On Greek & Eastern Orthodoxy

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Order of Contents

On Greek Orthodox Systematic Theology
Contra Greek Orthodoxy
Historical Theology
On the Filioque Clause & the Procession of the Spirit from the Son  18+
Latin  4

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On Greek Orthodox Systematic Theology

Niesel, Wilhelm – Pt. 2, ‘The Gospel & the Orthodox Church’  in Reformed Symbolics: a Comparison of Catholicism, Orthodoxy & Protestantism  tr. David Lewis  (Oliver & Boyd, 1962), pp. 121-168

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Contra Greek Orthodoxy

Aquinas, Thomas – Contra the Errors of the Greeks

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Historical Theology

eds. Lehner, Muller, Roeber – The Oxford Handbook to Early Modern Theology, 1600-1800  (Oxford, 2016), pt. 3, ‘Theology & the Others’

ch. 32, The Churches of the East & the Enlightenment, pp. 499-516

ch. 33, Orthodox Influences on Early Modern Western Theologies, pp. 517-32

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On the Filioque Clause & the Procession of the Spirit from the Son

Articles

Early Church

Augustine – Opera, tome 8, column 498

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Medieval

Anselm – On the Procession of the Holy Spirit

Anselm (1033/4–1109)

Richard of St. Victor – On the Trinity  Buy

Richard (d. 1173).  On this work, see Todd D. Vasquez, The Art of Trinitarian Articulation: A Case Study on Richard of St. Victor’s de Trinitate  PhD diss.  (Loyola University, 2009).

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1600’s

Daillie, John – p. 331 ff.  in A Treatise on the Right Use of the Fathers in the Decision of Controversies...  2nd ed.  (d. 1670; 1675; Philadelphia, 1856)

Daillie was a French Reformed minister and theologian in Paris.

Turretin, Francis – Question 31, ‘Did the Holy Spirit Proceed from the Father & the Son?  We affirm.’  in Institutes of Elenctic Theology, vol. 1, 3rd Topic, pp. 308-11

“Since breathing virtue is numerically one in the Father and the Son, it is not good to say that in this respect the Spirit proceeds from the Father through the Son (as if he was principally from the Father, but secondarily and less principally from the Son). If the mode of subsisting is considered (according to which the Father is the fountain of deity from whom the Son emanates), not improperly in this sense is he said to proceed from the Father through the Son (as to the order and mode of procession).” – section 8, p. 310

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1700’s

De Moor, Bernardinus – A Continuous Commentary on John Marck’s Compendium of Didactic & Elenctic Christian Theology, vol 1  (Leiden, 1761-71), ch. 5, section 11

‘The Procession of the Holy Spirit & John 15:26’, pt. 1 & 2

The Procession of the Spirit as Spiration’

‘The Controversy of the Greeks & Latins over the Procession of the Spirit’

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1900’s

Bray, Gerald – ‘The Filioque Clause in History & Theology’  Tyndale Bulletin, 34 (1983), 91-144

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2000’s

Daley, Brian E. – “Revisiting the ‘Filioque’: Roots & Branches of an Old Debate’  Pro Ecclesia 10, no. 1 (2001): 31-62

Pugliese, Marc – ‘How Important is the Filioque for Reformed Orthodoxy?’  Westminster Theological Journal 66 (Spring 2004), pp. 159–77

Dr. Pugliese is Associate Dean of the College of Arts and Sciences at the Romanist, Saint Leo University in Florida.  Dr. Pugliese is sympathetic to Reformed Orthodoxy and the Filioque clause.

This essay was originally spurred by the question of whether a minister, in 2002, in a prominent, conservative reformed denomination in America, should be able to take exception to the filioque clause in the Westminster Confession of Faith.

“First, the essay will summarize the question and what really is at stake in the question. It will then briefly summarize the chief arguments against the filioque.  After presenting the dilemma of affirming or denying the filioque, the essay will move into a section arguing for the importance of the filioque in orthodox Reformed theology.”

Pugliese interacts with: Photius, Calvin, Pearson, Turretin, C. Hodge, Berkhof, L.S. Chafer, J.I. Packer, W. Grudem, Karl Rahner.  There is a section on pp. 163-5 documenting the notion of filioque in the early Church, showing that “the intention behind the filioque was a part of Christian theology practically from its incipience…”  Pugliese also states: “every great Reformed confession that deals at length with the Trinity contains the Double Procession.”

Kieser, Ty – ‘Is the Filioque an Obstacle to a Pneumatologically Robust Christology?: A Response from Reformed Resources’  Journal of Reformed Theology 12, no. 4 (2018): 394-412

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Book

Swete, H.B. – On the History of the Doctrine of the Procession of the Holy Spirit, from the Apostolic Age to the Death of Charlemagne  (Cambridge, 1876)  260 pp.

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Quotes

Synopsis of Pure Theology, Disputation 9, §16 & 19

“The personal order among the Persons requires Him to proceed from both, which order would otherwise be destroyed, and the Holy Spirit would not then be the third Person, but would be placed in the same order and series with the Son, and would be placed over against Him, as it were.  Finally, the intrinsic relation and respect requires this, which otherwise would not exist between the Son and the Spirit:

But in order to put the controversy between the Greeks and Latins in its proper place and settle it, some have conveniently said, in keeping with the phraseology of some ancient authors, that the Father spirates the Holy Spirit through the Son, and that the Holy Spirit proceeds from the Father through the Son.  For by that manner of speaking it is shown that He comes from both; and the mode of subsistence is shown, too; that is to say, He proceeds in a mediate and subordinate way from the Father through the Son.  Thereby the Greeks’ position is not destroyed, namely that the one and even personal principle of the spiration and procession of the Holy Spirit is the Father—because the Father precedes in origin and order. To be precise: their position of the personal starting point is the Father on account of the Father’s antecedence in origin and rank.  And hereby both the relationship and subordination of the Spirit to the Son is established (John 15:16 and 16:14-15).”

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Andreas J. Beck

‘God, Creation & Providence in Post-Reformation Reformed Theology’  in ed. Muller et al., Oxford Handbook of Early Modern Theology  (Oxford, 2016), p. 205

“The second issue concerns the remarkable openness of some Reformed to the Eastern Orthodox position on the filioque clause. While maintaining the Western position that the Spirit proceeds from both the Father and the Son, the Leiden Synopsis and Cocceius showed clear sympathy for the Eastern argumentation and tried to mediate between the Western and Eastern concerns…”
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Latin

1600’s

Petavius – Dogmata theologica, vol. 1, tome 2, bk. 7, pp. 362-440

Gerhard – Loca Communia, tome 1, ‘Of the Holy Spirit’, ch. 4, pp. 158-164

Buddeus

Theologiæ Dogmaticæ, vol. 1, bk. 2, ch. 1, §52, pp. 396-401

Isagoge ad Theologiam universam, bk. 2, ch. II, § 5, vol 1, pp. 463b-465

Buddeus was Lutheran.  Both of these sections are on the history of the dispute.

Spanheim – Decadum Theologicarum V, § X, number 4  in Works, vol 3, cols. 1224-1225

Alting, Heinrich – Theologia problematica nova, locus 3, problem 39, pp. 238-239

Hoornbeek – Summa Controversiarum, bk. 11, pp. 851-854

Voet, Gisbert – p. 86, section 4, mid.  of Bk. 1, ch. 9, ‘Of Public & Private Disputations’  in Exercises & a Library on the Study of Theology  (Utrecht, 1644)

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1700’s

Lampe – Dissertationum philologico-theologicarum, vol. 2, Disputation 6, chs. 6-7, ‘Of the Holy Spirit’, § 25, pp. 211-212 & 224-38

Stapfer – Theologicæ polemicæ, vol. 1, ch. 3, §1136-1139

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Latin Articles Contra Greek & Eastern Orthodoxy

1600’s

Hoornbeek, Johannes – 11. ‘Of Greeks & Orientals’  in A Sum of Controversies in Religion with Infidels, Heretics & Schismatics  (Utrecht, 1653; 1676), p. 833 ff.

Spanheim, Francis – ‘Select Controversies with the Modern Greeks & Orientals: a Historical Dissertation on the State of the Oriental Church & their Dissension from the Latins, or the Pontificate’  ToC  in A Historical-Theological Chain of Select Controversies on Religion, even with the Greeks, Orientals, Jews & the Recent Anti-Scripturalists [Rationalists] [Plus Many Other Sects], in which the Fonts of Errors are Opened (Leiden, 1683), pp. 369-472

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1700’s

Vitringa, Sr., Campegius – The Doctrine of the Christian Religion…  (d. 1722)

vol. 6, Ch. 24, ‘Of the Sacraments of the New Covenant’, ‘Of the Sacraments of Greeks’, pp. 520-524

vol. 7, Ch. 24, ‘Of Baptism’, ‘Of the Baptism of the Greeks’, pp. 181-204

vol. 8, Ch. 24, ‘Of the Lord’s Supper’, ‘Of the Sacred Supper of the Greeks’, pp. 423-634

Stapfer, Johann – ch. 19, ‘Of the Oriental Church’  in Institutes of Universal Polemical Theology…  vol. 5  (Zurich, 1756), pp. 56-123  ToC

Stapfer (1708-1775) was a professor of theology at Bern.  He was influenced by the philosophical rationalism of Christian Wolff, though, by him “the orthodox reformed tradition was continued with little overt alteration of the doctrinal loci and their basic definitions.” – Richard Muller

“The sense of several kinds or levels of error manifests itself in Stapfer’s massive Institutiones…  Stapfer’s system, as its subtitle indicates, adopts a scientific arrangement by moving from those adversaries who deny the principia of Christianity [God, his providence and Scripture] (the infidels and unbelievers called Atheists, Deists, Epicureans, Pagans and Naturalists), to those who accept either of the principia (Jews, Moslems, Socinians, and Latitudinarians or Indifferentists), to those who accept both principia but attack fundamental articles (Papists, Fanatics, Pelagians, Remonstrants [Arminians], and Anabaptists), to those, finally, who agree on fundamentals but who differ on nonfundamental articles (the Greek Orthodox and the Lutherans)…  the latter two groups…  are not viewed as heretics but as schismatics from the Reformed faith.

For Stapfer, the Greeks and the Lutherans represent the problem of errors around and beyond fundamentals; neither is to be classed as a heresy.  The Greeks deny the doctrine of the procession of the Spirit from the Son as well as the Father, but they do not deny the doctrine of the Trinity.  Stapfer here recognizes the historical problem of the insertion of the filioque [clause] into the [Nicene] creed, but relies on biblical warrants to justify the doctrine [ch. 19, sections 38-45]…  Stapfer sees…  a danger of weakening the doctrine of the Trinity…” – Muller, PRRD (2003) 1.423-4

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