On Lutheranism



Lutheran Systematic Theologies



Order of Contents

Book  1
Reformed Confessions
History of Lutheranism  1
.      History of Relations with the Reformed  5
.      Historical Theology  5
May Partake of a Lutheran Lord’s Supper
Latin  24+




Turretin, Francis – Institutes of Elenctic Theology  (P&R)

Rijssen, Leonard – A Complete Summary of Elenctic Theology & of as Much Didactic Theology as is Necessary  trans. J. Wesley White  MTh thesis  (Bern, 1676; GPTS, 2009)

ch. 1, Theology

Controversy – ‘Does philosophy contradict theology?  In other words, can the same opinion be true in philosophy and false in theology while the laws of non-contradiction are maintained?  We deny against the Lutherans.’, pp. 3-4

ch. 6, Predestination

Controversy 1 over attribute 3 – ‘Is Christ the meritorious cause of our
election?  We deny against the Arminians, Papists, and Lutherans.’, pp. 60-61

Controversy 2 over attribute 3 – ‘Is sin the meritorious or moving cause of reprobation insofar as it is a decree of God?  We deny against the Arminians and others [including Lutherans].’, pp. 61-62

ch. 7, Creation

Controversy – ‘Are souls generated from parents, or is it created by God alone?  We deny the former and affirm the latter against the Lutherans.’, pp. 70-71

ch. 9, The Law, the Fall & Sin

Controversy – ‘Was man after he sinned obligated not only to punishment because of the first sin but also to perform new obedience to the law and again to punishment, if he sinned?  We affirm against the Arminians [and many Lutherans].’, pp. 87-88

ch. 11, Christ

Controversy 4 – ‘Are the properties of the divine nature such as
omnipresence, omnipotence, and adoration communicated to the human nature?  We deny against the Lutherans.’, pp. 122-23

ch. 12, Christ’s Offices

Controversy 2 – ‘Did Christ by His obedience satisfy for all the sins of each and every individual human being?  We deny against the Papists and Arminians [and Lutherans].’, pp. 133-34

Controversy 1 – ‘Is Christ’s body not only in heaven but also everywhere on earth?  We deny against the Lutherans.’, pp. 142-43

ch. 13, Conversion & Faith

Controversy 3 – ‘Are all who are called externally by the Word also called internally by God?  We deny against the same.’, pp. 146-47

ch. 14, On Justification

Controversy 9 – Is it possible, then, for truly regenerated sons of God to fall away totally and finally from faith, from the grace of God, and from remission of sins?  We deny against the Papists, Socinians, Arminians, and Lutherans.’, pp. 168-9

ch. 15, The Decalogue & Good Works

Controversy 4 on the 1st Commandment – ‘Should Christ as Mediator be worshipped?  In other words, is the mediatorial office of Christ the
foundation of the worship of Christ?  We deny against the Socinians and Arminians [and Lutherans].’, pp. 176-77

Controversy 1 on the 2nd Commandment – ‘Is it permitted to make images of God the Father, Son & Holy Spirit?  We deny against the Papists & Lutherans.’, pp. 178-9

ch. 17, The Sacraments

Controversy 6 – Is all of this [regarding exorcism at the baptism of infants] holy and good?  We deny against the Papists and Lutherans.’, pp. 230-31

Controversy 3 – ‘Should there be a circular host that should be placed in the peoples’ mouths?  We deny against the same [Papists] and the Lutherans.’, pp. 232-33

Controversy 7 on the Supper – ‘Is the true body and blood of Christ hidden in, with, and under the bread and wine and presented to communicants?  We deny against the Lutherans.’, pp. 234-5

Controversy 8 – ‘Do believers and unbelievers alike eat the body and drink the blood of Christ bodily through the mouth in the Supper?  We deny against the Papists and Lutherans.’, pp. 235-6

Controversy 9 – ‘Is the breaking of the bread something indifferent or
unnecessary?  We deny against the Lutherans and the Papists.’, pp. 236-7

Controversy 11 – ‘Should the holy Supper for convenience be celebrated by the sick in private dwellings?  We deny against the Lutherans.’, pp. 238




Beza, Theodore & Jacob Andreas – Lutheranism vs. Calvinism: The Classic Debate at the Colloquy of Montbeliard 1586  Buy  (Concordia Publishing House, 2017)

In 1586, six years after the Book of Concord was published, Lutheran theologian Jakob Andreas and the French reformed theologian Theodore Beza met to debate the differences between the two confessions.  Their debate centered on the Lord’s Supper, the person of Christ, Baptism, images and organs in churches, and predestination.  These are the classic issues between these two Protestant confessions, and this is the classic debate between two leading theologians of the second generation of the Reformation.



Reformed Confessions Responding to Lutheranism

Marburg Colloquy  1529


Mumpelgart, Colloquy of  1586

“A conference between Beza and Andrea, with a view to bring about the union of the Lutheran and Reformed churches…  The points of the controversy were: 1, the Lord’s Supper; 2, the person of Christ; 3, images and ceremonies; 4. baptism; 5, election. Beza, who had only intended to argue on the first point, was, in spite of all his efforts, obliged to discuss them all to the last…  The Lutherans published the Acta Colloquii Montisbelligartensis (Tubingen, 1587), and also a German translation of it, and an Epitome colloquii in 1588. Beza defended himself in the Responsio ad acta coll. M. (Geneva, 1587 and 1588; German, Heidelberg, 1588)…”



The History of Lutheranism

Gritsch, Eric W. – A History of Lutheranism  (Minneapolis: Fortress Press, 2002)



The History of Relations Between the Lutherans & the Reformed


Good, J.I. – The Origin of the Reformed Churches, pp. 95-110 & 207-16

“The Philippists [after the death of Melancthon, 1560], who were much more inclined toward ecumenicity with the Reformed, were not ready to go along with the Formula [of Concord, which condemend ‘Calvinists’].  Eventually, most of the Melanchthonian party joined the Reformed Church.” – J. Wesley White

Heron, Alasdair – ”If Luther Will Accept Us with Our Confession…’: The Eucharistic Controversy in Calvin’s Correspondence up to 1546′  in Calvin Studies XII: Papers Presented at a Colloquium on Calvin Studies at Erskine Theological Seminary, Due West, South Carolina, January 27–28, 2006, pp. 21–35

Kelley, Douglas

in Calvin Studies II: Presented at a Colloquium on Calvin Studies at Davidson College Presbyterian Church and Davidson College, Davidson, North Carolina, January 13–14, 1984

‘Calvin’s Defense of Luther in his Congratulations to Gabriel of Saconay’, pp. 104-08

‘Congratulations to the Venerable Presbyter, Lord Gabriel of Saconay, Precentor of the Church at Lyon, for the Beautiful and Elegant Preface the He Wrote for the Book of the King of England’, pp. 109–118

Cunningham, William – ‘Melancthon & the Theology of the Church of England’  in The Reformers & the Theology of the Reformation  (Edinburgh: T&T Clark, 1862), p. 149 ff.  62 pp.

Selderhuis, Herman J.

Selderhuis, Herman J. – ‘Calvinismus Heidelbergensis: The Heidelberg Theological Faculty & the Discussions about Predestination, 1583–1622’  in Calvin Studies XII: Papers Presented at a Colloquium on Calvin Studies at Erskine Theological Seminary, Due West, South Carolina, January 27–28, 2006, pp. 55–71

This deals heavily with Lutheran criticisms of the Reformed over predestination, and their relations in general at Heidelberg in Germany.

Luther Totus Noster Est: the Reception of Luther’s Thought at Heidelberg Theological Faculty, 1583-1622′  in Mid-America Journal of Theology 17 (2006):101-120



Cross, Richard – Communicatio Idiomatum: Reformation Christological Debates in Changing Paradigms in Historical & Systematic Theology  Buy  (Oxford Univ. Press, 2019)  276 pp.

Cross has been a professor of philosophy at Notre Dame.

“It traces the central contours of the Christological debates, from the discussion between Luther and Zwingli in the 1520s to the Colloquy of Montbeliard in 1586…  Cross shows that Luther’s Christology is thoroughly Medieval, and that innovations usually associated with Luther-in particular, that Christ’s human nature comes to share in divine attributes-should be ascribed instead to his younger contemporary Johannes Brenz. The discussion is highly sensitive to the differences between the various Luther groups-followers of Brenz, and the different factions aligned in varying ways with Melanchthon-and to the differences between all of these and the Reformed theologians. By locating the Christological discussions in their immediate Medieval background, Cross also provides a comprehensive account of the continuities and discontinuities between the two eras. In these ways, it is shown that the standard interpretations of the Reformation debates on the matter are almost wholly mistaken.”



Historical Theology on Lutheran Orthodoxy

See also, Lutheran Systematic Theologies.


On the Whole of Lutheran Doctrine

Schmid, Heinrich – The Doctrinal Theology of the Evangelical Lutheran Church Verified from the Original Sources  trans. Charles A. Hay & Henry E. Jacobs (Philadelphia: Lutheran Publication Soceity, 1876)  690 pp.

This is an anthology in the order of the topics of a systematic theology from the primary souces of Post-Reformation Lutheran scholasticism, most of which sources are only otherwise in Latin.  It is akin to what Heinrich Heppe did for the older reformed writers in his Reformed Dogmatics.

Preus, Robert D. – The Theology of Post-Reformation Lutheranism, vol. 1 (Prolegomena, Scripture), 2 (God, Trinity, Creation, Providence, Science)  (St. Louis: Concordia, 1970-72)  ToC 1, 2

Preus (1924–1995) was a conservative, American, Lutheran, pastor, professor, author and seminary president.

This work is for Lutheranism what Richard Muller’s later Post-Reformation Reformed Dogmatics has been for reformed historical theology (but written before Muller’s work).


On Particular Doctrines

On Inspiration


The Inspiration of Scripture: a Study of the Theology of the 17-Century Lutheran Dogmaticians  (Concordia, 2003)  235 pp.  ToC



‘A Response to ‘The Inspiration and Inerrancy of the Holy Scriptures’ by Dr. Howard Tepker’  (1975)  42 pp.


On Justification


‘Justification as Taught by Post-Reformation Lutheran Theologians’  (1982)  20 pp.

An anthology of quotations of classic, Lutheran theologians from the age of Lutheran Orthodoxy (1580-1730), in order to defend Objective Justification against its detractors.



Latin Articles


Calvin, John – A Pacific Letter of Calvin to Luther, Written in the Time of the Reformation, 1545, which was interrrupted by the death of Luther [in 1546], Philip Melanchthon sent forth again with an intact seal…  (d. 1564; 1722)  3 pp.

Tossanus, Daniel – Theological Theses on these Three Questions Now so Agitated: 1. How ought the True Christian Religion to be Defined & Known?  2. Whether the Work by these Appellations, ‘Lutherans’ & ‘Calvinists’, may be Distinguished into True & False Religion?  3. What then may be the Cause of Animosity & so much Exasperation of Some Against Them who are Called Calvinists, & Whether they are Worthy of such Animosity?  Proposed to be Disputed in the Renowned Academy of Heidelberg  (Heidelberg: Abraham Smesmann, 1593)  29 pp.

Tossanus (1541-1602) was a French Reformed theologian.



Goclenius, Rudolf – Disputation 4, Containing a Sum of the Controversy & Colloquy Between Dr. Luther & Dr. Zwingli, etc. Held in Marburg [Germany] in the Principal Castle…  (Marburg, 1610)  16 pp.

Goclenius (1547-1628)

Erni, Heinrich – A Class of [30] Theses, First Disputation: The Sophisms which the Papists & Lutherans Gather Together on the Doctrine of the Sacrament of the Most Holy Eucharist, Contra the Sensible Principles of Philosophy, are Ventilated & Exposited  (Zurich: Wolphius, 1611)  8 pp.

Erni (1565-1639) was a reformed professor of philology, logic and theology at Zurich.

Spanheim, Jr., Frederic – ‘The Principle Controversies with Augsburgians [Lutherans], Commonly Called Confessional Theologians’, pp. 305-69  in A Historical-Theological Chain of Select Controversies on Religion…  (Leiden, 1683)

Spanheim, Jr. (1632-1701) was a German reformed professor of theology at Heidelberg and Leiden, and son of Frederic Spanheim, Sr. (d. 1649).

Meier, Gerhard – The Mild Judgments of the Papists & Reformers on Luther the Divine  (d. 1695; Bremae, [n.d.])  12 pp.

Meier (1616-1695) was a reformed professor of theology at Bremen, Germany.  This is a collection of positive quotes about Luther from many various theologians.



A Christian (Reformed or Otherwise), with Right Knowledge, may Partake of a Lutheran Lord’s Supper


Peter van Mastricht

Theoretical Practical Theology  (RHB), vol. 5, bk. 7, ch. 5, section 25



Latin Books


Zwingli, Ulrich – Friendly Exegesis, that is, an Exposition of the Business of the Eucharist, to Martin Luther  ([Zürich]: [Christoph Froschauer d. Ä.], 1527)  178 pp.  ToC

Zwingli (1484-1531)

Barnaud, Nicolas – A Dialogue, by which is Largely Expounded what has Fallen Out with the Lutherans & the French Huguenots  (Organiae: Adamus de Monte, 1573)  170 pp.  Index

Barnaud (c.1530-1607) was a French reformed writer, physician, alchemist and monarchomach (tyrant-fighter).

Beza, Theodore –  The Response of Theodore Beza to the Acts of the Colloquy of Montisbelgard, the Tubingen Edition  Parts 1 (2nd ed.) & 2 (1st ed.) bound together  (Geneva, 1588)

Part 1  1-186

Preface  3

On the Lord’s Supper  29

First is given the written theses of Jacob Andrea and the Lutherans, then Beza’s response.  In the margin is Andrea’s response to Beza from the previously printed Acts.  Then Beza’s more extended response to Andrea’s marginalia is given.  The various theses and documents are proceeded through in this way.

On the Person of Christ  78

Part 2

Preface  3

On Papal Church Buildings, on Images, on Musical Instruments in the Church Building & of their Reformation  17

On Cleansing, Using or Tearing Down Church Buildings Formerly used for Idolatry  17  Thesis 1

On Images which Represent Historical & Sacred Things  18  Theses 2-7

On Musical Instruments  36  Thesis 8

On Baptism  41

On the Distinction of Mortal & Venial Sins  68

In what sense it may be said that infants believe and of the effects of that faith which may be in infants dying before adult years  96

Whether in the case of extreme necesity women may baptize infants?  125

On the Use of Papal Church Buildings & Images  145

On Predestination  147

On the Foreknowledge, Will & Decree of God about the Fall of Adam  152

In which Sense God does Not Will the Death of a Sinner  168

Beza quotes Augustine distinguishing between man as a created man, versus as he is a sinner.  God takes no pleasure in the death of men as men, but as sinners, as it illustrates his hatred of sin and the vindication of his glory.

An Explication of Mt. 23:37 and a Conciliation of External & Internal Calling Appearing Repugnant to Each Other  169

On the Distinction of Will of Sign [the Revealed Will] & of Good-Pleasure [the Decree]  173

On Eze. 18  196

Persons sin neither by a natural necessity, nor by even a necessity (whether elect or reprobate), on account of the event of eternal predestination, or, Contingency is Taken Up.  202

On Jn. 3:16  211
On Jn. 2:2  214
On Mt. 11:28  221
On Rom. 11:32  222
On 2 Pet. 3:9  230



Hospinian, Rudolf

The Second Part of the History of the Sacrament, on the Origin & Progress of the Sacramental Controversy on the Lord’s Supper Between the Lutherans, Called Ubiquitists & the Orthodox, & the Zwinglians or the Calvinsts, so-called, having Arisen from 1517-1602, in which even is Treated the Origin & Progress of Ubiquity & the Book of Concord  (Zurich, 1602)  403 pp.  Index  The first volume was against the Romanist view of the sacraments from pre-Reformation history.

Hospinian (1547-1626) was a Swiss reformed curate, theologian and controversialist.  The Lutheran Book of Concord (1577) condemns ‘Calvinists’ by name.

After sections on Luther, the Liturgy of Luther, Zwingli, the Liturgy of Zwingli, the doctrine of Zwingli about the Supper, Hospinian’s work proceeds year by year through the history, starting with 1524.  Subheadings on important subjects are interspersed through the annual history, such as, the Larger Lutheran Confession (1528), on the Origin of Ubiquity, the Marburg Colloquy (1529), on the Confession of the Four Imperial Cities (Tigur), the Confession of Zwingli, the Epistle of Bucer to George the Elector, the Acts of Concord between Luther, Upper Germany, & the Swiss Churches (1534), the Acts & Writings following the Wittenburg Concord, Three Epistles of Melanchthon, the Confession of Bucer to Bullinger (1544), on Joachim Westphal, the Acts of the Colloquy of Wormat on the Sacramental Cause (1557), on the Change of Religion in Germany under the Elector Frederick III, the death of Melancthon (1560), Acts & Writings Following the Death of Melanchthon, a Disputation on the Supper at Heidelberg (1560), the Renovation & Progress of the Controversy on Ubiquity a little before the death of Melancthon & After, Books & Writings in & After the Renovation of Ubiquity on the Sacramental Cause, on the Persecution of Albert Hardenberg, due to the Orthodox Opinion on the Lord’s Supper & the Disapproval of Ubiquity, the Colloquy of Poissy in France on Religion, the Decrees of Trent (1562), the Power of the Church around the Dispensation of the Eucharist (Trent), the Disagreement between Marbach & Zanchi, the Colloquy of Mulbrun (1564), the 2nd Helvetic Confession (1566), the Belgic Confession (1566), on the Polish Churches, the Refutation of the Theses of Jacob Schegk, the Confession of Elector Frederick III Illustrated after his Death, the Disputation at Heidelberg after the death of the Elector Ludwig (1584), the Colloquy of Mompelgard (1586), the Contest of the Belgic Ambassadors, & on the Christian Elector of Saxony’s Remarkable Endeavors to Propagate the True Religion (1591).

The Discordant Concord, that is, One Book on the Origin & Progress of the Formula of Concord of Bergen…  for the Orthodox Churches  (1607; Geneva, 1678)  494 pp.  57 Chs.  No ToC  Index

Pareus, David – A Christian Admonition about Peaceableness, or a Book by a Vow…  on the Union, Synod & Syncretism between Evangelicals, that is Lutherans & Calvinists, Established in 1614, Divulged  (Tubingen, 1616)  744 pp.  ToC

Pareus was against the accommodated union of the Reformed and Lutherans in 1614 in Germany.  Book 1, ‘On the Means’, pp. 1-88, surveys the history of relations since the Reformation between the reformed and the Lutherans that lead up to the union.

Book 2, ‘On Syncretism’, pp. 88-283, first asks whether such a “pious syncretism in coming together, mutually tolerated,” is possible and ought to be.  Then Pareus examines 8 “pretenses” for such a union.  The last chapter argues that if those pretenses held, then the Calvinists ought to form such a union with the Papists.

Book 3 is ‘On the Removal of the Impediments’, pp. 283-744.  Here is the outline:

Ch. 1, ‘On the Disagreements of the Lutherans & Calvinists, whether they are Many & Irreconciliable?’  283

Ch. 2, ‘On the Articles [of Difference] Between the Lutherans & Calvinists in general’  301

Ch. 3, ‘On the Articles in Specific’  303

1. Of the Merit of Christ  303
2. Of the Fall of Adam  323
3. Of the Cause of Sin  338
4. Of the Omnipotence of God  376
5. Of the Immensity of God  389
6. On the End of the Creation of All Men  400
7. On the Will of God to Save Men  427
8. On the Loss of Grace & Faith  465
9. On the Children of Christians  491
10. On the Evangelical Promises  506
11. On the Communication of the Natures with respect to the Person of Christ  541
12. On the Communication of Properties with respect to the Person of Christ  558
13. On the Omnipresence of Christ the Man  570
14. On the Power of Christ the Man by which He did Miracles  597
15. On the Adoration of Christ, God & Man  622
16. Of the Presence of the Body & Blood of Christ in the Supper  651
17. On Private Absolution  674
18. On the Augsburg Confession  689

Ch. 4, ‘Of the Paradoxes & Pretexts which the Lutherans Hold’  718-44

Crocius, Ludovicus

An Assertion of the Augsburg Confession, in which Simultaneously is a Censure of the Collation, Exegesis & Anti-Crociusness of [Balthasar] Mentzer’s Writings [a major Lutheran]  (Bremen, 1622)  659 pp.  There is a table of contents on the left-side column.  The work contains 7 disputations, then 6 more and 4 more, all on various chapters of the Augsburg Confession contra Mentzer.

Crocius (1586-1655) was a German reformed professor of theology at Bremen, Germany.

Mentzer I (1565-1627) was a Lutheran professor of theology at Marburg and Giessen, Germany.

On the Perseverance of the Saints, in 7 Books, Dogmatic & Apologetic, in which, simultaneously, the eternal predestination, reprobation and grace of God, and the free choice and conversion of man to God, out of the sacred letters, fathers, scholastic doctors & recent theologians, that is ours, the Lutherans and those of the papists, are discussed, against the deserted Hymenaeus and the hyperaspisten of Peter Bertius [an Arminian], professor of Leiden, on the Apostasy of the Saints  (Bremen [Germany], Typis Thomae Villeriani, 1616)  872 pp.  ToC

Alsted, Johann Heinrich – Polemical Theology…  (Hanau, 1620; 1627)

Part 5, ‘An Examination of the Controversies which are now agitated in these times between Evangelicals, which are commonly called Lutherans and Calvinists’, 575

Class 1, Preliminary Controversies   575

I. ‘Whether these names, Lutheran, Calvinist and similar things ought to be approved?’ 575

II. ‘Whether Calvinists & Lutherans come together in the foundation of salvation so that they are able to say that they are brothers in these things?’  577

III. ‘Which then are the apocryphal books of the New Testament?’  578

IV. ‘What ought to be the Judgment on the Augsburg Confession?’  580

V. ‘What ought to be established by the Book of Concord?’  581

VI. ‘What ought to be established regarding religious peace?’  584

Class 2, Controversies about the Decalogue  586

I. ‘How many are the catechetical [elementary] heads [of doctrine]?’   586

II. ‘Whether all the words of the Decalogue are to be recited [in families, schools and churches]?  [Lutherans: No; Reformed: Yes]’   586

III. ‘Whether the command about images may be an appendix to the First Commandment?  [Lutherans: Yes; Reformed: No]’  588

IV. ‘Whether those words of the Decalogue, ‘For I the Lord thy God am jealous…’ pertain to the Second Commandment?  [Lutherans: No; Reformed: Yes]’  591

V. ‘Whether beneficial images are able to be tolerated by the conscience?  [Lutherans: Yes; Reformed: No]’   591

VI. ‘Whether images in church-buildings are to be relinquished?  [Lutherans: No; Reformed: Yes]’  594

VII. ‘Whether all and each of the words of the Fourth Commandment are to be recited?  [Lutherans: No; Reformed: Yes]’  595

VIII. ‘Whether the feasts of the apostles and other saints are to be celebrated?  [Lutherans: Yes; Reformed: No]’   595

IX. ‘Whether the Command about concupiscence [the 10th] may be only one [as opposed to two]?  [Lutherans: No; Reformed: Yes]  596

X. ‘Whether God may be the Author of Sin by the doctrine of Calvinists?  [Lutherans: Yes; Reformed: No]’  597

XI. ‘Whether Zwingli rightly taught on Original Sin?’  598

XII. ‘Whether the children of the faithful, before the undergoing of baptism, may have been sanctified?’  599

XIII. ‘Whether good works are necessary to salvation?’   599

Class 3, Controversies about the Creed  600

I. ‘Whether evangelical promises are universal? [We distinguish]’  600

II. ‘Whether God created men to condemnation?  In no way.’  602

III. ‘In what way the name of Jesus ought to be honored?’  603

IV. ‘Of the person of the Son of God, whether truly his divine nature may have been incarnated?  Not properly the nature, but the eternal person of the Word is incarnate.’  604

V. ‘Whether the Logos so be in flesh that it further may be outside the flesh? [Yes]’  605

VI. ‘[Regarding Christ-incarnate] What kinds of predications may be expressed with regard to God about man and man about God?’  606

VII. ‘What may be the communication of properties?’  607

VIII. ‘Whether the communication of properties may be real?  The Orthodox: It is real, that is, true; but it is not real, that is, such that it is an effusion of properties.’  608

IX. ‘Whether the divine majesty and glory may have been given to the human nature of Christ?  [No]’  610

X. ‘Whether the actions of Christ’s office are common to the natures?’  622

XI. ‘Whether the obedience of Christ, both active and passive, may be imputed to us for righteousness? [Yes]’  623

XII. ‘Whether the intercession of Christ is restricted solely to the elect?’  624

XIII. ‘Whether the state of humiliation may concern even the deity of Christ?’  624

XIV. ‘Whether Christ, by the exaltation, something may follow that He did not have before?’  625

XV. ‘What is to be made of Zwingli’s error about the salvation of the noble heathens?  This is a grave error.’  626

XVI. ‘Whether Christ may be locally in Heaven? [Yes]’  626

XVII. ‘What sitting at the right hand of God may signify?’  627

XVIII. ‘According to what nature Christ may be exalted?’  628

XIX. ‘Whether angels are included in the Church? [Yes]’  629

XX. ‘Whether Calvinists rightly [according to Lutherans] receive innovations in ceremonies?  [No]’  630

XXI. ‘Whether there are two parts of justification?  [Yes]’  631

XXII. ‘Whether predestination and election are synonymous?  [No]’  632

XXIII. ‘Whether Christ is the meritorious cause of election?  The merit of Christ is that indeed the cause of salvation, but not of eternal election.‘  633

XXIV. ‘Whether the purpose and good-pleasure of God, and election are one?  They do not differ without reason.’  634

XXV. ‘Whether even angels are the object of election?  [Yes]’   634

XXVI. ‘Whether the decree of election is absolute?  [Yes]’  634

XXVII. ‘Whether God according to his purpose may seriously and entirely seek or desire the salvation of all men? [Distinguished]’  636

XXVIII. ‘Whether Christ, according to the purpose of God, died and wholly made satisfaction for all men having sinned? [No]’  637

XXIX. ‘Whether according to the universal purpose of God the merit of Christ ought to be wholly offered to all men by the preaching of the Gospel? Indeed it ought to.’  639

XXX. ‘Whether faith may be the cause of election? Faith is the cause of salvation, not election; it is the effect of election.’  640

XXXI. ‘Whether the decree of reprobation may be absolute? [Yes]’  641-46

Class 4, Controversies about the Lord’s Prayer  647

I. ‘Whether musical instruments are to be played for psalms in the Church?’  647

II. ‘Whether ‘Pater noster’ [‘Father our’] may and ought to be said in the German idiom, even as ‘Our Father’ [Noster pater]?  It may be said either way; inverted it is the same; the sense remains the same even still.’  648

III. ‘How many are the petitions of the Lord’s Prayer?  [Six, not seven]’  649

IV. ‘Is the Conclusion of the Lord’s Prayer, which is said in way of confirmation, rightly omitted?  [No]’  650

Class 5, Controversies on the Sacraments in General  650

I. ‘Are the sacraments by the means of declaring?  [Yes]’  650

II. ‘What is the form of the sacraments?’  651

III. ‘Whether faith is required for the form or substance of the sacraments?  [Distinguished]’  652

IV. ‘Whether the sacraments are organs or instruments conferring divine grace?  [Distinguished]’  653

V. ‘In what way do the sacraments of the Old and New Testament differ?’  654

VI. ‘Whether Absolution [Oral Confession & Repentance to a Minister] is rightly placed in the Augsburg Confession with the New Testament sacraments?  [No]’  655

Class 6, Controversies on Baptism  655

I. ‘Whether it may be allowed for a private person, whether male or female, to administer baptism?  [No]’  655

II. ‘Whether water must necessarily pertain in baptism?  [No]’  656

III. ‘What does baptism provide and mean [praestet]?’  657

IV. ‘Whether the children of Christians may be born set apart?  [Yes]’  658

V. ‘Whether all infants of Christians which pass away without baptism are saved?  [All of the elect are.]’  658

VI. ‘Whether exorcism ought to be joined with baptism?  [No]’  658

VII. ‘In what place ought baptism to be performed?  Baptism ought ordinarily to be performed in a public place where indeed there is the religious exercise of persons [as opposed to private places].’  659

Class 7, Controversies on the Holy Supper  660

I. ‘Whether the sacred Supper is rightly terms ‘the Sacrament of the altar’?  [No]’  660

II. ‘What is the matter of the sacred Supper?’  661

III. ‘Whether Christ according to both natures may be truly present in sacred Supper?’  Christ is truly present in the sacred Supper according to each nature, but not corporally.’  661

IV. ‘What kind of bread is to be used in the sacred Supper?’  [Common bread, or in necessity, something befitting the spiritual design of the institution]  662

V. ‘Whether ‘hosts’, so-called, are to be used in the sacred Supper?’  [No]  662

VI. ‘Whether the breaking of bread may be necessary in the sacred Supper?  [Yes as far as what is obliged, but no as to the essence of the Supper]’  663

VII. ‘In what way the bread ought to be held forth to be received, whether by the hands, or solely by the mouth?’  664

VIII. ‘Whether it be necessary that wine be used in the sacred Supper?  [Not in necessity; something else answering the spiritual insitution may be used.]’  665

IX. ‘What concerning chalices ought to be established in the sacred Supper?  [The material of it is indifferent.]’  665

X. ‘What kind of body and what kind of blood is meant in the words of the Supper?  [Christ’s natural body and blood; it is the bread and wine that are sacramental figures of that.]’  666

XI. ‘What is the sacramental union?’  666

XII. ‘Of what kinds are the sacramental predications?  [Metonymical]’  667

XIII.  ‘What is the form of the Lord’s Supper?’  668

XIV. ‘Whether the body of Christ is present corporally in the Supper?  The body of Christ truly is present in the sacred Supper, but not corporally; it truly is sacramentally, insofar as it is partaken of by faith in the Word of promise.’  669

XV. ‘Whether the body of Christ is chewed in, with and under the bread?  [By no means]’  673

XVI. ‘Who are named unworthy in this matter?  Those that do not rightly prepare themselves.  [Not those who do not believe the word of institution.]’  673

XVII. ‘Whether unbelievers partake of the body of Christ?  Not at all, because they are not endowed with true faith, by which only one may feed upon the body of Christ, John 6.’  673

XVIII. ‘Whether those fasting are only to be admitted to the sacred Supper?  This is free and indifferent.’  674

XIX. ‘In what place is the sacred Supper to be administered?  Ordinarily in the public assembly of the Church;”  674


Wendelin, Marcus Friedrich

Vindicatory Theological Exercises for Christian Theology…  Opposite the Anti-Wendeliana Collection by Johann Gerhard & Other Festering Writings of Recent Lutherans Against the Orthodox, by which All and Each Theological Controversy between the Orthodox & the Lutherans is so far Plainly Treated, & Solidly & Logically Broken Down by the Truth of Orthodox Doctrine…  vol. 1 (1-69), 2 (70-139)  ToC

Table of Contents
vol. 1

1. The truth in the Word of God, according to the orthodox, remains immovable, without any true contradiction or hostile fight of the divine language with the mind.

2. It is conveniently shown regarding the thing alleged, even the words of Luther from his commentary on Genesis, and respecting the doctrine of the Church, that the latter is not to be judged by only one and another opinion of a doctor, but rather it is supported by symbolical books or the consent of the Church.

3. The efficacy of the divine Word is asserted:  Schwenckfeldianism is condemned: the cavillations and small exceptions are knocked out

4. The doctrine of the secret will of God, and the revealed will of sign and good-pleasure, is further explicated and asserted

5. The orthodox doctrine on the mercy of God, having been covered over, is repaired, conserved and set forth; the opinion about the ubiquity of the human nature, as to the essence, is explicated; the animadversion being taught in Graverus is vindicated, that three divine persons are the essence itself of God, absolutely considered.

6. It is shown that angels are rightly and theologically referred to amongst objects of predestination.

7. Predestination in election and reprobation, rightly distinguished, is taught.

8. The orthodox doctrine on the impulsive cause of election is asserted.

9. Responses to arguments of Lutherans for foreknown faith are vindicated.

10. The orthodox doctrine about the diverse respects in which the decree of election is absolute and not absolute is asserted.

11. Solutions to arguments out of Eckhardt for supporting causes of the gracious decree, in a bundle of things brought forward, are vindicated.

12. The orthodox doctrine on the object of election, as considering quality and quantity, is vindicated.

13. Solutions to arguments in which the Lutherans endeavor to prove an antecedent will of God respecting the salvation of all men, are vindicated.

14. Consequences drawn out of the Lutheran doctrine of the universal will to save every and each person, under the condition of faith in Christ, are vindicated.

15. The orthodox doctrine of the immutability and certainty of election, and the certain and definite number of the elect, is vindicated.

16. Arguments which have been brought for supporting the efficient, principal cause of reprobation are vindicated.

17. The orthodox doctrine on the impulsive cause of reprobation is vindicated, where is of the decree, in a diverse respect, being absolute and not absolute.

18. The orthodox doctrine of the object of reprobation is vindicated: on universal mercy, on the end of reprobation, on the absolute decree, on the immutability of reprobation.

19. The orthodox doctrine of hardening is vindicated.

20. On the efficient cause of creation.

21. On the material of creation.

22. On the empyrean heaven.

23. The orhtodox doctrine is asserted on the image of God and is vindicated from the cavils of animadversions.

24. The orthodox doctrine on the end of the creation of man is defended.


A Collation of the Christian Doctrine of the Reformed & Lutherans Set Forth in Theological Places & Explicated & Asserted by Questions & Responses to the Lutherans, by which the Judgment of the Reformed is Submitted & thus the Consensus & Disagrement of Both Parties in the Christian Religion is Demonstrated; & Thus is Shown that it is Unfair to Accuse & Condemn the Reformed of Overturning the Foundation, & their Absolution before the Divine Tribunal is Shown to be Certain  (Kassel: Schadewitzius, 1660)  534 pp.  ToC

Wendelin (1584-1652)

Table of Contents


A Demonstration that the Reformed are not able to be Justly Accused by the Lutherans of Overturning the Foundation of the Christian Faith; Sought out from all the Places of Theology, as have been Explicated here [in this Preface]  1

1. Sacred Scripture  41
2. God One & Three  56
3. Two Natures & of Their Hypostatic Union in the One Person of Christ the Savior  57 [Irregular Numbering]
4. Creation  101
5. Good & Evil Angels  107
6. Image of God in Man, or Original Righteousness  122
7. Divine Providence  126
8. Sin in General & in Specific  139
9. Free Choice, or of the Powers of Man  160
10. Law of God  177
11. Gospel  194
12. Justification of a Human Sinner before God  203
13. Predestination  220
14. Good Works  268
15. Repentance & Confession  282
16. The Ecclesiastical Ministry & Ordination  298
17. The Church  305
18. Christian Liberty & Ecclesiastical Rites or of Indifferent Things  323
19. Sacraments in General  337
20. Baptism  351
21. Lord’s Supper  368
22. Sacrifices & the Papal Mass  429
23. Scandal  439
24. The Cross & Consolations  442
25. Prayer  446
26. Monastic Vows & Evangelical Counsels  454
27. Magistracy & Civil Things  461
28. Marriage & the Marriage of Priests  470
29. Death of the Body & the Immortality of the Soul  478
30. End of the Age, or of the World  484
31. Resurrection of the Dead  490
32. The Last Judgment & Advent of Christ to Judge the Living & the Dead  495
33. Hell  503
34. Life Eternal  520

Maccovius, Johannes – Johannes Maccovius Revived, or Manuscripts of his…  ed. Nicolaas Arnoldi  (Amsterdam, 1659)

‘An Examination of the Lutheran Controversies’, pp. 577-94  in The False First-Principles of the Papists, Socinians, Lutherans, Arminians, Anabaptists…

Maccovius (1588-1644).  This work contra the distinctives of Lutheranism is laid out in 15 chapters in the order of a systematic theology.

Table of Contents

1. Sacred Scripture  577
2. God  579
3. Human Nature of Christ  580
4. The Personal Union & the Communication of Properties  581
5. Sin  585
6. Law & Gospel  586
7. Sacraments  587
8. Faith  587
9. Predestination  587
10. Repentance & Justification  589
11. Sacraments  589
12. Baptism  590
13. Eucharist  592
14. Indifferent Things  593
15. Life Eternal  594

‘Anti-Eckhardus’  [Heinrich Eckhardi 1580-1624]

1. Scripture  633

1. ‘Whether philosophy is a principle of demonstration in questions of theology?’  633
2. ‘Whether Calvinists sincerely believe and certainly establish the Word of God to be of undoubtable and immovable truth?’
3. ‘Whether theology transcends logical rules.’  634
4. ‘Whether Dr. Luther may deserve an excuse for repudiating the apostolic epistles of James & Jude at times?’ [Yes & No]
5. Whether confirmation of the Christian faith ought to be sought, expected or learned elsewhere than from Scripture?’  634

2. God  634

1. ‘Whether the term ‘tretragrammaton‘, or ‘Jehova’ is proper soli to the one God?  We affirm’

2. ‘Whether God has a genus?’

“A genus by analogy is attributed to God, but it is not said properly.”

3. ‘Whether God may be preached with respect to persons, and so have a genus?’

4. ‘Whether the mystery of the most holy Trinity is able to be known by being lead by reasons and from natural light?’

“We do not approve that out of Keckerman, that the most holy Trinity may be known by the light of nature.”

5. ‘Whether the divine essence may bear the essence? [No]’

6. ‘Whether the divine persons really differ? [We distinguish]’

7. ‘Whether Calvinists may sincerely believe in the omnipotence of God?’

8. ‘Whether the doctrine of the mercy of God may be retained in the schools of the Calvinists, being patched and covered over?

10. ‘Whether in the broad meaning God may be called a father of all people?’

 “We do not deny, nor does Beza, as it is callumniated.”

3. Human Nature of Christ  636
4. The Personal Union  637
5. On Personal Propositions  639
6. Communication of Properties  639

1. ‘Whether the communication of properties may be verbal?’  639
2. ‘Whether the communication of properties may be figurative?’  640
3. ‘Whether, with respect to the definition of the communication of properties, the proper genus having been sought out, may be preached?’  640
4. ‘Whether the communication of properties may be so constructed and understood in the concrete.’  641
5. ‘Whether the genuses of the communication of properties are distinct?’  641
6. ‘Whether really or verbally only, or ketikos [Greek], God is said to have suffered for us?  641
7. ‘Whether koinopoiesis [Greek, a communion of effects], or the communication of effects, may be a grade of the communication of properties?’  642
8. ‘Whether the doctrine of the communion of effects of the Calvinists may be the consensus of the decrees of the Synod of Chalcedon?’  642
9. ‘Whether the gifts communicated to the human nature of Christ by the personal union were only created and finite, or whether those essential properties of divinity and gifts may be infinite?’  642
10. ‘Whether Infinite power may have been joined to Christ the man?’  644
11. ‘Whether Christ as man may have universal power and a full knowledge of all things?’  644
12. ‘Whether the human nature of Christ with respect to the person, the Logos, ought to be religiously worshipped? [No]’  646

“Truly not….  further this we say, Christ, as He is Mediator, is not to be religiously adored in worship; and that we say with Zanchi, Cameron and the Leiden professors…”

13. ‘Whether Christ according to the flesh may have been given judicial power over the living and the dead?’  647
14. ‘Whether the flesh of Christ may be life-giving?’  647
15. ‘Whether Christ after the Ascension may be present by his body with his militant Church in these lands?’  647
16. ‘Whether the presence of Christ is bounded in the lands to only the limit of the Church, or whether, further, it even encompasses other creatures?’  649

7. On Some Other Articles of the Apostles’ Creed Concerning Christ  651

1. On the Nativity
2. On the Obedience of Christ
3. On the Descent to Inferos
4. On the Resurrection
5. Of the Ascension to Heaven
6. Of the Session at the Right Hand

8. Holy Spirit  653

‘Whether the Holy Spirit may remain in them which after the gift of regeneration is recevied, they live in sins contrary to conscience?’

9. On Liberty in Acting [or Doing]  653

“Whether all comes to be by absolute necessity?  [In a divided sense, no; in a composite sense, yes.]

10. Sin  654

I. “Whether sin may be in infants, that is called ‘Original’?  We affirm.”

II. “Whether God is the cause of sin?  This question from itself is ineptly propounded…  On the contrary, nothing such is taught by our theologians.”

III. “Whether God may have willed, approved or effected the Fall of Adam?…   Indeed we do not say that God approved to will the sin of Adam, but we say that He willingly permitted it.”

IV. “Whether the reborn having been sinning against conscience may cut off the grace of God, faith and the Holy Spirit?”

V. “Whether reigning sin may occur in the regenerate?  The Holy Spirit repudiates this question, Rom. 6:14 to the end.”  657

VI. “Whether the distinction of sin into mortal and venial is able to be tolerated?”  657

“This distinction is inept.  Indeed, all sins merit eternal death; and if it may happen to be remitted, the sins of all the regenerate are of the sort that that is not from the nature of the sin, but out of the grace of God whereby we are embraced in Christ.”

Appendix: On the Traduction of the Soul  [Contra]  657

11. Law  657

1. ‘Whether in the First Table of the Law, four commands ought to be numbered, in the Second, six; or whether in the First, three, in the Second, seven?’  657

2. ‘Whether it may be a sacriligious thing that Luther, in his Smaller Catechism, left out the words on images?’  658

3. ‘Whether the Church may be bound to copying off Ex. 20 precisely in the recitation of the Decalogue, so that it be an impious deed to stray from it in any way?’  658

4. ‘Whether in the command on images, besides adoration, it may further prohibit making them?  I respond: it ought to be affirmed…’  658

12. Gospel  659

I. ‘Whether the promisses of the Gospel are merely particular?  [Distinguished]’

II. ‘Whether the Gospel exposes sin?  [Distinguished]’

13. Difference of the Sacraments of the Old & New Testament  659

‘Whether the sacraments are the same in each testament?  [What they signify is the same; they are different in their number, clarity and in the O.T. they were more burdensome.]’  659

14. Saving Faith

1. ‘Whether infants having been baptized may have faith?’  660
2. ‘Whether a believer is properly of the elect?’  661

15. Predestination  662

I. ‘Whether reprobation is even able to be called predestination?  [Yes, though distinguished]’

II. ‘Whether God wills the salvation of all men?’  He affirms it; we deny it.’

III. ‘Whether there is a certain will in God on the mystery of our salvation that is even secret and hidden?  Eckhardi denies.’

IV. ‘Whether God may have created reprobates to eternal destruction?  He denies; we affirm.’

V. ‘Whether God sent his Son to redeem for all men?  He affirms.’

VI. ‘Whether the satisfaction of Christ is universal?  We deny; he affirms.’

VII. ‘Whether God wills all men to come together unto the society of the Kingdom of Heaven to enjoy the benefits imparted by Christ, to come up to a saving knowledge of the truth and to be participators in divine grace?  [Distinguished]’

VIII. ‘Whether all which God calls by the Word, are seriously called to the end of salvation?  [He affirms.]’  668

IX. ‘Whether the looking-back of faith may come even up to the decree of election?  It ought to be known…’  669

X. ‘Whether election may be made [by God] by looking at the merit of Christ [that is, are all those elected that Christ purchased salvation for]?  [Distinguished]’  670

XI. ‘Whether election is made according to foreknowledge?  [Distinguished]’  670

XII. ‘Whether predestination may be absolute?  [Distinguished]’  670

XIII. ‘Whether reprobation is absolute?  We respond similarly as in the prior question.’  670

XIV. ‘Whethre the number of the elect and damned may be determined? [Yes]’  671

16. On Repentance  671

17. On Justification  671

I. ‘Whether Calvinists patch and cover over their relative retaining of the doctrine of the apostle of a free remission [by stating that works are necessary to salvation]?  It is denied and he calumniates…  We, with the Word of God, say that good works are necessary to salvation, by a necessity of presence, not by a necessity of efficiency.’  671

II. ‘Whether solely the passive obedience of Christ may be our righteousness before God, or also at the same time the active?  We admit like the orthodox.’  672

III. ‘Whether anyone is able to be justified by the faith of another, being destitute of their own?’  672

“[Eckhardi says:] This we accept of infants, who are so in the covenant due to the faith of the parents, that they are justified by the faith of the parents.

…I respond 1. not all infants of pious parents are received in the Covenant of God: so it was said of Ishmael which was the son of Abraham; and of Esau which was the son of Isaac.  2. Of the impious, or such as the Turks and other heathens, and their infants passing away in infancy, they all are certainly condemned, as is evident from 1 Cor. 7:14, indeed they are such as are unclean.  If, however, it is understood that the impious are in the Covenant as far as the external society, I say even that God may not only look to this, but to the grandfather and the grandfather’s grandfather, so that it may be indeed such children frequently are in the Covenant with God, and the Covenant has been taken hold of for them by previous parents.

…but where they are already adolescents, they having their own faith, then this faith [of others] is the more not necessary for them.”

[No Question IV]

V. ‘Whether the remission of sins, while being accepted, is able to be void?  We deny.’  672

VI. ‘Whether the remission of sins is given solely to the elect?  We affirm out of Rom. 8, ‘Whom He predestinates, those He calls, etc.'”  672

18.  On the Sacraments  672

I. ‘Whether the term ‘sacrament’, besides the external element and sign, may even denote the heavenly thing signified itself?  [Yes]’  672

II. ‘Whether the genus of the sacrament may exactly and accurately be the sign?  [Distinguished]’  673

III. ‘Whether the sacraments are organs that confer grace?  [Distinguished]  …To the fifth reason…  you may know this, which is in question, that the sacramental signs are organs of spiritual grace.’  673

IV. ‘Whether the standard of all the sacraments of the Old and New Testament may be one and the same?  [Distinguished]’  674

V. ‘Whether the form of the sacrament may consist in the analogy of the sign to the thing signified?  [Yes]’  674

VI. ‘Whether the union of the sign and the thing signified in the sacrament may be purely and merely χεπxη?  [No]’  674

VII. ‘Whether faith may be of the essence of the sacrament?’  674

19. On Baptism

I. ‘Whether that may be a legitimate definition of baptism which Calvin gives in book 4 of the Instiuttes, ch. 15?  He has beaten that description of baptism given from Calvin black and blue…’  675

II. ‘Whether baptism is twofold: one exterior of water, the other internal of the Holy Spirit?  …Our judgment is this.  Baptism is to be accepted in a twofold way: for the sacrament, or for the sign only, or for the sign and the thing signified simultaneously.”  675

III. ‘Whether external baptism of water alone and internal of blood alone may be the one baptism?’  676

IV. ‘Whether baptism, in the case of extreme necessity, administered by a religious woman or lay-person, may be true, lawful and legitimate?  [No]’  676

V. ‘Whether in the sacrament of baptism any other liquor is able to be used in the place of water, if surely water may not be available?  [Yes, he references Beza for the same.]’  677

VI. ‘Whether Calvinists seriously and from the heart speak when they say that the blood of Christ is the substantial part of baptism?  [Distinguished]’  677

VII. ‘Whether Calvinists may speak from of the soul when they so fashion the favorite sacramental analogy that as water washes away the filth of the body, so the blood of Christ washes the filth of the soul and cleanses sins? Piscator, vol. 2, place 15, thesis 12; Polanus, p. 248; Sohnius, vol. 1, p. 246; Bucanus, p. 666; Beza, vol. 3, fols. 332, 342.’

“His argument is undone in distinguishes between cleansing efficiently and meritoriously; the blood of Christ truly cleanses us meritoriously, not efficiently.”


IX. ‘

X. ‘

XI. ‘

XII. ‘


XIV. ‘

20. Of the Most Holy Eucharist

Alting, Henry – A Logical & Theological Exegesis of the Augsburg Confession with an Appended Problem: Whether the Reformed Churches in Germany ought to be Known & Held to be Partners with Respect to the Augsburg Confession?; a Syllabus of Controversies which the Reformed currently have with the Lutheran is Appended  (Amsterdam, 1647)

Alting exegetes this major Lutheran confession and argues the Reformed position.

Table of Contents

A Harmonizing Disputation on Confessions: an Exhibiting of the Augsburg, Palatinate & Swiss Orthodox Confessions  no page numbers  99 theses

Garlands on the Harmonic Disputation taken out of an Epistle of Calvin to Bullinger in which it is thus written about Luther

Table of Contents

An Exegesis of the Augsburg Confession

To the Reader: a Summary of each Article

Prolegomena  1
1. God  5
2. Original Sin  13
3. Christ  20
4. Justification  32
5. On the Way of Coming to Faith  [on the Ministry]  41
6. Good Works  47
7. Church  53
8. Hypocrites in the Church & of the Ministry of the Corrupt  59
9. Baptism  62
10. Lord’s Supper  69
11. Private Confession & Absolution  75
12. Repentance  78
13. Use of the Sacraments  83
14. Ecclesiastical Order  88
15. Ecclesiastical Rites  91
16. Civil Things  95
17. Last Judgment  99
18. Free Choice  102
19. Cause of Sin  106
20. Faith & Good Works  109
21. Worship of Saints  111

Appendix:  Problem: Whether the Reformed Churches in Germany ought to be Known & Held to be Partners with Respect to the Augsburg Confession?  114-28

1st Reason  116
2nd Reason  121
1st Objection  124
2nd Objection  126
3rd Objection  127
4th Objection  127
5th Objection  128

A Syllabus of Controversies with the Lutherans

Extended Latin Table of Contents

Table 130
Prolegomena 131

1. Who was Luther?  Where is of his life.  131
2. Who are those Called the Lutherans, and how many are of their kind?  136
3. Whether Christians following Luther may rightly denominate themselves Lutherans?  137
4. Which are the greatest heads in controversy between us and the Lutherans?  139
5. What then are all the responsibilities of the godly as long as these controversies are so bitterly agitated?  140

Part 1, Controversies About Doctrine 142

1. Of the Supper of the Lord  142

1. ‘It is queried in defense of the words of Christ, ‘This is my body; this is my blood’, whether they are to be received as in, with and under this bread is my body; so the Lutherans will have it.  Or whether the significance is that the bread and wine are signs of my body and blood? which is our explanation.’  143

2. ‘It is queried whether the true body of Christ and his true blood are taken hold of [percipiantur] in the Supper by the mouth of the body, or whether through faith alone?  The first, the Lutherans, the latter we affirm.’  157

3. ‘It is queried whether the impious and hypocrites, apart from the external symbols, do not receive the true body of Christ and his true blood less than the faithful themselves?  They the affirmative, we hold and support the negative.’  167

2. Of the Person of Christ  177

“The State of the controversy:  The question is whether the essential properties of God, namely, omnipresence, omniscience, omnipotence and the life-giving power [vis vivicandi], are really communicated to Christ’s human nature, so that it is rightly said that the humanity, or human nature of Christ, is omnipresent, omniscient, omnipotent and in itself life-giving?  They affirm; we deny.’  177

The general question is treated of first, and then it is treated more particularly with regard to the specific attributes of God, on p. 191 ff.

3. Of Providence  214

“The state of the controversy is whether from our doctrine of providence, it is able to be concluded by a just, necessary consequence that God is the Author of all sins, however many are perpetrated?  The Lutherans affirm; we deny.’

4. Of Predestination  225


On p. 225 bot, in discussing the state of the question, Alting ennumerates how the Lutherans commonly frame the controversy with 4 slanted questions of their own.  In responding to these four questions, one by one, Alting, under point 2, p. 226 mid, affirms the universal Fatherhood of God over all men by creation, and under point 3, affirms the sufficiency of the atonement for all men and a thousand worlds; he defines a way in which the atonement is not sufficient for the reprobate.

1. ‘On Election to Life:  Whether that may be universal, that is, whether all men may be elected to eternal life?  [No]’  227

2. ‘Of the Cause of Election:  Whether election may be by foreseen faith? or whether foreseen faith may be the impulsive or instrumental cause of election unto life? [No]’  232

3. ‘Of the Death of Christ:  Whether Christ may have died for all and every man according to the decree of election?  [No]’  235

4. ‘Of the Immutability of Election:  Whether those who have been elected to life and given the Spirit of regeneration, are able to fall from salvation and to be damned?’  [No]’  244

5. ‘On Reprobation:  Whether the only and singular cause of reprobation may be sin?  The Lutherans everywhere affirm; we on the contrary deny.’  250

5. Of Baptism  253

“The state of the controversy:  Whether the grace of regeneration may be so bound to the ceremonies of baptism that all who are outwardly wettened with water are regenerated by the power of the Holy Spirit?  The affirmative is of the Lutherans, the negative from us.”  253

Part 2, Controversies About Ceremonies  258

1. Of the Discrepancy of Rituals in the Administration of Baptism & the Supper  261  “Lutherans everywhere affirm [the following questions]; We, on the contrary, deny.”

Question 1, ‘Whether in the right administration of baptism, exorcism is adjoined; and in the administration of it in the case of necessity, it is able to be permitted to women by right?’  261

Question 2, ‘Whether the breaking of the bread is so an indifferent ceremony that it may be left off?  Whether the Supper ought to be offered separately to the sick?  And whether rations of bread by place are to used for hosts (commonly so called) or circular wafers of bread?’  265

Question 3, ‘Whether the Supper is to be administered on an altar?’  Whether the wine, in a goblet, is to be stretched forth and poured to the communicants, so that, indeed, the minister being dressed in white garments, each of the elements is not given into the hands, but is put into the mouths of the communicants?’  270

2. Of Other Certain Rituals  274

“The State of the controversy is:  Whether private confession and absolution is necessary?  Whether bowing of the knees and an uncovering of the head is at the mention of the name of Jesus has been commanded?  and lastly, whether Latin songs may be allowed in public assemblies?  The Lutherans affirm; we deny.”

3. Of the Furnishing of Church Buildings [with Images & Organs]  278-81

“The state of the controversy is:  Whether in church buildings of Christians images are to be tolerated, and also whether organs ought to be used?  They affirm; we deny.”


Hoornbeek, Johannes

A Dissertation on the Evangelical Union of the Reformed & the Augsburg Confession, or of the Cassellano Coloquium…  (Amsterdam, 1663)  50 pp.

Part 1  3
Part 2, Theological  10
Part 3, Political  25-50

bk. 9. ‘Of Lutherans’  in A Sum of Controversies in Religion with Infidels, Heretics & Schismatics  (Utrecht, 1653; 1676), pp. 608-738

The Summary outline at the beginning of the book:

“Of the Lutheran schism, its origin: where is of Luther, Karlstadt, Zwingli and of their respective writings.  Of the Augsburg Confession, the ubiquity controversy, the Book of Concord, of syncretism, the Colloquy of Marburg, the Concord of Wittenburg, the Consensus of Sandomiraz.  Judgment of union with them, or syncretism.  [10] Controversies remaining besides the article of the sacred Supper [pp. 736-7].  A Disputation.”



Strimesius, Samuel – A Candid Examination into the Controversies of Evangelicals, that is, of the Lutherans & the Reformed, Between Themselves: Public Lectures & Disputations in a Series Set up by B. Spanheim, & Divided into Two Parts, of which is Expunded in the First, the Less-Fundamental Disagreement of the Lutherans & the Reformed; in the Latter the Fundamental Consensus of Them is Set Forth & Vindicated, with a Pacific-Apologetic Preface [at the beginning of the volume]  (Frankfurt: Schrey, 1708)  1,049 pp.  Detailed ToC

Strimesius (1648-1730) was a reformed professor of philosophy, physics and theology at Frankfurt, Germany.


Table of Contents

Dedicatory Epistle
Preface to the Reader
Pt. 1, Of the Dissent of Evangelicals Beyond the Fundamentals: 4 Hexads of Annotations

1. Of the Augsburg Confession & its theologians & associates  5
2. Of the fundamental consensus of the associates of the Augsburg Confession and of the dissent beyond that which is fundamental: its rise, progress and departure  56
3. Of the Exerters [Moliminibus] endeavoring for a consociation  66
4. Of the blockades to an ecclesiastical consociation  97
5. Of the limits of an ecclesiastical association  102
6. On the classes of controversies which are between evangelicals  106
7. Of the sense of the words of the Institution of the sacred Supper, whether proper or figurative  117
8. Of consubstantiation  142
9. On transubstantiation  166
10. On the true judgment about the holy eucharist, having been taught through all the ages of the Christian era even unto this day  193
11. Of the oral eating of the body of Christ  279
12. Of the eating of the body of Christ by the unworthy  321
13. On the doctrine of the reformed as far as the providence of God:  Whether it makes God the Author of Sin?  346
14. On the universal will of God to save men  374
15. On the decree of election following foreknowledge  391
16. On the decree of reprobation, opposite to a bare foreknowledge  452
17. On the operation of converting grace  464
18. On perseverance, or of a true defection of the faithful  478
19. On the communication of properties  488
20. On the ubiquity of the flesh of Christ  493
21. On baptism  502
22. On rites not wholly adiaphora  519
23. On the baptismal exorcism of infants  535
24. On the breaking of bread in the Supper  548

Stapfer, Johann – ch. 20. ‘Of the Consensus & Dissent of Protestants, or of the Reformed & of the Church Adhering to the [Lutheran] Augsburg Confession’  in Institutes of Universal Polemical Theology… vol. 5  (Zurich, 1756), pp. 124-312

Stapfer (1708-1775) was a professor of theology at Bern.  He was influenced by the philosophical rationalism of Christian Wolff, though, by him “the orthodox reformed tradition was continued with little overt alteration of the doctrinal loci and their basic definitions.” – Richard Muller



Latin:  From a Romanist Perspective


de Raemond, Florimond – A Synopsis of All the Controversies of these Times, even Between the Lutherans, Calvinists, & Indeed, Many Others, or the Memorable History of the Rise, Progress & Ruins of Heresies in the 6th Age…  (1655)  ToC

de Raemond (1540-1602) was a French jurist and antiquary.  He was a pupil of Petrus Ramus and a Protestant convert, but later reverted to Catholicism.  It was in this latter time of his life that he wrote this book.




Related Pages