Order of Contents
The Holy Kiss
A Christian Directory: a Sum of Practical Theology and Cases of Conscience Buy (1673), pt. 3, Christian Ecclesiastics, Question 136, ‘How shall we know what parts of Scripture precept or example were intended for universal, constant obligations, and what were but for the time and persons that they were then directed to?’, pp. 893-4
“On the other side, narrow and temporary precepts and examples: 1. Are void of all these foresaid [universal and perpetual] characters; 2. They are about materials of temporary use; 3. Or they are but the ordering of such customs as were there before, and were proper to those countries; 4. And many speeches are plainly appropriated to the time and persons; 5. And many actions were manifestly occasional, without any intimation of reason or purpose of obliging others to imitation.
So the women’s veil and the custom of kissing each other as a token of love, and men’s not wearing long hair, were the customs of the country there ordered and improved by the apostles about sacred things, but not introduced into other countries that had no such custom.”
“Q. 13. Are not some institutions of the New Testament ceased, as unto any obligation unto their observation, and therefore now rightly disused?
A. (1.) Some symbolical tokens of moral duties occasionally used, only for present instruction in those duties, are mentioned in the Gospel, without any intention to oblige believers unto the formal constant use or repetition of them. (2.) Some temporary appointments relating unto gifts in the Church, bestowed only for a season in the first plantation of the Gospel are ceased; but (3.) No institution or command of Christ, given unto the whole Church, relating unto the Evangelical administration of the New Covenant, for the use and benefit of all believers, doth or shall cease to the end of the world, nor can be wholly omitted without a violation of the authority of Jesus Christ himself.
John 13:12-15, Rom. 16:16, 1 Cor. 16:20, 1 Tim. 5:10, Mark 6:13, Jam. 5:14, Matt. 28:20, 1 Tim. 6:14 & 1 Cor. 11:16.
Mention is made in the Scriptures of sundry things practiced by the Lord Christ and his Apostles, which being then in common use amongst men, were occasionally made by them symbolical instructions in moral duties. Such were washing of feet by one another, the holy kiss, and the like; but there being no more in them, but a sanctified use directed unto the present civil customs and usages, the commands given concerning them, respect not the outward action, nor appointed any continuance of them, being peculiarly suited unto the state of things and persons in those countries; as John 13:12-15,
“After He had washed their feet, and had taken his garments, and was set down again, He said unto them, ‘Know ye what I have done to ye, ye call me Master and Lord, and ye say well, for so I am; if I then your Lord and Master have washed your feet, ye also ought to wash one another’s feet, for I have given you an example that ye should do as I have done to you.’
‘Tis evident that it is the moral duty of brotherly love, in condescension, and mutual helpfulness to be expressed in all necessary offices as occasion doth require, that is the thing which Jesus Christ here enjoins his disciples, and leads them to by his own example in an office of love then in use in those parts. The same is to be said of the holy kiss, Rom. 16:16 which was a temporary occasional token of entire love; which may in answer thereunto, be expressed by any sober usage of salutation amongst men to the same purpose. But the things themselves were not instituted for any continuance, nor do represent any special grace of the New Covenant, which is inseparable from every institution of Gospel worship properly so called. Common usages or practises therefore, directed to be used in a due manner, and unto a proper end, where they are used, make them not institutions of worship. Neither have they in them as so commanded or directed, any one thing that concurs to the constitution of a Gospel-Ordinance: for neither had they their rise in the authority of Christ, nor is any continuance of them enjoined, nor any promise annexed unto them, nor any grace of the New Covenant represented or exhibited in them.”
Robert MacWard – p. 117 of The True Non-Conformist
Correspondence, vol. 3, Letter 184, p. 460 On the Glassites, who were Independents
Polyander, Johannes – An Oration on Christ Immanuel, whom one ought to Kiss with the Entire Veneration of the Soul in Two Orations of Johannes Polyander… (Leiden, 1618) 21 pp. on Ps. 2
Voet, Gisbert – Section 2, ‘We come now to the rite of the kiss (Rom. 16:16; 1 Cor. 16:20; 2 Cor. 13:12; 1 Thess. 5:26; 1 Pet. 5:14), of which it is queried, whether it may be a mystical or sacred rite, and have been by divine law imposed?’ in ch. 8. ‘Questions on Some Rituals in Particular…’ in Ecclesiastical Politics, vol. 1 (Amsterdam, 1663-1676), Pt 1, Bk. 2, ‘Of Ecclesiastical Things, or Acts & Exercises’, Tract 1, ‘Of Formularies, or Liturgies & Rituals’, ch. 1, ‘Of Formularies, or Liturgies’, pp. 466-471
“I respond: It was a common rite, in species and form, from custom or practice then and there received; it was accustomed to be used as a sign of love, friendship, familiarity, even of subjection, etc.
On this rite: the Philology & Antiquary of [John de] Pineda [1558–1637, a Jesuit] on Job 31:27 has informed. Out of theologians other than Pineda: Aretius, pt. 3, [Jean de] Lorinus [1559-1634, a Jesuit] and [Andrew] Rivet on Ps. 2; and Lorinus in the same has cited Joseph Stephanus in the Tractate on Kissing the Feet of the Pontiff.”, p. 466
Gyongyosi, Paul – Kisses of Love & Hate, on Song 1:2 & 6:3 & Prov. 27:6; a Dissertation on the Holy Kiss (Rom. 16:17) & its Opposite, the Kiss of Jude (Lk. 22:48) & of the Mysteries of them Illustrated by the Sacred Scriptures, by Christ the Lord of Love, Grace & Eternal Wrath… (Frankfurt, 1738) 18 pp.
Gyongyosi (1668-1743) was a German reformed professor of theology at Frankfurt, Germany.
Willemer, Johann Helvicus – Out of the Words of Ps. 2:12, ‘Kiss the Son’, Against Some of the Borne Distortions of the Jews (Wittenburg, 1704) 35 pp.
Mayer, Johann Friedrich – A Tract on Kissing the Feet of the Roman Pointiff 2nd ed. (Leipzig, 1714)
Mayer (1650-1712) was a German, Lutheran professor of theology at Wittenberg, Kiel and Greifswald.
On Foot Washing & Shaking the Dust Off of One’s Feet
Owen, John – See above on the Holy Kiss
van Mastricht, Peter – Theoretical Practical Theology (RHB), vol. 4, bk. 5, ch. 11, section 35, ‘Is Footwashing a Sacrament?’
Voet, Gisbert – Ecclesiastical Politics, vol. 1 (Amsterdam, 1663-1676), Pt 1, Bk. 2, ‘Of Ecclesiastical Things, or Acts & Exercises’, Tract 1, ‘Of Formularies, or Liturgies & Rituals’, ch. 8. ‘Questions on Some Rituals in Particular…’, Section 3
10th Problem, ‘What of the washing of feet (Jn. 13)?’, p. 481
“I respond: Of this we have discussed above in the chapter, and thus I will not repeat it here.”
Voet may be referring to the 7th problem above on the command to shake the dust of of one’s feet. Though foot-washing is not explicitly mentioned in that section, the same principles would apply.
Anointing with Oil
See also, On the 7 Sacraments of Romanism.
‘A Short Catechism on Worship: Dr. Owen’s Instruction in the Worship of God, by Way of Question and Answer; with an Explication and Confirmation of those Answers’, Question #13 1667 For the fuller context, see Owen above on the holy kiss, which section immediately precedes this section.
“Besides, there were in the first churches continued for a while certain extraordinary gifts, that had their effects visibly on the outward senses of men, and tended not immediately unto the edification of the church in their faith, but unto the conviction of others, and vindication of the authority of them by whom the gospel was preached and propagated. Such was that gift of healing the sick, which being an especial effect of the Holy-Ghost for the advantage of the Church in those days, in some places it was accompanied by anointing with oil; but this being no universal practice, and used only in the exercise of a gift extraordinary, whose use and being are long since ceased, it never was appointed nor intended to be of continuance in the Church, which is not tied by the Lord Christ to the empty signs and shadows of things whose substance is not enjoyed: besides, no spiritual grace of the Covenant was ever intimated, sealed, or exhibited by that usage of anointing with oil.
The first mention of it is, Mark 6:13 where its practice is reckoned among the effects of that extraordinary power which the Lord Christ committed unto his twelve disciples on their first sending out, and is referred unto the same series of miracles which they wrought in pursuit, and by virtue thereof, they cast out many devils, and anointed with oil many that were sick, and healed them. And by what is there recorded, the subsequent mention of it, James 5:14 is to be regulated, but now unto a real evangelical institution of worship, it is required:
(1.) That it be a command of Christ manifested by his Word, or example proposed unto our imitation, Mt. 28:20.
(2.) That it be given and enjoined unto the whole Church with the limitation of its administration expressed in the Word, 1 Cor. 11:25.
(3.) That unto the due performance of it, Gospel grace be required in them that attend unto it.
(4.) That it teach, or represent, or seal, or improve some grace of the Covenant, and have a promise of acceptation annexed unto it, and whatever is thus appointed, the Church is indispensably to continue in the observation of, unto the end of the world.”
Voet, Gisbert – Section 3, 5th Problem, ‘What is to be decided of anointings or besmearings of oil and ointments?’, p. 472 in Ecclesiastical Politics, vol. 1 (Amsterdam, 1663-1676), Pt 1, Bk. 2, ‘Of Ecclesiastical Things, or Acts & Exercises’, Tract 1, ‘Of Formularies, or Liturgies & Rituals’, ch. 8. ‘Questions on Some Rituals in Particular…’
Malcom, Howard – Theological Index... (Boston, 1868)
‘Washing the Disciples’ Feet’, p. 477-78
‘Extreme Unction’, p. 181
Robert Baillie, Dissuasive
Gangrena 1-3 parts