On God’s Essential Works Inside & Outside of Himself (ad intra & ad extra)

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Subsection

On the Doctrine of Appropriations

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Order of Contents

Intro
On God’s Essential Works Inside Himself, Ad Intra
On God’s Works Outside Himself, Ad Extra


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Intro

As Christian evangelicalism continues to try and reinvent the wheel of theology from a blank slate, profound and fundamental, old, truths are lost sight of, and contradicted.

The modern heresy of the Eternal Subordination of the Son presumes, wrongly, that each Person of the Trinity has a distinct will. Rather, according to the orthodox, early Church councils (and reformed orthodoxy), each Person shares the exact same, numeric, divine will. The love of each Person of the Trinity for the others, is a love, not of a separate will, but of existing in each other and in the self-same, pure act of love.

Whenever God acts towards the creation (ad extra) this willing is done by all three Persons through the divine essence and is undivided. Yet that one will terminates in its effects according to the distinct Persons, such that some effects may be ascribed to one Person and not the others.

Learn here more about your inexhaustibly glorious God.


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On God’s Essential, Common, Works Ad Intra, Inside of Himself (as well as Ad Extra)

Articles

1200’s

Aquinas – Summa, pt. 1, Treatise on the Creation, Question 45, ‘The Mode of Emanation of Things from the First Principle’, article 6, ‘Whether to create is proper to any person?’

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1600’s

van Mastricht, Peter – section 7, ‘The distribution of the divine works’  in Theoretical Practical Theology  (RHB), vol. 3, bk. 3, ch. 1, ‘The Actions & Decrees of God’, pp. 5-6

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2000’s

Muller, Richard – 5.2, ‘The Father as Origin & Source: ‘Works’ of the Godhead Ad intra & Ad extra  ToC  in Post-Reformation Reformed Dogmatics: the Rise & Development of Reformed Theology, ca. 1520 – ca. 1725, vol. 4, The Triunity of God  2nd ed.  (Baker Books, 2003), pp. 255-75

Muller (b. 1948) has been a professor of reformed, historical theology at Calvin seminary.

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Quote

John Owen

An Exposition of the Epistle to the Hebrews…  vol. 2  ed. W.H. Goold  in Works  (Edinburgh: T&T Clark, 1862), vol. 19, Preliminary Exercitations, Ex. 28, ‘Federal Transactions Between the Father & the Son’, pp. 87-88

“The will is a natural property, and therefore in the divine essence it is but one.  The Father, Son, and Spirit, have not distinct wills.  They are one God, and God’s will is one, as being an essential property of his nature; and therefore are there two wills in the one person of Christ, whereas there is but one will in the three persons of the Trinity…

…for such is the distinction of the persons in the unity of the divine essence, as that they act in natural and essential acts reciprocally one towards another—namely, in understanding, love, and the like; they know and mutually love each other.  And as they subsist distinctly, so they also act distinctly in those works which are of external operation.

And whereas all these acts and operations, whether reciprocal or external, are either with a will or from a freedom of will and choice, the will of God in each Person, as to the peculiar acts ascribed unto Him, is his will therein peculiarly and eminently, though not exclusively to the other persons, by reason of their mutual in-being.

The will of God as to the peculiar actings of the Father in this matter is the will of the Father, and the will of God with regard unto the peculiar actings of the Son is the will of the Son; not by a distinction of sundry wills, but by the distinct application of the same will unto its distinct acts in the persons of the Father and the Son.”


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On God’s Works Ad Extra, Outside of Himself (Relating to the Creation)

Articles

1200’s

Aquinas – Summa, pt. 1, Treatise on the Creation, Question 45, ‘The Mode of Emanation of Things from the First Principle’, article 6, ‘Whether to create is proper to any person?’

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1600’s

Cheynell, Francis – pp. 128-32  in ch. 6  in The Divine Trinunity of the Father, Son & Holy Spirit…  (London, 1650), pp. 61-180

Cheynell (1608–1665) was an English, presbyterian, Westminster divine.

Owen, John

p. 407 (Secondly)  in A Brief Declaration & Vindication of the Doctrine of the Trinity: as Also of the Person & Satisfaction of Christ…  in Works  (NY: Robert Carter, 1850), vol. 2

Owen (1616–1683) was an English, congregationalist puritan.

p. 34 (2.)  in Exercitation 26  of An Exposition of the Epistle to the Hebrews…  vol. 2  ed. W.H. Goold  in Works  (Edinburgh: T&T Clark, 1862), vol. 19, Preliminary Exercitations

van Mastricht, Peter – Theoretical Practical Theology  (RHB)

vol. 2, bk. 2

ch. 15, ‘The Will & Affections of God’

section 9, ‘The independence of the divine will. Its four corollaries’, p. 298

ch. 24, ‘The Most Holy Trinity’

section 12, ‘The economic offices of the three persons’, p. 506
section 13, ‘The economic turns in governing for the persons’, pp. 506-7

ch. 25, ‘God the Father’

section 6, ‘His distinction from the rest of the persons’, pp. 529-30

vol. 3, bk. 3

ch. 1, ‘The Actions & Decrees of God’

section 6, ‘The mode of working specific to the divine persons’, pp. 4-5

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1900’s

Pohle, Joseph – Ch. II, ‘Oneness of External Operation of the Three Divine Persons’  in The Divine Trinity, a Dogmatic Treatise  2nd ed.  trans. Arthur Preuss  (St. Louis: B. Herder, 1912), pp. 275-81

Pohle (1852-1922) was a Romanist professor of theology in the Catholic University of America and at the University of Breslau.  He also wrote numerous articles for the Catholic Encyclopedia (1913).  This work is vol. 2 of his 12 volume Manual Of Dogmatic Theology.

Emery, Gilles – 14. ‘Trinitarian Creation & Action’  in The Trinitarian Theology Of St Thomas Aquinas  (Oxford Univ. Press, 1990), pp. 338-60

Emery (b. 1962) has been a Dominican, Romanist professor of theology at the University of Friborg.

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2000’s

Muller, Richard – 5.2, ‘The Father as Origin & Source: ‘Works’ of the Godhead Ad intra & Ad extra  ToC  in Post-Reformation Reformed Dogmatics: the Rise & Development of Reformed Theology, ca. 1520 – ca. 1725, vol. 4, The Triunity of God  2nd ed.  (Baker Books, 2003), pp. 255-75

Muller (b. 1948) has been a professor of reformed, historical theology at Calvin seminary.

Jones, Mark – ‘Subordination in the Pactum? (& the Irony of ESS)’  at NewCityTimes

Jones has been a presbyterian minister in the PCA.

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Related Pages

The Trinity

On Divine Simplicity

On the Will of God

On the Grace of Union & the Logos Assuming Flesh

The Decrees of God

The Covenant of Redemption

The Revealed Will of God

Of God, the Knowledge of God & of his Attributes

Creation

On the Person & Human & Divine Natures of Christ