directory and Scottish Worship

Leishman, Thomas

‘A Directory for the Public Worship of God’  Buy  1868  110 pp. in The Book of Common Order of the Church of Scotland… and The Directory for the Public Worship of God with Historical Introductions and Illustrative Notes, pp. 257-367  There is a 22 page Introduction before a reprinting of the Directory.  The 43 page commentary notes commence on p. 325

The Westminster Directory  1901  205 pp.  The Introduction is 35 pp, followed by the Directory.  The notes afterward are 75 pages.

This is the most historically detailed commentary on the Directory (which includes significant info on Scottish practice), though do be aware that Leishman (1825-1904) was part of the Liturgical Renewal movement in late-1800’s Scotland, which philosophy of worship was directly contrary to the Biblical simplicity of worship contained in the Westminster Directory.  

This work is fuller and substantially different than the one above, written 33 years earlier.

Ward, Roland – ‘Part 2: The Directory for Public Worship’  2007  57 pp. in Richard Muller & Rowland Ward, Scripture and Worship  Buy  (P&R) pp. 83-140

Ward is not as historically detailed as Leishman, and adds little to his predecessor.


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Texts & Service Books

1500’s

The Practice of the Lord’s Supper

ed. Gibson & Earngey – Ch. 15, ‘The Practice of the Lord’s Supper’ (1550), ‘Form of Prayers’ (1556), ‘Book of Common Order’ (1564)  in Reformation Worship: Liturgies from the Past for the Present, pp. 543-600  2018

“When the English government procured the release of the Scottish galley prisoners, John Knox was freed in 1549 and became Army chaplain to the English garrison town at Berwick-upon-Tweed, just south of the Scottish border.  This congregation was comprised of an assortment of worshippers (soldiers, exiled Scots, and immigrants) and was given ecclesiastical freedoms akin to the ‘Strangers’ congregations in England.  This liberty, and isolation from London, afforded Knox the space to carve out his own liturgy, distinct from that of [Thomas] Cranmer’s recently  released [First] Book of Common Prayer [of 1549].

The fragment that survives of Knox’s Practice of the Lord’s Supper gives a sense of his early approach to worship, and bears some similarities to that of the Frenchmen, Farel and Calvin….  the Lord’s Supper…  was expressed by sitting–not kneeling–around the Lord’s table…” – pp. 545-6

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The English Congregation at Frankfort  1554-5

ed. Sprott, George – The Liturgy of Compromise used in the English Congregation at Frankfort  bound in ed. Wotherspoon, The Second Prayer Book of King Edward the Sixth (1552) with Historical Introduction and Notes, and the Liturgy of Compromise used in the Congregation at Frankfort  1905  Church Service Society

The English Book of Common Prayer formed the liturgical background to the contendings within the English Congregation at Frankfort, Germany.  The Anglican party desired such Anglican worship practices, where as John Knox and the English puritans there sought more Biblical worship.  This event was an important dividing of ways, as Knox would shortly leave Frankfort for Geneva to establish a more Biblical worship service.

The English Book of Common Prayer was used by protestants in Scotland in the years leading up to 1560, as the best thing available at that time.  For more information on the Frankfort context, see William Whittingham’s (c.1524-1579) A Brief Discourse of the Troubles Begun at Frankfort in the Year 1554 about the Book of Common Prayer and Ceremonies and Andrew Lang’s ‘Knox in the English Puritan Troubles at Frankfort: 1554-1555’ in John Knox and the Reformation (1905).

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John Knox’s Genevan Liturgy, 1556-9

Maxwell, William –The Liturgical Portions of the Genevan Service Book Used by John Knox While a Minister of the English Congregation of Marian Exiles at Geneva, 1556-1559  Buy  1931

This work specializes in the origins of Scottish reformed worship.  Knox’s Genevan liturgy formed a significant basis for the Scottish Book of Common Order of 1564.

ed. Gibson & Earngey – Ch. 15, ‘The Practice of the Lord’s Supper’ (1550), ‘Form of Prayers’ (1556), ‘Book of Common Order’ (1564)  in Reformation Worship: Liturgies from the Past for the Present, pp. 543-600  2018

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The Book of Common Order  1564

ed. Cumming, John – The Liturgy of the Church of Scotland, or John Knox’s Book of Common Order  1840

Sprott, George – The Book of Common Order of the Church of Scotland Commonly Known as John Knox’s Liturgy… with Historical Introductions and Illustrative Notes  Buy  1868

Sprott was a chief proponent of the Liturgical Renewal movement in Scotland, but here provides some excellent historical background on John Knox’s Liturgy.

From the Introduction:  “As an introduction to the Book of Common Order, we purpose giving an account of the law and usage of the Church, as to worship, from the Reformation till 1645.”

ed. Gibson & Earngey – Ch. 15, ‘The Practice of the Lord’s Supper’ (1550), ‘Form of Prayers’ (1556), ‘Book of Common Order’ (1564)  in Reformation Worship: Liturgies from the Past for the Present, pp. 543-600  2018

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The Collects (Prayers) of 1595

Church of Scotland – The Scottish Collects from the Scottish Metrical Psalter of 1595  Ref  56 pp.

ed. Calhoun, David – Prayers on the Psalms: From The Scottish Psalter of 1595 (Pocket Puritans)  Buy  2010  152 pp.

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1600’s

Episcopal Documents

1601 ff.  ed. Sprott, George – The Scottish Liturgies of the Reign of James VI: the Book of Common Prayer, etc.  1871

The Book of Common Prayer for Scotland, modeled after the English version which had been used in the years immediately leading up to the Reformation in 1560, began to be pushed in 1601 and following by the Erastian, prelatic party.  The ‘Form of Service’ of 1616 is given in the appendix.

Introduction:  “…we purpose giving an account of the innovations and liturgical movements in the Scottish Church, from the beginning of the seventeenth century till the great outbreak in 1637 [over Laud’s Liturgy].”

ed. James Cooper – Laud’s Liturgy, 1637:  The Book of Common Prayer and Administration of the Sacraments… for the Use of the Church of Scotland, with Historical Introduction and Notes  1637  Church Service Society  Here is an original edition

This was filled with the English/Popish ceremonies that George Gillespie broadsided shortly after it came out, starting the 2nd Reformation in Scotland (1638).  Modified versions of the 1637 Scottish Book of Common Prayer saw light again with the reviving of the Scottish episcopal party in the 1700’s (see the section below: Episcopal Worship).

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Presbyterian

The Westminster Directory for Public Worship  Adopted by both civil and ecclesiastical Scotland in 1645

This continued to be the current Directory for Worship for the Scottish Churches till the late-1800’s with the oncoming of constitutional changes.

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1700’s

Episcopalian

Lempriere, P.A. – Scottish Communion Offices of 1637, 1735, 1755, 1764, 1889, together with the English Liturgy of 1549, Arranged to Show their Variations  (Edinburgh, 1909)

Dowden, John

The Annotated Scottish Communion Office  1884

The Scottish Communion Office, 1764, with Introduction, History of the Office, Notes and Appendices  1922  290 pp.

Here is an Introduction to this work.

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1800’s

For a further listing of such 1800’s service books, see John Lamb, ‘Aids to Public Worship in Scotland, 1800-1850’  1959  Scottish Church History Society.

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Robertson, Harry – The Scotch Minister’s Assistant, or a Collection of Forms for Celebrating the Ordinances of Marriage, Baptism and the Lord’s Supper according to the Usage of the Church of Scotland  (Inverness, 1802)

The first of the following genre of such books.

Brunton, Alexander – Forms for Public Worship in the Church of Scotland  1848

Anderson, James – The Minister’s Directory, or Forms for the Administration of the Sacraments and other Rites and Ordinances according to the Use of the Church of Scotland  1856

Bonar, Andrew R. – Presbyterian Liturgies with Specimens of Forms of Prayer used in the Continental, Reformed and American Churches…  1858  Bonar was a minister in the Church of Scotland, to be distinguished from Andrew A. Bonar of the Free Church of Scotland.

Liston, William – The Service of God’s House, or Forms for the Guidance of Ministers and Heads of Families… According to the Practice of the Church of Scotland  1866

Milne, Robert – Directory and Guide to the Ministerial Office of the Church of Scotland  1888

Here is a positive review in the Original Secession Magazine.


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Specific Time Periods in Scottish Worship

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Early Scottish Worship

Articles

MacGregor, Duncan – ‘Early Scottish Worship: its General Principles and Leading Details’  64 pp.  being The Lee Lecture of 1895

Sprott, George – ‘The Ancient Cathedrals of Scotland’  in Transactions of the Scottish Ecclesiological Society, vol. 2, part 1 (1906-07), p. 1 ff.

Cooper, James – Reliques of Ancient Scottish Devotion  (Edinburgh, 1913) 60 pp.

Donaldson, Gordon – “Scotland’s Earliest Church Buildings”  Scottish Church History Society  1974

Currie, David R. – ‘The Order of Friar Preachers in Scotland’  Scottish Church History Society  1950

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Book

Forbes, Alexander – Kalendars of Scottish Saints  1872  550 pp.  This is a survey of the liturgical calendars for the year that various, notable, early Scottish Christians used.

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1500’s

Books

McMillan, William – The Worship of the Scottish Reformed Church, 1550-1638  Buy  1931

Holmes, Stephen Mark – Sacred Signs in Reformation Scotland: Interpreting Worship, 1488-1590  Buy  2015  248 pp.  Oxford

McMillan, Catherine – Keeping the Kirk: The Practice and Experience of Faith in Northeast Scotland, 1560-1610  2016  PhD dissertation, Univ. of Edinburgh

Abstract: 

“The main body of the thesis explores the practice and experience of faith in the North East between 1560 and 1610 using three main themes. The first studies the Sabbath, the weekly fixture that was the heart of public worship and observance in the parish. Sacramental practice is the second theme with an in-depth study of the annual administration of Communion, which reinforced temporal and spiritual bonds among Kirk adherents and starkly exposed non-adherents and recusants. The final theme considers the role and position of ministers and readers in religious practice and investigates the relationship between them and their parishioners.

From detailed analysis of these three themes, it is concluded that the North East as a whole was transformed into the general mould of Scottish Reformed Protestantism by 1610, but that there was a spectrum of practices and experiences of faith.”

Chernoff, Graham Thomas – Building the Reformed Kirk: the Cultural use of Ecclesiastical Buildings in Scotland, 1560–1645  2013  230 pp.  PhD dissertation

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Articles

Slonosky, Timothy – ‘Divine Services’  in Civil Reformations: Religion in Dundee and Haddington C.1520-1565, pp. 59-64  2014  PhD dissertation

Dotterwiech, Martin Holt – ‘Sacraments and the Church in the Scottish Evangelical Mind, 1528-1555’  Scottish Church History Society  2006

Somerset, Douglas

‘John Knox and the Destruction of the Perth Friaries in May 1559’  in Scottish Reformation Society Historical Journal, vol. 3

‘The Reforming of the Aberdeen Friaries on 4th January, 1559/60’  in Scottish Reformation Society Historical Journal, vol. 4, pp. 63-95

‘The Scottish Reformation in late June 1559: the Destruction of the Friaries of Stirling, Linlithgow, Glasgow, and Edinburgh’  in Scottish Reformation Society Historical Journal, vol. 5, pp. 1-33

Thompson, Bard – ‘History of Knox Liturgy’  ed. Glen Cary  1960  23 paragraphs

Mitchell, Alexander – Ch. 7, ‘The Book of Common Order’  in The Scottish Reformation: its Epochs, Episodes, Leaders, and Distinctive Characteristics 1900  ed. David H. Fleming

Mitchell (1822-99) was a Church of Scotland ecclesiastical historian, known for his studies on the Westminster Assembly.

MacRae, John – ‘The Scottish Reformers and Their Order of Public Worship’  1929  Scottish Church History Society

Leishman, Thomas – pp. 334-5  in ‘The Ritual of the Church’  in ed. Story, Robert – The Church of Scotland, Past and Present, vol. 5  1890 ff. 

On the length of the average sermon at the Reformation being about an hour.

Spicer, Andrew – “‘Accommodating of Thame Selfis to Heir the Worde’: Preaching, Pews and Reformed Worship in Scotland, 1560–1638”  Ref  in History,
vol. 88, No. 3 (291) (July, 2003), pp. 405-422

Fleming, David Hay – pp. 246-9 of ‘The Moulding of the Scottish Reformation’  Being a review of Thomas Leishman’s Lee Lecture of 1897 of the same name.

Sometimes the discretionary forms for prayer in the Book of Common Order are construed to be an historical example of the near equivalent of ministers regularly relying on reading prayers in the administration of public worship (as in a liturgy).  On pp. 246-249 Fleming gives the abundant evidence that many or most of the ministers of that day freely inputted their own free prayer apart from the forms.

Lamb, John A. – ‘The Kalendar of the Book of Common Order: 1564-1644’  in Scottish Church History Society  1956

About half of the seventy editions of the Book of Common Order (from 1560-1644) contained calendars of church seasons and festival days, in spite of the fact that the First Book of Discipline (1560, First Head: ‘Of Doctrine’) explicitly called for the abolishing of such holydays, they having no warrant in God’s Word.  The General Assembly, in their letter to Theodore Beza in 1564 also condemned such holydays for the same reason.

Lamb, who was part of the Liturgical Renewal and was for such holydays, analyzes these calendars in the BCO (some of which information is helpful).  Strangely, he neglects to investigate the most obvious reason for this phenomenon: the episcopal influence and push of the certain printers that published these calendars, and the presbyterianism of the printers who did not.

McCallum, John – Pt. 1, Ch. 3, ‘The Reformation of Worship’  in The Reformation in Fife, 1560-1640, pp. 77-100  2008  PhD dissertation

Vogan, Matthew – ‘Conventicles from the First to the Second Reformation in Scotland’  in Scottish Reformation Society Historical Journal, vol. 6, pp. 53-85  Conventicles were the separate worship meetings of the Scottish puritans during this time.

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1600’s

Books

McMillan, William – The Worship of the Scottish Reformed Church, 1550-1638  Buy  1931

Spinks, Bryan – Liturgy in the Age of Reason: Worship and Sacraments in England and Scotland 1662–c.1800  Buy  2008  294 pp.  Routledge

McMillan, Catherine – Keeping the Kirk: The Practice and Experience of Faith in Northeast Scotland, 1560-1610  2016  PhD dissertation, Univ. of Edinburgh

Abstract: 

“The main body of the thesis explores the practice and experience of faith in the North East between 1560 and 1610 using three main themes. The first studies the Sabbath, the weekly fixture that was the heart of public worship and observance in the parish. Sacramental practice is the second theme with an in-depth study of the annual administration of Communion, which reinforced temporal and spiritual bonds among Kirk adherents and starkly exposed non-adherents and recusants. The final theme considers the role and position of ministers and readers in religious practice and investigates the relationship between them and their parishioners.

From detailed analysis of these three themes, it is concluded that the North East as a whole was transformed into the general mould of Scottish Reformed Protestantism by 1610, but that there was a spectrum of practices and experiences of faith.”

Chernoff, Graham Thomas – Building the Reformed Kirk: the Cultural use of Ecclesiastical Buildings in Scotland, 1560–1645  2013  230 pp.  PhD dissertation

Langley, Christopher R. – Times of Trouble and Deliverance: Worship in the Kirk of Scotland, 1645-1658  Pre  unpublished PhD thesis (University of Aberdeen, 2012)

Defenses of Scottish Covenanting and the Indulgence and Occasional Hearing Controversies, 1661-1688

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Articles

McCallum, John – Pt. 1, Ch. 3, ‘The Reformation of Worship’  in The Reformation in Fife, 1560-1640, pp. 77-100  2008  PhD dissertation

Vogan, Matthew – ‘Conventicles from the First to the Second Reformation in Scotland’  in Scottish Reformation Society Historical Journal, vol. 6, pp. 53-85

Vogan is an elder in the Free Presbyterian Church of Scotland, who is orthodox, unlike Stevenson below.

Mackay, P. H. R. – ‘The Reception Given to the Five Articles of Perth’  Scottish Church History Society  1977

Stevenson, David – ‘Conventicles in the Kirk, 1619-37: The Emergence of a Radical Party’  Scottish Church History Society  

Stevenson is a liberal scholar.  The ‘radical party’ Stevenson refers to, who were unsatisfied with the worship and government of the Church of Scotland in the early-1600’s (and hence were holding conventicles), were the orthodox presbyterians who rose to strength in 2nd Reformation of 1638.  For an orthodox viewpoint, see Vogan above.

M’Crie, Charles – ‘Covenanting Preaching’  in Religious Life in Scotland, from the Reformation to the Present Day   1888

Vogan, Matthew – ‘Samuel Rutherford and the Theology and Practice of Preaching’  in Scottish Reformation Society Historical Journal, vol. 1

Leishman, Thomas – pp. 392-3  in ‘The Ritual of the Church’  in ed. Story, Robert – The Church of Scotland, Past and Present, vol. 5  1890 ff.

On the new style of preaching by some in the mid-1600’s.

Ross, William – Ch. 5, ‘The Minister’s Labors in the Preaching of the Word and Catechizing’  in Glimpses of Pastoral Work in the Covenanting Times, a Record of the Labors of Andrew Donaldson, 1644-1662  1877  255 pp.  Ross was in the Free Church of Scotland.

Sprott, George W. – The Worship of the Church of Scotland during the Covenanting Period, 1638-1661, the Lee Lecture of 1893  48 pp.

Sprott was part of the Liturgical Renewal in late-1800’s Scotland, which affects his selection of evidence, interpretation of evidence and the opinions that he gives along the way.  He is in no way friendly to the simple worship of the covenanters during the time he surveys.

Henderson, G.D. – Religious Life in Seventeenth Century Scotland  Buy  (Cambridge, 1937)

Ch. 7, ‘Externals of Church Worship and Church Government in Scotland under Charles II’

Ch. 9, ‘The Scottish Pulpit in the Seventeenth Century’

Mirabello, Mark Linden – Ch. 8, ‘The Worship of the Established Church’  in Dissent and the Church of Scotland, 1660-1690, pp. 153-167  PhD dissertation

Abstract:  “Chapter eight is an analysis of the worship of the post-Restoration [Establishment] kirk [under Erastian Episcopacy]. It will discuss the various developments in worship–the rejection of the Director of Public Worship, the resurrection of set forms of prayer, the repudiation of the lecture, the reinstitution of kneeling, the revival of the Perth Articles–and it will argue that the post-Restoration kirk was slowly drifting from the simple, spontaneous covenanter mode of worship to a more elaborate and structured mode that derived its inspiration from the Church of England.”

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1700’s

Books

Spinks, Bryan – Liturgy in the Age of Reason: Worship and Sacraments in England and Scotland 1662–c.1800  Buy  2008  294 pp.  Routledge

Henderson, Allan Bruce – Evangelism, Worship and Theology: a Study of Certain Revivals in Scottish Parishes Between 1796 and 1843, and their Relation to Public Worship  1977  PhD dissertation

This surveys the evangelical revivals, and their influence on public worship, which gained strength over Moderatism and led up to the Disruption of the Free Church of Scotland in 1843.  Figures surveyed include J.A. Haldane and W.C. Burns.

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Articles

Anderson, James – ‘The History of the Introducing the Usage of the Lord’s Prayer in Dumbarton’  1705  in Transactions of the Scottish Ecclesiological Society, vol. 1, part 2 (1904-05), p. 159 ff.

This a documentary account of how Rev. James Anderson, an eminent defender of presbyterianism after the Revolution Settlement and minister of Dumbarton, introduced the unison (it appears, top of p. 166) recitation of the Lord’s Prayer into his congregational worship.  The article gives helpful background on the history of the use and disuse of the Lord’s Prayer in Scotland.

Leishman, Thomas – middle of p. 405   in ‘The Ritual of the Church’  in ed. Story, Robert – The Church of Scotland, Past and Present, vol. 5  1890 ff.

On the reading of sermons beginning in the 1700’s by the Moderates.

Witherspoon, John

A Letter from a Blacksmith to the Ministers and Elders of the Church of Scotland, in which the Manner of Public Worship in that Church is Considered, its Inconveniences and Defects Pointed Out, and Methods for Removing them Humbly Proposed  1759

Ecclesiastical Characteristics, or the Arcana of Church Policy, being a Humble Attempt to Open the Mystery of Moderation… in the Church of Scotland  1750’s-60’s  in Works, vol. 3 (in 4 vols.), Philadelphia, 1802

Bynum, William – ‘“The Genuine Presbyterian Whine”: Presbyterian Worship in the Eighteenth Century’  American Presbyterians, vol. 74, No. 3 (FALL 1996), pp. 157-170

“We will concentrate on Virginia, but there will be excursions to other colonies and to the homeland in Scotland.”

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1800’s

Book

Henderson, Allan Bruce – Evangelism, Worship and Theology: a Study of Certain Revivals in Scottish Parishes Between 1796 and 1843, and their Relation to Public Worship  1977  PhD dissertation

This surveys the evangelical revivals, and their influence on public worship, which gained strength over Moderatism and led up to the Disruption of the Free Church of Scotland in 1843.  Figures surveyed include J.A. Haldane and W.C. Burns.

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Articles

Lamb, John – ‘Aids to Public Worship in Scotland, 1800-1850’  1959  Scottish Church History Society

Kennedy, John – Ch. 4, ‘The Religion of Ross-Shire’ in The Days of the Fathers in Ross-shire, pp. 113-156  Buy  1895

Kennedy was a Free Church of Scotland minister.  This was his most well known work, which sought to preserve the heritage of the generation before him (in the early-1800’s) in his part of the Highlands.

Norman Campbell – ‘The Sabbath Protest at Strome Ferry in 1883’  in Scottish Reformation Society Historical Journal, vol. 3

Brackenridge, R. Douglas – “The ‘Sabbath War’ of 1865-66: the Shaking of the Foundations”  Scottish Church History Society


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Special Topics

Treatments of most of these topics can be found within the ‘Main Works’ listed above.

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Sabbath

Much more about the Sabbath in Scotland can be found on our page ‘The Lord’s Day’.

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Articles

Nicholas Dickson – Ch. 1, ‘On the Auld Scottish Sabbath’  in The Kirk and its Worthies, p. 3 ff.  1914

Norman Campbell – ‘The Sabbath Protest at Strome Ferry in 1883’  Ref  in Scottish Reformation Society Historical Journal, vol. 3  2013

Brackenridge, R. Douglas – Scottish Church History Society

‘The ‘Sabbath War’ of 1865-66: the Shaking of the Foundations’  1968

‘The Enforcement of Sunday Observance in Post-Revolution Scotland, 1689-1733’  1972

Muirhead, Andrew T.N. – ‘We have an Anchor that Keeps the Soul; Religious Observance on Glasgow’s Anchor Line and other Scottish Emigrant Ships, 1870-1900’  Scottish Church History Society  2010


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Holy Days

A number of Scottish quotes and articles on this topic may be found on our page: ‘Religious Holidays’.

Lamb, John A. – ‘The Kalendar of the Book of Common Order: 1564-1644’  in Scottish Church History Society  1956

About half of the seventy editions of the Book of Common Order (from 1560-1644) contained calendars of church seasons and festival days, in spite of the fact that the First Book of Discipline (1560, First Head: ‘Of Doctrine’) explicitly called for the abolishing of such holy-days, they having no warrant in God’s Word.  The General Assembly, in their letter to Theodore Beza in 1564 (in Works of John Knox, vol. 6, pp. 547-8) concerning the Helvetic Confession also exclude such holy-days for the same reason.

Lamb, who was part of the Liturgical Renewal and was for such holydays, analyzes these calendars in the BCO (some of which information is helpful).  Strangely, he neglects to investigate the most obvious reason for this phenomenon: the episcopal influence and push of the certain printers that published these calendars, and the presbyterianism of the printers who did not.

McMillan, William

‘Festivals and Saint Days in Scotland after the Reformation’  Scottish Church History Society  1927

Ch. 24, ‘Festivals and Saints’ Days.  Special Services.  Lent.’  in The Worship of the Scottish Reformed Church, 1550-1638, pp. 299-329  1930


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Reading the Word

Gillespie, Raymond – ‘Lay Spirituality and Worship, 1558-1750: Holy Books and Godly Readers’  in The Laity and the Church of Ireland, 1000-2000: All Sorts and Conditions  Buy  2002  196 pp.

Though this deals with Ireland, it casts significant light on the Scottish context.


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Preaching

Excerpts

Leishman, Thomas – ‘The Ritual of the Church’  in ed. Story, Robert – The Church of Scotland, Past and Present, vol. 5  1890 ff.

pp. 334-5  The length of the sermon at the Reformation was about an hour.

pp. 392-3  On the new style of preaching in the mid-1600’s.

middle of p. 405  On the reading of sermons beginning in the 1700’s by the Moderates.

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Articles

Currie, David R. – ‘The Order of Friar Preachers in Scotland’  Scottish Church History Society  1950

Spicer, Andrew – “‘Accommodating of Thame Selfis to Heir the Worde’: Preaching, Pews and Reformed Worship in Scotland, 1560–1638”  Ref  in History,
vol. 88, No. 3 (291) (July, 2003), pp. 405-422

M’Crie, Charles – ‘Covenanting Preaching’  in Religious Life in Scotland, from the Reformation to the Present Day   1888

Henderson, G.D. – Ch. 9, ‘The Scottish Pulpit in the Seventeenth Century’  in Religious Life in Seventeenth Century Scotland  Buy  (Cambridge, 1937)

Philip, R. G. – ‘The Life and Preaching of John Livingston, 1603-1672’  Scottish Church History Society  1931

Vogan, Matthew – ‘Samuel Rutherford and the Theology and Practice of Preaching’  in Scottish Reformation Society Historical Journal, vol. 1

Ross, William – Ch. 5, ‘The Minister’s Labors in the Preaching of the Word and Catechizing’  in Glimpses of Pastoral Work in the Covenanting Times, a Record of the Labors of Andrew Donaldson, 1644-1662  1877  255 pp.  Ross was in the Free Church of Scotland.

Langley, Christopher R. – Ch. 2, ‘The Word, Politics and Sufficiency’  in Times of Trouble and Deliverance: Worship in the Kirk of Scotland, 1645-1658  Pre  unpublished PhD thesis (University of Aberdeen, 2012)

Christie, George – Scottish Church History Society

‘Scripture Exposition in Scotland in the Seventeenth Century’  1924

‘James Durham as courtier and preacher’  1932

Fawcett, Arthur – ‘Scottish Lay Preachers in the Eighteenth Century’  Scottish Church History Society  1956


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Prayer

Book

ed. Calhoun, David – Prayers on the Psalms: From The Scottish Psalter of 1595 (Pocket Puritans)  Buy  2010  152 pp.

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Articles

Fleming, David Hay

pp. 246-9 of ‘The Moulding of the Scottish Reformation’  Being a review of Thomas Leishman’s Lee Lecture of 1897 of the same name.

Sometimes the discretionary forms for prayer in the Book of Common Order are construed to be an historical example of the near equivalent of ministers regularly relying on reading prayers in the administration of public worship (as in a liturgy).  On pp. 246-249 Fleming gives the abundant evidence that many or most of the ministers of that day freely inputted their own free prayer apart from the forms.

‘Remembering the Dead in Prayer’  in Critical Reviews Relating Chiefly to Scotland, p. 496 ff.  1912

Fleming (1849–1931) was one of the greatest historians of the Scottish Church.  Here he surveys the Church of Scotland’s teaching against praying for the dead, in relation to an incident contemporary to him.

Anderson, James – ‘The History of the Introducing the Usage of the Lord’s Prayer in Dumbarton’  1705  in Transactions of the Scottish Ecclesiological Society, vol. 1, part 2 (1904-05), p. 159 ff.

This a documentary account of how Rev. James Anderson, an eminent defender of presbyterianism after the Revolution Settlement and minister of Dumbarton, introduced the unison (it appears, top of p. 166) recitation of the Lord’s Prayer into his congregational worship.  The article gives helpful background on the history of the use and disuse of the Lord’s Prayer in Scotland.

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Psalm Singing

Psalm Singing in the Scottish Churches  on ‘The History of Psalm Singing’ page


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Instrumental Music in Worship

There is a mass of Scottish material on our Musical Instruments in Worship page.

McMillan, William – Ch. 7, ‘Instrumental Music’  in The Worship of the Scottish Reformed Church, 1550-1638, pp. 94-101

McMillan documents and emphasizes the many instances he is able to quote of musical instrumentation attending the singing of psalms in Scotland during that era.  This however is not necessarily a balanced survey of the type of worship that was generally happening in presbyterian churches (numerous examples he gives have associations with the Erastian, and sometimes prelatic, civil government).

McMillan states that ‘our great Reformer Knox nowhere in his History, pamphlets or letters has a word to say on the matter [of instruments in God’s sung praise].’  This, however, is not true:

“Matt. 18:20 condemns all such as contemn the congregation gathered in his name. But mark well this word “gathered;” I mean not, to hear piping, singing, or playing; nor to patter upon beads, or books whereof they have no understanding; nor to commit idolatry, honouring that for God which is no god indeed. For with such will I neither join myself in common prayer, nor in receiving external sacraments; for in so doing I should affirm their superstition and abominable idolatry, which I, by God’s grace, never will do, neither counsel others to do, to the end.” – A Treatise on Prayer (1553) in Works (Laing), 3.103, also in Selected Writings of John Knox (Presbyterian Heritage Publications, 1995), p. 95.


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Sacraments

Dotterwiech, Martin Holt – ‘Sacraments and the Church in the Scottish Evangelical Mind, 1528-1555’  Scottish Church History Society  2006

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Baptism

Articles

Burns, Thomas – Ch. 5, ‘Old Baptismal Vessels’ & ‘Appendix 5: Extracts… Relative to Baptismal Customs…’  in Old Scottish Communion Plate, pp. 469-532 & 633-34

Edgar, Andrew – ‘Lecture 4: Baptism and Burials in Olden Times’  in Old Church Life in Scotland: Lectures on Kirk Session and Presbytery Records, vol. 2  1885-6  about the 1500’s-1700’s

MacInnes, John – ‘Baptism in the Highlands’  in Scottish Church History Society  1959

Ramsey, D. Patrick – Baptismal Regeneration and the Westminster Confession  2008  61 paragraphs, from the Confessional Presbyterian, #4

In demonstrating that the Westminster documents do not teach Baptismal Regeneration, Ramsey expounds the baptismal theology of Gillespie and Rutherford, amongst others.

McMillan, William – ‘The Baptismal Record of the Rev. John MacMillan’  MacMillan was the lone minister of the United Societies for 36 years (1706-1743).

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Book

Various – The Divine Life in the Church: An Affirmation of the Doctrine of Holy Baptism with Contributions Relating to the Scottish Church, her History, Work, and Present Need, vol. 1  1895  Scottish Church Society Conferences, Second Series

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Lord’s Supper

For much more historic, Scottish material, see our pages: ‘Administration of the Lord’s Supper’, Frequency of Communion’Communion Seasons’ & ‘Communion Tokens’.

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Articles

Stevenson, R. – The Communion and Some Other Matters in Dunfermline, in the Seventeenth Century

Edgar, Andrew – ‘Lecture 2: Communion Services in Olden Times’  in Old Church Life in Scotland: Lectures on Kirk Session and Presbytery Records, vol. 1  1885-6  about the 1500’s-1700’s

Spufford, M. – ‘The Importance of the Lord’s Supper to Seventeenth-Century Dissenters’, The Journal of the United Reformed Church History Society, 5 (1993)

Hunter, Mitchell – ‘The Celebration of Communion in Scotland Since the Reformation’, parts 1, 2  Scottish Church History Society  1929

Henderson, G.D. – Ch. 2, ‘The Elder at Communion’  in The Scottish Ruling Elder (London, 1935)

Vogan, Matthew – The Origins of John Willison’s Emphasis on the Lord’s Supper’  in Scottish Reformation Society Historical Journal, vol. 7, pp. 105-138

Langley, Christopher R. – Ch. 3, ‘Communion, Reform and Conflict’  in Times of Trouble and Deliverance: Worship in the Kirk of Scotland, 1645-1658  Pre  unpublished PhD thesis (University of Aberdeen, 2012)

Cant, Alan – ‘The Communion in Creich Parish, Fifeshire, 1761-1834’  Scottish Church History Society  1932

Watt, Hugh – ‘David Smyton and the Lifters’  Scottish Church History Society  1959

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Books

Burns, Thomas – Old Scottish Communion Plate  1892  650 pp.

Wood, L. Ingleby – Scottish Pewter-Ware and Pewterers  1907  380 pp.

Much of the supplies used in the Lord’s Supper was made out of metal, specifically pewter.  See especially ch. 10 on ‘Scottish Church Vessels Before and After the Reformation’.

Burnet, G.B. – The Holy Communion in the Reformed Church of Scotland, 1560-1960  Buy  1960

Hughes, Kenneth Grant – Holy Communion in the Church of Scotland in the Nineteenth Century  1987  PhD thesis  Univ. of Glasgow  350 pp.

Schmidt, Leigh Eric – Holy Fairs: Scottish Communions and American Revivals in the Early Modern Period  Buy  1989  Princeton

ed. Leaver, Robin – A Communion Sunday in Scotland, ca. 1780: Liturgies and Sermons  Pre  (Scarecrow Press, 2010)

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Communion Tokens

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Spiritual Conferencing of Elders

Spiritual Conferencing of Elders


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Offerings & Tithes

There is a lot of Scottish material on our pages: ‘Tithes and Offerings’ and ‘Offering is not an Element of Worship’.


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Architecture

Articles

Pre-Reformation

Sprott, George – ‘The Ancient Cathedrals of Scotland’  in Transactions of the Scottish Ecclesiological Society, vol. 2, part 1 (1906-07), p. 1 ff.

Donaldson, Gordon – “Scotland’s Earliest Church Buildings”  Scottish Church History Society  1974

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Post-Reformation

Sanderson, Margaret – ‘Manse and Glebe in the Sixteenth Century’  Scottish Church History Society  1975

Edgar, Andrew – ‘Lecture 1: Churches, Manses and Churchyards in Olden Times’  in Old Church Life in Scotland: Lectures on Kirk Session and Presbytery Records, vol. 1  1885-6  about the 1500’s-1700’s

Sefton, H. R., ‘Furnishings in the Reformed church’, in C. Maclean & K. Veitch (eds), Scottish Life and Society: A Compendium of Scottish Ethnology, 12 (Edinburgh, 2006)

Whytock, Jack C. – ‘Scottish Liturgics and Church Architecture: a Study of a Transplanted Kirk on Prince Edward Island’  Covers 1560-1860

Langley, Christopher R. – Ch. 4, ‘Parish Kirks, Space and Lay Influence’  in Times of Trouble and Deliverance: Worship in the Kirk of Scotland, 1645-1658  Pre  unpublished PhD thesis (University of Aberdeen, 2012)

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Books

Coltart, J.S. – Scottish Church Architecture  Buy  1936  264 pp.

Hay, George – The Architecture of Scottish Post-Reformation Churches 1560-1843  Buy  1957

Howard, D. – Scottish Architecture: Reformation to Restoration 1560-1660 (Edinburgh, 1995)

Chernoff, Graham Thomas – Building the Reformed Kirk: the Cultural use of Ecclesiastical Buildings in Scotland, 1560–1645  2013  230 pp.  PhD dissertation


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Episcopal Worship

See also above under ‘Texts and Service Books’ under the 1600’s & 1700’s.

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Articles

1800’s

Russell, M. – The Position of the Scottish Episcopal Church with Regard to Liturgical Usage and Communion with the United Church of England and Ireland, a Charge addressed to the Clergy of the City and District of Glasgow  1845  40 pp.

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1900’s

Maxwell, William – Pt. 4, Section 8, ‘The Liturgy in the Scottish Book of Common Prayer’  in An Outline of Christian Worship, its Development and Forms, p. 154 ff.  1936  This was Laud’s Liturgy in 1637, which was later adapted by the Episcopalians.

MacRae, John – ‘The Liturgy of the Scottish Nonjurors: its Sources and Editions’  Scottish Church History Society

At the Glorious Revolution of 1689, many Scottish Episcopalians (who were quite attached to the Jacobean line of kings in Scotland and England) refused to swear allegiance to the new king (whereas almost all of the Scottish presbyterians were willing to swear allegiance).  ‘Non-juror’ means ‘non-swearer’.  Hence, this article is essentially about Scottish Episcopalianism.

Knight, Christopher – ‘The Anglicising of Scottish Episcopalianism’  Scottish Church History Society  1989

Edwards, Roger – ‘Pomp or Circumstance; Glasgow’s Episcopalians and the Uprising of 1745’  Scottish Church History Society

White, Gavin D. – ‘The Nine Lives of the Episcopal Cat; Changing Self Images of the Scottish Episcopal Church’  Scottish Church History Society  1998

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Book

Kornahrens, Wallace D. – Eucharistic Doctrine in Scottish Episcopacy, 1620-1875  Download  2008  PhD thesis  300 pp.

Abstract:

“This thesis is an examination of the eucharistic doctrine of ten Scottish theological writers in the tradition of Scottish Episcopacy…

The argument of this thesis is that all of the writers, rejecting the Tridentine, Lutheran, Bezan-Calvinist, and Zwinglian definitions of the Eucharist, maintained a material sacrifice in the Eucharist, which is an offering to God the Father of bread and wine as the propitiatory memorial of Christ’s death on the Cross, commanded by Christ himself at the Last Supper. The sacrifice is propitiatory because it is the means of representing the one sacrifice of Christ on the Cross to God the Father, thereby pleading the benefits of the Cross for the communicants. The bread and wine do not change substance, but become effectively the body and blood of Christ.”


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Journal

Transactions of the Scottish Ecclesiological Society, 6 vols.  1903-19 

See also our Collection of Journals on Scottish Church History generally.


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Bibliographies

Maxwell, William – VI. ‘Worship in the Church of Scotland’  in ‘Bibliography’  in An Outline of Christian Worship, its Development and Forms, p. 186 ff.  1936

See also our Collection of Bibliographies on Scottish Church History generally and the bibliographies in many of the dissertations linked on this page.


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Historic, Scottish Treatises on Worship

See Gillespie, Rutherford and MacWard’s works on our page ‘Worship’.  Much more will be coming in the days ahead.

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Related Pages

Worship

The Works of the Westminster Divines on Worship

The Regulative Principle of Worship

Scottish Church History

The Protester-Resolutioner Controversy

Reformation and Puritan History

Lord’s Day

Preaching

Prayer

Psalm Singing

Musical Instruments in Worship

Sacraments

Spiritual Conferencing of Elders

Tithes and Offerings

Offering is not an Element of Worship

Presbyterianism

Prelacy