On the Divinity of Christ

“In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God,
and the Word was God.”

Jn. 1:1

“Awake, O sword, against my shepherd, and against the man that is my fellow, saith the Lord of hosts: smite the shepherd…  I will say, ‘It is my people’: and they shall say, ‘The Lord is my God.'”

Zech. 13:7-9

“Then saith He to Thomas, ‘Reach hither thy finger, and behold my hands; and reach hither thy hand, and thrust it into my side…’…  Thomas answered and said unto Him, ‘My Lord and my God.'”

Jn. 20:27-28




Eternal Generation
Grounds of Christ Receiving Divine Worship



Order of Contents

Articles  10+
Books  22+
Historical Theology  2





Bucanus, William – pp. 15-17  of 2. ‘Of Christ’  in Institutions of Christian Religion...  (London: Snowdon, 1606)

By how many and by what kind of testimonies do you prove that Christ is God?
Show some pregnant testimonies whereby you can prove that Christ is God
Which be the testimonies of the second sort?
Which is the third kind of testimonies?
Why is it necessary that Christ the Redeemer should be God?
What is the greatness of the evil?
What is the greatness of the good which could be restored by no creature?
Why is He called the ‘Word’?
According to which nature is He called the image of God? Col. 1:15

Brooks, Thomas – pp. 148-66  of The Golden Key to Open Hidden Treasures…  in Works, vol. 5

Turretin, Francis – 28. ‘Is the Son true and eternal God, coessential and coeternal with the Father?  We affirm against Socinus.’  in Institutes of Elenctic Theology, tr. George M. Giger, ed. James Dennison Jr.  (1679–1685; P&R, 1992), vol. 1, 3rd Topic, pp. 282-92



à Brakel, Wilhelmus – ch. 18, ‘The Divinity, Incarnation & Union of the Two Natures in the Person of our Lord Jesus Christ’  in The Christian’s Reasonable Service, vols. 1  ed. Joel Beeke, trans. Bartel Elshout  Buy  (1700; RHB, 1992/1999), pp. 493-517

a Brakel (1635-1711) was a contemporary of Voet and Witsius and a major representative of the Dutch Further Reformation.

Boston, Thomas – Works, vol. 10

‘Christ the Everlasting Father’, pp. 254-58

‘Christ the Mighty God’, pp. 250-53

Edwards, Jonathan – Pt. 3, ‘Observations concerning the Divinity of Christ & the Doctrine of the Trinity’  in Miscellaneous Observations on Important Theological Subjects  in Works, 2.499-510

De Moore, Bernardinus – Continuous Commentary, ch. 5, ‘On the Trinity’

21. Deity of Christ Demonstrated from Divine Titles, pt. 123
21. Deity of Christ Demonstrated from Divine Attributes, pt. 123
21. Deity of Christ Demonstrated from Divine Works
21. Deity of Christ Demonstrated from Divine Worship
22. Deity of the Son Defended, pt. 12345

Romaine, William – ‘The Self-Existence of Jesus Christ’  sermon on Jn. 8:24

Romaine (1714-1795) was an English, evangelical divine.  Drawn into the Evangelical revival, he first adhered to John Wesley, but in 1755 passed to the side of George Whitefield and remained the ablest exponent among the evangelicals of Calvinistic doctrine.



Fuller, Andrew – ‘The Deity of Christ’  in Works 3.693-704

Payson, Edward – Sermon 51, ‘The Divinity of Christ’  in Sermons of the Late Edward Payson…  ed. Asa Cummings  in 2 vols.  (d. 1827; Philadelphia, 1851), vol. 2, pp. 49-62

Cunningham, William – ‘Evidence for the Divinity of Christ’, p. 213 ff.  23 pp.  from his Historical Theology, vol. 2



Warfield, B.B. – ‘The Deity of Christ’  in Selected Shorter Writings 1.151-57

Gerstner, John H. – ‘A Primer on the Deity of Christ’, pt. 1, 2  (P&R, 1984)

Bremmer, Michael – ‘The Deity of Jesus Christ’  (n.d.)  at The Highway

Duncan, J. Ligon – ‘The Divinity of Christ’  (n.d.)  at The Highway

Duncan III has been an associate professor of systematic theology at Reformed Theological Seminary in Jackson, MS.





Owen, John – Works  (NY: Robert Carter, 1850), vol. 1

Christologia, or a Declaration of the Glorious Mystery of the Person of Christ–God & Man…, pp. 1-272  ToC

“The best seventeenth-century works on Christ’s deity and glory are from the prince of Puritans, John Owen (1616-1683).  Three moving treatises are collected in Volume 1 of the Goold edition of Owen’s Works…  With regard to the glory of Christ’s divine person, Owen’s treatises remain unsurpassed.  Thomas M’Crie writes of Owen’s works on Christ in Volume 1, ‘Of all the theological works published by individuals since the Reformation, next to Calvin’s Institutes, we should have deemed it our highest honor to have produced [these].'” – Joel Beeke

Meditations & Discourses on the Glory of Christ in his Person, Office & Grace… Applied unto the Use of them that Believe, pp. 273-416  ToC

Meditations & Discourses concerning the Glory of Christ, Applied unto Unconverted Sinners & Saints under Spiritual Decays…, pp. 418-62  ToC  on Jn. 17:24



Francke, Hermann August – Christus Sacrae Scripturae Nucleus: or Christ the Sum & Substance of all the Holy Scriptures  (London: J. Downing, 1732)  345 pp.  ToC

This work is “helpful” and “focuses on the divinity of Christ in John 1 in a judicious and heart-warming manner…” – Joel Beeke

Waters, Jasper – A Vindication of the Doctrine of the Divine Person & Eternal Sonship of Christ…  being an extract of the sentiments of the Assembly of Divines at Westminster & Some Modern Authors  (London, 1735)  490 pp.  ToC

This anthology of excerpts on the topic includes many puritan writings.

Guyse, John – Jesus Christ God-Man: or the Constitution of Christ’s Person, with the Evidence & Importance of the Doctrine of his True & Proper Godhead  (Glasgow: David Niven, 1790)  290 pp.  no ToC  This is a series of sermons expounding Rom. 9:5.

Laing, William – Philemon’s Letters to Onesimus: upon the Subjects of Christ’s Atonement & Divinity  (Newry: D. Carpenter, 1791)  432 pp.  no ToC

“…an able, 432-page defense of Christ’s divinity in sixteen engaging letters.” – Joel Beeke

Kelburn, Sinclare – The Divinity of our Lord Jesus Christ Asserted & Proved, & the Connexion of this Doctrine with Practical Religion Pointed out, in 5 Sermons  (Belfast, 1792)  127 pp.  no ToC

Hawker, Robert – Sermons on the Divinity of Christ  2nd ed.  (1792; Bath: S. Hazard, 1798)  356 pp.  ToC

“…includes eight moving sermons by an experiential, Calvinist Anglican that spell out the spiritual and daily ramifications of believing in Christ as the Son of God.” – Joel Beeke



Kidd, James – A Dissertation on the Eternal Sonship of Christ  (Philadelphia: 1823)  355 pp.  ToC  Dedicated to Ashbel Green and another.American presbyterian minister.

Kidd (1761–1834) was a Church of Scotland minister and professor of oriental languages at the University of Aberdeen.  He opposed patronage in his day.

The last chapter gives many quotes from the early Chuch, reformers and others on the topic.

Miller, Samuel

Letters on the Eternal Sonship of Christ: Addressed to the Rev. Professor Stuart, of Andover  (1823)  308 pp.  8 letters specifically aimed at Unitarianism

Letters on Unitarianism: Addressed to the Members of the First Presbyterian Church, in the City of Baltimore  (1821)  328 pp.  This specifically addresses the person and divinity of Christ

Mitchell, John – The Scripture Doctrine of the Divinity of our Lord Jesus Christ, & Other Subjects Connected Therewith, in a Series of Sermons  (Newry: Robert Greer)  262 pp.  ToC

Mitchell was a presbyterian minister.

Serle, Ambrose – Horae Solitariae: Or, Essays upon some Remarkable Names & Titles of Jesus Christ, Occurring in the Old Testament, & Declarative of his Essential Divinity & Gracious Offices…  2nd American ed.  (Hartford: 1815), vol. 1  ToC  Volume 2 is not able to be found, if it was ever published.

“…which is particularly helpful in proving Christ’s divinity from the Old Testament.” – Joel Beeke

Philpot, Joseph C. – The True, Proper & Eternal Sonship of the Lord Jesus Christ, the Only Begotten Son of God  (1865)

“…which is a scriptural, polemical and experiential treatment.” – Joel Beeke

Liddon, Henry Parry – The Divinity of our Lord & Savior Jesus Christ: 8 Lectures  (1866; London: Rivingtons, 1867)  790 pp.  ToC

“…which is a standard, frequently reprinted treatment of Liddon’s Bampton lectures…” – Joel Beeke

Brown, Charles – The Divine Glory of Christ  (1868) 130 pp.  ToC

This short book collects the teachings of the scriptures regarding the divinity and glory of our Lord Jesus Christ, while aiming at heart-stirring devotion.



Warfield, Benjamin B. – The Lord of Glory: a Study of the Designations of our Lord in the New Testament with Especial Reference to his Deity  Buy  (American Tract Soceity, 1907)  304 pp.  ToC

A comprehensive, book-length, Biblical defense of the divinity of Christ from nearly every N.T. passage that relates to it.

Anderson, Robert – The Lord from Heaven  (1910; Kregel, 1978)  115 pp.  ToC

“…ably expounds Christ’s deity from both testaments, focusing on Him as King of kings.”

Robertson, A.T. – The Divinity of Christ in the Gospel of John  (Fleming H. Revell, 1916)  170 pp.  ToC

Machen, J. Gresham – On the Deity of Christ  at The Highway

Machen (1881-1937) was an American presbyterian minister and scholar.  He was formative in the formation of the Orthodox Presbyerian Church and Westminster Theological Seminary East.

Vine, William E. – The Divine Sonship of Christ, 2 vols.  This set includes Christ’s Eternal Sonship & The First & the Last

“…emphasize the benefits that flow to the believer from Christ’s divinity.” – Joel Beeke

Lockyer, Herbert – ch. 2, ‘The Names & Titles of God the Son’  ToC  in All the Divine Names & Titles in the Bible  (Zondervan, 1975), pp. 93-282

“…devotes two hundred pages to an edifying exposition of scores of Christ’s names that shed light on His divinity.” – Joel Beeke

McDowell, Josh & Bart Larson – Jesus: A Biblical Defense of His Deity  (1983; Crossway, 1991)  140 pp.  ToC

Designed as an apologetic for college students.

Harris, Murray J. – Jesus as God: the New Testament Use of Theos in Reference to God  Pre  Buy  (Grand Rapids: Baker, 1992)

Harris has been a professor of NT exegesis and theology at Trinity Evangelical Divinity School.  Here is a review, and another review.

“…carefully exegetes ten texts in an evangelical, scholarly manner and provides an excellent up-to-date bibliography.” – Joel Beeke



Historical Theology

On All of Church History

Dorner, Izaak August – History of the Development of the Doctrine of the Person of Christ, vol. 1 & 2 (up to 400), 3, 4 & 5 (400-1800’s)  (Edinburgh: 1861-1863)  ToC

Dorner (1809–1884) was a German, Lutheran church leader, professor and scholar, ‘mediating’ in his theology.


On the Early Church

Burton, Edward – Testimonies of Ante-Nicene Fathers to the Divinity of Christ  2nd ed. enlarged  (Oxford Univ. Press, 1829)  515 pp.  ToC

Burton (1794–1836) was an Oxford professor of divinity.




“Fear not; I am the first and the last: I am He that liveth, and was dead; and, behold, I am alive for evermore…”

Rev. 1:17-18




Related Pages

On the Person of Christ, his Human & Divine Natures & the Hypostatic Union

Whether Christ is Autotheos?


On the Grace of Union, the Logos Assuming an Impersonal Human Nature, its Manner of Subsisting, Communication & Existence, & of the Personal Sustentation

On the Doctrine of Appropriations

On the Communication of the Properties of Christ’s Natures

Against Ubiquity & the Multi-Presence of Christ

Christ has Two Harmonious Wills, Divine & Human

The Two Operations of the Mediator, Divine & Human, unto the Same Effect

The Grounds of Christ the Mediator Receiving Divine Worship