New Testament Theology

Back to:
Biblical Theology


“This cup is the new testament in my blood, which is shed for you.”

Lk. 22:20

“…when Jesus had ended these sayings, the people were astonished at his doctrine, for He taught them as one having authority…”

Mt. 7:28-29

“…how much also He is the mediator of a better covenant, which was established upon better promises.”

Heb. 8:6




The Life & Theology of John



Order of Contents

N.T. Theologies
.       Simpler  1
.       Intermediate  10+
.       Older  4
Studies in N.T. Theology  4
Theology of Paul  12+




‘New Testament Theology’ is not different than the theology found in the whole of Scripture, but rather it emphasizes those characteristics that are prominent in the writings of the New Testament.  The same goes for the theologies of Paul, John, etc.



Simpler New Testament Theologies

Bruce, F.F. – The Message of the New Testament  (1972; UK: Paternoster, 1994)  120 pp.  ToC  Evangelical

Bruce (1910–1990) was an evangelical Scottish Biblical scholar and Bible commentator.

“His language is simple enough to be easily understood by beginning Bible students, yet rich enough in meaning to provide new insights for those who have been studying the Scriptures for years.  And because he so concentrates on major themes and not fine detail, he succeeds in presenting the central message of the New Testament in a way that is refreshingly different.” – The book-flap



Intermediate Level  All are broadly evangelical


Guthrie, Donald – New Testament Theology   (IVP, 1981)  1,064 pp.  ToC

Guthrie (1916–1992) was a British New Testament scholar best known for this work and his New Testament Introduction.  He was the president of London Bible College (now London School of Theology), which is evangelical.

“Donald Guthrie approaches the subject thematically.  He takes the great subjects dealt with in the New Testament and surveys the contributions made by all the writers to each of his themes.”  – Leon Morris

Ladd, George Eldon

A Theology of the New Testament  (Eerdmans, 1974)  655 pp.  ToC  There is also a 1993 rev. ed.

Ladd (1911-82) was baptist, professor of New Testament Exegesis and Theology at Fuller Theological Seminary, California.  He held to historic-premilennialism (not recommended) and a “futuristic post-tribulationism”.  This work is thematic.

“It would be hard to find a better way of introducing students to New Testament theology than by baptizing them in this time-tested standard by Ladd.  Later efforts by others have not replaced it.” – Robert Gundry, Westmont College

The Pattern of New Testament Truth  (Eerdmans, 1968)  115 pp.  ToC

“Show[s] the continuity of NT thought, particularly as this relates to the teachings of Jesus and Paul.” – Cyril Barber

Jesus & the Kingdom: the Eschatology of Biblical Realism  (London: SPCK, 1969)  380 pp.  ToC

Ladd was a historical-premillennial.

“A comprehensive scholarly study of the preaching of Jesus concerning the Kingdom of God.” – Cyril Barber

Morris, Leon

New Testament Theology  (1986; Zondervan, 1990)  360 pp.  ToC

Morris (1914–2006) was an Australian New Testament scholar.  In this work he gives a theology of each book of the New Testament, or a synthesis of some of them together.

“The aim of this book is to provide a compact introduction to the theology of the New Testament…  I have tried to steer a middle course between being unhelpfully brief and being too long and technical for the student or interested layman.  If such readers are stimulated to tackle the larger works, I will be well rewarded.” – Preface

The Cross in the New Testament  (Eerdmans, 1965)  450 pp.  ToC

Morris surveys the theme of the cross and the atonement in each book of the New Testament, sometimes grouped together.

The Apostolic Preaching of the Cross  (1955; London: Tyndale Press, 1965)  305 pp.  ToC

The Chapters are: (1) Redemption, (2) Covenant, (3) The Blood, (4) The Lamb of God, (5) Propitiation, (6) Propitiation, 2 (7) Reconciliation, (8) Justification, (9) Justification, 2

“Brilliant word studies on redemption, covenant, blood, propitiation, reconciliation, and justification.  Deserves a place in every preacher’s library!” – Cyril Barber



Marshall, I. Howard – New Testament Theology: Many Witnesses, One Gospel  (IVP, 2004)  765 pp.

Marshall (1934–2015) was a Scottish New Testament scholar who identified as an evangelical Methodist.  This work goes book by book through the NT.

“New Testament theology is essentially missionary theology.” – Marshall

Schreiner, Thomas – New Testament Theology: Magnifying God in Christ  (Baker Academic, 2008)  976 pp.

Schreiner (b. 1954) is an American, Calvinist, New Testament scholar who has taught as a professor at numerous baptist seminaries.  He has written numerous commentaries on NT books and has served as a president of the Evangelical Theological Society.

“…looking for the themes that emerge from a detailed reading of the whole rather than considering the individual writings separately.  Two themes in particular emerge.  The first concerns redemptive history and the kingdom of God…  Second, the ultimate goal of the kingdom is God’s glory.  Schreiner goes on to relate these themes to the life of the believer and the community of faith.” – BestCommentaries

“I would not identify myself as a covenant theologian or a dispensationalist.  I slightly lean toward amillennialism, but I am not completely sure on this point.  Revelation 20 gives me pause, so that I often wonder if historic premillennialism is correct.  Still, my reading of Revelation as a whole is compatible with approaches that are amillennial…

Complementarianism and Baptist ecclesiology are there [in this work], but they are not terribly prominent given the scope of the work.  I think my Calvinist reading plays a larger role.” – Interview with Tom Schreiner on NT Theology

ed. Vanhoozer, Kevin J. – Theological Interpretation of the New Testament: A Book-by-Book Survey  (Baker Academic, 2008)  272 pp.

Vanhoozer (b. 1957) has a degree from Westminster Theological Serminary, and is a professor of systematic theology at Trinity Evangelical Divinity School (TEDS).  He has an interest in reformed theology.

These articles were previously published in the Dictionary for Theological Interpretation of the Bible (Baker, 2005).  Each chapter provides a history of interpretation and covers major theological ideas for each book of the New Testament.

Contributors of chapters include: David E. Garland, Robert H. Gundry, I. Howard Marshall, Francesca Aran Murphy, Max Turner, and N. T. Wright.

Beale, G.K. – A New Testament Biblical Theology: the Unfolding of the Old Testament in the New  (Baker Academic, 2011)  1,060 pp.  ToC  Index

Beale (1949) is a biblical scholar.  He has been a professor of New Testament at Westminster Theological Seminary and the Reformed Theological Seminary in Dallas, TX.  He is a minister in the Orthodox Presbyterian Church.  He has served as the president of the Evangelical Theological Society.

ed. Kruger, Michael – A Biblical-Theological Introduction to the New Testament: the Gospel Realized  Buy  Pre  (Crossway, 2016)  656 pp.

Kruger has been the president of Reformed Theological Seminary in Charlotte, NC, and a professor of New Testament.  He is an ordained minister in the PCA.

This volume, done by a number of Reformed Theological Seminary professors, is an attempt to do New Testament Introduction through the lens of Biblical Theology.  That is, they answer the regular questions on each book of who, what, when, where & why, while giving a Biblical theology on each book of the N.T.

The work is done well, and it is reformed and conservative in outlook (see a review here and the Preview linked above), though do note that Biblical Theology is much more expansive than simply Biblical theologies of each book of the Bible, and hence this volume by no means exhausts its subject.





Van Oosterzee, Jan J. – The Theology of the New Testament: a Handbook for Bible Students  trans. M. Evans  (New York: Dodd & Mead, 1875)  Evangelical.

Oosterzee (1817 – 1882) was an orthodox, Dutch, professor of systematic theology at the University of Utrecht.

“His theological position is described as premillennial and mild chiliast.” – Wikipedia

Bernard, Thomas – The Progress of Doctrine in the New Testament, in 8 Lectures  (London: Macmillan, 1864)  258 pp.  ToC  Evangelical

Thomas Dehany Bernard (1815-1904) was an English Clergyman.  He graduated from Exeter College, Oxford, and after several notable pastorates ministered at Wells Cathedral, ultimately becoming its Chancellor…  and in 1864 delivered his now famous lectures…  Thomas Bernard was noted for his strong evangelical convictions… he remained… uncompromising in his adherence to the integrity of the Word of God.” – Cyril J. Barber

“The Bampton Lectures delivered at the University of Oxford, 1864, survey the entire scope of NT theology, and are, to quote Dr. Wilbur M. Smith, ‘The product of sound scholarship, and a profound belief in the Divine origin of the Holy Scriptures.” – Cyril Barber

Adeney, Walter F. – The Theology of the New Testament  (London: Hodder & Stoughton, 1894)  250 pp.  ToC

Adeney (1849-1920) was a British, congregationalist minister and biblical scholar.  He was a professor at the congregationalist, New College, London, for dissenters.



Stevens, George Barker – The Theology of the New Testament  (Edinburgh: T&T Clark, 1906)  660 pp.  ToC  Liberal

Stevens (1854-1906) was a pastor of congregational and presbyterian churches and a professor of systematic theology at Yale.  In the Preface he acknowledges his dependance on Weiss, Pfleiderer, Wendt, Beyschlag, Holtzmann, A.B. Bruce, et al.

“The aim of this volume is to set forth, in systematic form, the doctrinal contents of the New Testament according to its natural divisions.” – Preface

“An old, but still valuable contribution.” – Cyril Barber



Studies in New Testament Theology


Vos, Geerhardus – The Teaching of Jesus Concerning the Kingdom of God & the Church  (NY: American Tract Society, 1903)  220 pp.  ToC  Reformed

Vos (1862-1949) was one of the last conservative theologians at Old Princeton, and is known as the father of reformed Biblical Theology.

Vos, Geerhardus & Johannes Vos – The Self-Disclosure of Jesus: the Modern Debate about the Messianic Consciousness  (Eerdmans, 1954)  290 pp.  ToC  Reformed

J. Vos was an RPCNA pastor.

Ridderbos, Herman

When the Time had Fully Come: Studies in New Testament Theology  Buy  (1957; Wipf & Stock, 2001)  95 pp.  Reformed

Ridderbos (1909–2007) was a Dutch, reformed theologian and biblical scholar.  He was an important New Testament theologian, having worked extensively on the history of salvation and biblical theology.

The Coming of the Kingdom  trans. H. de Jongste  ed. Raymond O. Zorn  Buy  (Paideia Press, 1962)  575 pp.

Amillennial.  The classic setting forth of the ‘now and not yet’ paradigm.

Marshall, I. Howard – Jesus the Saviour: Studies in New Testament Theology  (IVP, 1990)  330 pp.  ToC

Marshall (1934–2015) was a Scottish New Testament scholar who identified as an evangelical Methodist.

He was a professor of New Testament exegesis at the University of Aberdeen and at one time the chair of the Tyndale Fellowship for Biblical and Theological Research.  He has also held the chair of the Fellowship of European Evangelical Theologians.



The Theology of Paul

See also ‘The Life & Letters of Paul’, which works usually have a lot to say about the theology of Paul.



Knowling, Richard John

The Testimony of St. Paul to Christ Viewed in Some of its Aspects  (NY: Charles Scribner’s, 1905)  540 pp.  ToC

Knowling (1851–1919) was the chaplain of King’s College London, an Anglican canon of Durham and professor of divinity at Durham University.

“Based upon the Boyle Lectures for 1903-05.  Deals with the Pauline Epistles, Paul’s conversion and testimony to the veracity of the Gospel records, and his teaching on the life and function of the church.  A scholarly study.” – Cyril J. Barber

The Witness of the Epistles: a Study in Modern Criticism  (London: Longmans, Green, 1892)  465 pp.  ToC

“Establishes the origin of Pauline theology, discourses on Paul’s Christology and the incarnation, provides an interesting chapter on the resurrection of Christ, and a discussion of His ascension and second coming.  A final chapter evaluates Paul as an evangelist.” – Cyril J. Barber



Kennedy, Harry Angus Alexander

St. Paul & the Mystery Religions  (Hodder & Stoughton, 1913)  330 pp.  ToC

Kennedy was a theological scholar in the history of early Christianity.  For more, see Logos.

“A standard study which reacts against those who interpret Pauline theology solely against the background of the mystery religions.” – Cyril J. Barber

The Theology of the Epistles  (NY: Charles Scribner’s, 1920)  275 pp.  ToC

“A brief survey stressing the unity of thought in the epistles.” – Cyril J. Barber

St. Paul’s Conceptions of the Last Things  (London: Hodder & Stoughton, 1904)  385 pp.  ToC

Robertson, A.T. – Paul the Interpreter of Christ  (NY: George H. Doran, 1921)  168 pp.  ToC

Robertson (1863–1934) was an American, southern, Calvinistic, baptist professor of New Testament and Greek.

“Offers a series of studies of different aspects of Paul’s ministry and teaching.” – Cyril J. Barber

Machen, John Gresham – The Origin of Paul’s Religion  (NY: Macmillan, 1925)  340 pp.  ToC  Reformed

Machen (1881–1937) was an American presbyterian New Testament scholar and a leading minister in the formation of the Orthodox Presbyterian Church and Westminster Seminary.

Chapter 4 specifically defends that Paul’s theology was an unfolding of that of Jesus, as opposed to the liberal assertion that Jesus and Paul’s theology are contrary to each other.

“Consists of the James Sprunt Lectures, Union Theological Seminary, Virginia.  Surveys the early years of Paul’s life, his Jewish environment, religious training, and the development of his doctrine.  A valuable treatment.  Amillennial.” – Cyril J. Barber

Stewart, James Stuart – A Man in Christ: the Vital Elements in St. Paul’s Religion  (Harper & Row, 1935)  345 pp.  ToC

Stewart (1896-1990) was a minister in the Church of Scotland and professor at the University of Edinburgh (New College).

“A treatment of Pauline thought which ranks high among the very best contributions in the field.” – Cyril J. Barber

Moe, Olaf Edvard – The Apostle Paul: his Message & Doctrine  Buy  (1954)

Moe (1876-1963) was a Norwegian, Lutheran, professor of New Testament exegesis.  He wrote a dissertation on, Jesus’ Testimony of Himself as the Son of God.

“Based upon the German edition published in 1928.  Centers in the doctrinal concepts of the Apostle to the Gentiles.  Lutheran.” – Cyril J. Barber

Ridderbos, Herman

Paul, an Outline of his Theology  (1966; Eerdmans, 1975)  585 pp.  ToC  Reformed

Ridderbos (1909–2007) was a Dutch, reformed theologian and biblical scholar.  He was an important New Testament theologian, having worked extensively on the history of salvation and biblical theology.

“At last we have a comprehensive, satisfying work on the theology of Paul, written by one who is probably the most outstanding evangelical New Testament scholar on the continent of Europe.” – George Eldon Ladd

Paul & Jesus: Origin & General Character of Paul’s Preaching of Christ  (Baker, 1958)  155 pp.  ToC

Ridderbos here defends that Paul’s teachings were founded upon, and consistent with Jesus’ teachings, contra the liberals of his day (and our day) who divorced Paul’s religion as something different from, and contrary to, that of Jesus.

“A scholarly study of Paul’s preaching of Christ.  Reformed.” – Cyril J. Barber

“…Ridderbos… seeks to understand the preaching of Paul within the framework of the history of revelation.  In a sense the book is an introduction to Paul in that it deals with the main perspectives of his preaching an critically compares the latter with the self-disclosure of Jesus.  Although the primary aim of the work is to arrive at a clear understanding of the character of Paul’s preaching, the author carries on a continuous polemic with outstanding representatives of New Testament criticism…” – Translator’s Preface

Vos, Geerhardus – Pauline Eschatology  (Eerdmans, 1952)  355 pp.  no ToC  Reformed

Vos (1862-1949) was one of the last conservative theologians at Old Princeton, and is known as the father of reformed Biblical Theology.

“A unique and helpful study from an amillennial point of view.” – Cyril J. Barber

Bruce, F.F. – Paul: Apostle of the Heart Set Free  (1977; Paternoster, 2000)  520 pp.  ToC

Bruce (1910–1990) was an evangelical Scottish Biblical scholar and Bible commentator.

“F.F. Bruce offers in this illustrated book an exposition of all the primary themes in Paul’s thought as these developed in the historical context of his life and travels.  A remarkably even and coherent work, Bruce’s portrait of Paul is convincing from every vantage point–historical, theological, psychological, personal… A balanced and attractive book.” – The Christian Century

Nash, Ronald – The Gospel & the Greeks: Did the New Testament Borrow from Pagan Thought?  Buy  (1992; P&R, 2003)  304 pp.

Nash (1936–2006) was a philosophy professor at Reformed Theological Seminary and Southern baptist theological seminary.  He taught and wrote in the areas of worldview, apologetics, ethics, theology, and history.  He is known for his advocacy of Austrian economics and his criticism of the evangelical left.  He pastored both baptist and presbyterian churches.

“An excellent apologetic . . . showing the insuperable problems of viewing Christianity as an outgrowth of Greek philosophy, the Hellenistic mystery religions, or gnosticism.” – Robert C. Newman




“In that he saith, A new covenant, he hath made the first old. Now that which decayeth and waxeth old is ready to vanish away.”

Heb. 8:13

“Among them that are born of women there hath not risen a greater than John the Baptist: notwithstanding he that is least in the kingdom of heaven is greater than he.”

Mt. 11:11




Related Pages

New Testament Background and Introduction

New Testament Commentaries

Bible Background, Survey, Authenticity & Introduction

Biblical Theology

Old Testament Background, Survey, Authenticity & Introduction

Old Testament Theology