On Lutheranism



Lutheran Systematic Theologies



Order of Contents

Reformed Confessions
History of Lutheranism
.      History of Relations with the Reformed
.      Historical Theology




There appears to be no reformed monograph critiquing Lutheranism as a system in English in the Post-Reformation era, that we can find.  All of such works are in Latin or other languages.


Turretin, Francis – Institutes of Elenctic Theology  (P&R)

Rijssen, Leonard – A Complete Summary of Elenctic Theology & of as Much Didactic Theology as is Necessary  trans. J. Wesley White  MTh thesis  (Bern, 1676; GPTS, 2009)

ch. 1, Theology

Controversy – ‘Does philosophy contradict theology?  In other words, can the same opinion be true in philosophy and false in theology while the laws of non-contradiction are maintained?  We deny against the Lutherans.’, pp. 3-4

ch. 6, Predestination

Controversy 1 over attribute 3 – ‘Is Christ the meritorious cause of our
election?  We deny against the Arminians, Papists, and Lutherans.’, pp. 60-61

Controversy 2 over attribute 3 – ‘Is sin the meritorious or moving cause of reprobation insofar as it is a decree of God?  We deny against the Arminians and others [including Lutherans].’, pp. 61-62

ch. 7, Creation

Controversy – ‘Are souls generated from parents, or is it created by God alone?  We deny the former and affirm the latter against the Lutherans.’, pp. 70-71

ch. 9, The Law, the Fall & Sin

Controversy – ‘Was man after he sinned obligated not only to punishment because of the first sin but also to perform new obedience to the law and again to punishment, if he sinned?  We affirm against the Arminians [and many Lutherans].’, pp. 87-88

ch. 11, Christ

Controversy 4 – ‘Are the properties of the divine nature such as
omnipresence, omnipotence, and adoration communicated to the human nature?  We deny against the Lutherans.’, pp. 122-23

ch. 12, Christ’s Offices

Controversy 2 – ‘Did Christ by His obedience satisfy for all the sins of each and every individual human being?  We deny against the Papists and Arminians [and Lutherans].’, pp. 133-34

Controversy 1 – ‘Is Christ’s body not only in heaven but also everywhere on earth?  We deny against the Lutherans.’, pp. 142-43

ch. 13, Conversion & Faith

Controversy 3 – ‘Are all who are called externally by the Word also called internally by God?  We deny against the same.’, pp. 146-47

ch. 14, On Justification

Controversy 9 – Is it possible, then, for truly regenerated sons of God to fall away totally and finally from faith, from the grace of God, and from remission of sins?  We deny against the Papists, Socinians, Arminians, and Lutherans.’, pp. 168-9

ch. 15, The Decalogue & Good Works

Controversy 4 on the 1st Commandment – ‘Should Christ as Mediator be worshipped?  In other words, is the mediatorial office of Christ the
foundation of the worship of Christ?  We deny against the Socinians and Arminians [and Lutherans].’, pp. 176-77

Controversy 1 on the 2nd Commandment – ‘Is it permitted to make images of God the Father, Son & Holy Spirit?  We deny against the Papists & Lutherans.’, pp. 178-9

ch. 17, The Sacraments

Controversy 6 – Is all of this [regarding exorcism at the baptism of infants] holy and good?  We deny against the Papists and Lutherans.’, pp. 230-31

Controversy 3 – ‘Should there be a circular host that should be placed in the peoples’ mouths?  We deny against the same [Papists] and the Lutherans.’, pp. 232-33

Controversy 7 on the Supper – ‘Is the true body and blood of Christ hidden in, with, and under the bread and wine and presented to communicants?  We deny against the Lutherans.’, pp. 234-5

Controversy 8 – ‘Do believers and unbelievers alike eat the body and drink the blood of Christ bodily through the mouth in the Supper?  We deny against the Papists and Lutherans.’, pp. 235-6

Controversy 9 – ‘Is the breaking of the bread something indifferent or
unnecessary?  We deny against the Lutherans and the Papists.’, pp. 236-7

Controversy 11 – ‘Should the holy Supper for convenience be celebrated by the sick in private dwellings?  We deny against the Lutherans.’, pp. 238



Reformed Confessions Responding to Lutheranism

Marburg Colloquy  1529




The History of Lutheranism

Gritsch, Eric W. – A History of Lutheranism  (Minneapolis: Fortress Press, 2002)



The History of Relations Between the Lutherans & the Reformed


Good, J.I. – The Origin of the Reformed Churches, pp. 95-110 & 207-16

“The Philippists [after the death of Melancthon, 1560], who were much more inclined toward ecumenicity with the Reformed, were not ready to go along with the Formula [of Concord, which condemend ‘Calvinists’].  Eventually, most of the Melanchthonian party joined the Reformed Church.” – J. Wesley White

Selderhuis, Herman J. – Luther Totus Noster Est: the Reception of
Luther’s Thought at the Hedelberg Theological Faculty, 1583-1622”  in Mid-America Journal of Theology 17 (2006):101-120



Lutheran Historical Theology

See also, Lutheran Systematic Theologies.



Schmid, Heinrich – The Doctrinal Theology of the Evangelical Lutheran Church Verified from the Original Sources  trans. Charles A. Hay & Henry E. Jacobs (Philadelphia: Lutheran Publication Soceity, 1876)  690 pp.

This is an anthology in the order of the topics of a systematic theology from the primary souces of Post-Reformation Lutheran scholasticism, most of which sources are only otherwise in Latin.  It is akin to what Heinrich Heppe did for the older reformed writers in his Reformed Dogmatics.



Preus, Robert D. – The Theology of Post-Reformation Lutheranism, 2 vols. (St. Louis: Concordia, 1970-72)

This is for Lutheranism what Richard Muller’s later Post-Reformation Reformed Dogmatics has been for reformed historical theology.





Zwingli, Ulrich – Friendly Exegesis, that is, an Exposition of the Business of the Eucharist, to Martin Luther  ([Zürich]: [Christoph Froschauer d. Ä.], 1527)  178 pp.  ToC

Zwingli (1484-1531)

Calvin, John – A Pacific Letter of Calvin to Luther, Written in the Time of the Reformation, 1545, which was interrrupted by the death of Luther [in 1546], Philip Melanchthon sent forth again with an intact seal…  (d. 1564; 1722)  3 pp.

Barnaud, Nicolas – A Dialogue, by which is Largely Expounded what has Fallen Out with the Lutherans & the French Huguenots  (Organiae: Adamus de Monte, 1573)  170 pp.  Index

Barnaud (c.1530-1607) was a French reformed writer, physician, alchemist and monarchomach (tyrant-fighter).

Beza, Theodore –

Tossanus, Daniel – Theological Theses on these Three Questions Now so Agitated: 1. How ought the True Christian Religion to be Defined & Known?  2. Whether the Work by these Appellations, ‘Lutherans’ & ‘Calvinists’, may be Distinguished into True & False Religion?  3. What then may be the Cause of Animosity & so much Exasperation of Some Against Them who are Called Calvinists, & Whether they are Worthy of such Animosity?  Proposed to be Disputed in the Renowned Academy of Heidelberg  (Heidelberg: Abraham Smesmann, 1593)

Tossanus (1541-1602) was a French Reformed theologian.



Hospinian, Rudolf

The Second Part of the History of the Sacrament, on the Origin & Progress of the Sacramental Controversy on the Lord’s Supper Between the Lutherans, Called Ubiquitists & the Orthodox, & the Zwinglians or the Calvinsts, so-called, having Arisen from 1517-1602, in which even is Treated the Origin & Progress of Ubiquity & the Book of Concord  (Zurich, 1602)  Index  The first volume was against the Romanist view of the sacraments from pre-Reformation history.

Hospinian (1547-1626) was a Swiss reformed curate, theologian and controversialist.  The Lutheran Book of Concord (1577) condemns ‘Calvinists’ by name.

After sections on Luther, the Liturgy of Luther, Zwingli, the Liturgy of Zwingli, the doctrine of Zwingli about the Supper, Hospinian’s work proceeds year by year through the history, starting with 1524.  Subheadings on important subjects are interspersed through the annual history, such as, the Larger Lutheran Confession (1528), on the Origin of Ubiquity, the Marburg Colloquy (1529), on the Confession of the Four Imperial Cities (Tigur), the Confession of Zwingli, the Epistle of Bucer to George the Elector, the Acts of Concord between Luther, Upper Germany, & the Swiss Churches (1534), the Acts & Writings following the Wittenburg Concord, Three Epistles of Melanchthon, the Confession of Bucer to Bullinger (1544), on Joachim Westphal, the Acts of the Colloquy of Wormat on the Sacramental Cause (1557), on the Change of Religion in Germany under the Elector Frederick III, the death of Melancthon (1560), Acts & Writings Following the Death of Melanchthon, a Disputation on the Supper at Heidelberg (1560), the Renovation & Progress of the Controversy on Ubiquity a little before the death of Melancthon & After, Books & Writings in & After the Renovation of Ubiquity on the Sacramental Cause, on the Persecution of Albert Hardenberg, due to the Orthodox Opinion on the Lord’s Supper & the Disapproval of Ubiquity, the Colloquy of Poissy in France on Religion, the Decrees of Trent (1562), the Power of the Church around the Dispensation of the Eucharist (Trent), the Disagreement between Marbach & Zanchi, the Colloquy of Mulbrun (1564), the 2nd Helvetic Confession (1566), the Belgic Confession (1566), on the Polish Churches, the Refutation of the Theses of Jacob Schegk, the Confession of Elector Frederick III Illustrated after his Death, the Disputation at Heidelberg after the death of the Elector Ludwig (1584), the Colloquy of Mompelgard (1586), the Contest of the Belgic Ambassadors, & on the Christian Elector of Saxony’s Remarkable Endeavors to Propagate the True Religion (1591). 

The Discordant Concord, that is, One Book on the Origin & Progress of the Formula of Concord of Bergen…  for the Orthodox Churches  (1607; Geneva, 1678)  494 pp.  57 Chs.  No ToC  Index

Goclenius, Rudolf – Disputation 4, Containing a Sum of the Controversy & Colloquy Between Dr. Luther & Dr. Zwingli, etc. Held in Marburg [Germany] in the Principal Castle…  (Marburg, 1610)

Goclenius (1547-1628)

Erni, Heinrich – A Class of [30] Theses, First Disputation: The Sophisms which the Papists & Lutherans Gather Together on the Doctrine of the Sacrament of the Most Holy Eucharist, Contra the Sensible Principles of Philosophy, are Ventilated & Exposited  (Zurich: Wolphius, 1611)

Erni (1565-1639) was a reformed professor of philology, logic and theology at Zurich.

Pareus, David – A Christian Admonition about Peaceableness, or a Book by a Vow…  on the Union, Synod & Syncretism between Evangelicals, that is Lutherans & Calvinists, Established in 1614, Divulged  (Tubingen, 1616)  744 pp.  ToC

Pareus was against the accommodated union of the Reformed and Lutherans in 1614 in Germany.  Book 1, ‘On the Means’, pp. 1-88, surveys the history of relations since the Reformation between the reformed and the Lutherans that lead up to the union.

Book 2, ‘On Syncretism’, pp. 88-283, first asks whether such a “pious syncretism in coming together, mutually tolerated,” is possible and ought to be.  Then Pareus examines 8 “pretenses” for such a union.  The last chapter argues that if those pretenses held, then the Calvinists ought to form such a union with the Papists.

Book 3 is ‘On the Removal of the Impediments’, pp. 283-744.  Here is the outline:

Ch. 1, ‘On the Disagreements of the Lutherans & Calvinists, whether they are Many & Irreconciliable?’  283

Ch. 2, ‘On the Articles [of Difference] Between the Lutherans & Calvinists in general’  301

Ch. 3, ‘On the Articles in Specific’  303

1. Of the Merit of Christ  303

2. Of the Fall of Adam  323

3. Of the Cause of Sin  338

4. Of the Omnipotence of God  376

5. Of the Immensity of God  389

6. On the End of the Creation of All Men  400

7. On the Will of God to Save Men  427

8. On the Loss of Grace & Faith  465

9. On the Children of Christians  491

10. On the Evangelical Promises  506

11. On the Communication of the Natures with respect to the Person of Christ  541

12. On the Communication of Properties with respect to the Person of Christ  558

13. On the Omnipresence of Christ the Man  570

14. On the Power of Christ the Man by which He did Miracles  597

15. On the Adoration of Christ, God & Man  622

16. Of the Presence of the Body & Blood of Christ in the Supper  651

17. On Private Absolution  674

18. On the Augsburg Confession  689

Ch. 4, ‘Of the Paradoxes & Pretexts which the Lutherans Hold’  718-44

Crocius, Ludovicus

An Assertion of the Augsburg Confession, in which Simultaneously is a Censure of the Collation, Exegesis & Anti-Crociusness of [Balthasar] Mentzer’s Writings [a major Lutheran]  (Bremen, 1622)  There is a table of contents on the left-side column.  The work contains 7 disputations, then 6 more and 4 more, all on various chapters of the Augsburg Confession contra Mentzer.

Crocius (1586-1655) was a German reformed professor of theology at Bremen, Germany.

Mentzer I (1565-1627) was a Lutheran professor of theology at Marburg and Giessen, Germany.

On the Perseverance of the Saints, in 7 Books, Dogmatic & Apologetic, in which, simultaneously, the eternal predestination, reprobation and grace of God, and the free choice and conversion of man to God, out of the sacred letters, fathers, scholastic doctors & recent theologians, that is ours, the Lutherans and those of the papists, are discussed, against the deserted Hymenaeus and the hyperaspisten of Peter Bertius [an Arminian], professor of Leiden, on the Apostasy of the Saints  (Bremen [Germany], Typis Thomae Villeriani, 1616)  872 pp.  ToC

Alsted, Johann Heinrich – Polemical Theology…  (Hanau, 1620; 1627)

Part 5, ‘An Examination of the Controversies which are now agitated in these times between Evangelicals, which are commonly called Lutherans and Calvinists’, 575

Class 1, Preliminary Controversies   575

I. ‘Whether these names, Lutheran, Calvinist and similar things ought to be approved?’ 575

II. ‘Whether Calvinists & Lutherans come together in the foundation of salvation so that they are able to say that they are brothers in these things?’  577

III. ‘Which then are the apocryphal books of the New Testament?’  578

IV. ‘What ought to be the Judgment on the Augsburg Confession?’  580

V. ‘What ought to be established by the Book of Concord?’  581

VI. ‘What ought to be established regarding religious peace?’  584

Class 2, Controversies about the Decalogue  586

I. ‘How many are the catechetical [elementary] heads [of doctrine]?’   586

II. ‘Whether all the words of the Decalogue are to be recited [in families, schools and churches]?  [Lutherans: No; Reformed: Yes]’   586

III. ‘Whether the command about images may be an appendix to the First Commandment?  [Lutherans: Yes; Reformed: No]’  588

IV. ‘Whether those words of the Decalogue, ‘For I the Lord thy God am jealous…’ pertain to the Second Commandment?  [Lutherans: No; Reformed: Yes]’  591

V. ‘Whether beneficial images are able to be tolerated by the conscience?  [Lutherans: Yes; Reformed: No]’   591

VI. ‘Whether images in church-buildings are to be relinquished?  [Lutherans: No; Reformed: Yes]’  594

VII. ‘Whether all and each of the words of the Fourth Commandment are to be recited?  [Lutherans: No; Reformed: Yes]’  595

VIII. ‘Whether the feasts of the apostles and other saints are to be celebrated?  [Lutherans: Yes; Reformed: No]’   595

IX. ‘Whether the Command about concupiscence [the 10th] may be only one [as opposed to two]?  [Lutherans: No; Reformed: Yes]  596

X. ‘Whether God may be the Author of Sin by the doctrine of Calvinists?  [Lutherans: Yes; Reformed: No]’  597

XI. ‘Whether Zwingli rightly taught on Original Sin?’  598

XII. ‘Whether the children of the faithful, before the undergoing of baptism, may have been sanctified?’  599

XIII. ‘Whether good works are necessary to salvation?’   599

Class 3, Controversies about the Creed  600

I. ‘Whether evangelical promises are universal? [We distinguish]’  600

II. ‘Whether God created men to condemnation?  In no way.’  602

III. ‘In what way the name of Jesus ought to be honored?’  603

IV. ‘Of the person of the Son of God, whether truly his divine nature may have been incarnated?  Not properly the nature, but the eternal person of the Word is incarnate.’  604

V. ‘Whether the Logos so be in flesh that it further may be outside the flesh? [Yes]’  605

VI. ‘[Regarding Christ-incarnate] What kinds of predications may be expressed with regard to God about man and man about God?’  606

VII. ‘What may be the communication of properties?’  607

VIII. ‘Whether the communication of properties may be real?  The Orthodox: It is real, that is, true; but it is not real, that is, such that it is an effusion of properties.’  608

IX. ‘Whether the divine majesty and glory may have been given to the human nature of Christ?  [No]’  610

X.   622

Class 4, Controversies about the Lord’s Prayer  647

Class 5, Controversies on the Sacraments in General  650

Class 6, Controversies on Baptism  655

Class 7, Controversies on the Holy Supper  660

Wendelin, Marcus Friedrich

Vindicatory Theological Exercises for Christian Theology…  Opposite the Anti-Wendeliana Collection by Johann Gerhard & Other Festering Writings of Recent Lutherans Against the Orthodox, by which All and Each Theological Controversy between the Orthodox & the Lutherans is so far Plainly Treated, & Solidly & Logically Broken Down by the Truth of Orthodox Doctrine…  vol. 1 (1-69), 2 (70-139)  ToC

A Collation of the Christian Doctrine of the Reformed & Lutherans Set Forth in Theological Places & Explicated & Asserted by Questions & Responses to the Lutherans, by which the Judgment of the Reformed is Submitted & thus the Consensus & Disagrement of Both Parties in the Christian Religion is Demonstrated; & Thus is Shown that it is Unfair to Accuse & Condemn the Reformed of Overturning the Foundation, & their Absolution before the Divine Tribunal is Shown to be Certain  (Kassel: Schadewitzius, 1660)  ToC

Wendelin (1584-1652) 

Maccovius, Johannes – Johannes Maccovius Revived, or Manuscripts of his…  ed. Nicolaas Arnoldi  (Amsterdam, 1659)

‘An Examination of the Lutheran Controversies’, pp. 577-94  in The False First-Principles of the Papists, Socinians, Lutherans, Arminians, Anabaptists…

Maccovius (1588-1644).  This work contra the distinctives of Lutheranism is laid out in 15 chapters in the order of a systematic theology.

Table of Contents

1. Sacred Scripture  577
2. God  579
3. Human Nature of Christ  580
4. The Personal Union & the Communication of Properties  581
5. Sin  585
6. Law & Gospel  586
7. Sacraments  587
8. Faith  587
9. Predestination  587
10. Repentance & Justification  589
11. Sacraments  589
12. Baptism  590
13. Eucharist  592
14. Indifferent Things  593
15. Life Eternal  594

‘Anti-Eckhardus’  [Heinrich Eckhardi 1580-1624]

1. Scripture  633

1. ‘Whether philosophy is a principle of demonstration in questions of theology?’  633
2. ‘Whether Calvinists sincerely believe and certainly establish the Word of God to be of undoubtable and immovable truth?’
3. ‘Whether theology transcends logical rules.’  634
4. ‘Whether Dr. Luther may deserve an excuse for repudiating the apostolic epistles of James & Jude at times?’ [Yes & No]
5. Whether confirmation of the Christian faith ought to be sought, expected or learned elsewhere than from Scripture?’  634

2. God  634

1. ‘Whether the term ‘tretragrammaton‘, or ‘Jehova’ is proper soli to the one God?  We affirm’

2. ‘Whether God has a genus?’

“A genus by analogy is attributed to God, but it is not said properly.”

3. ‘Whether God may be preached with respect to persons, and so have a genus?’

4. ‘Whether the mystery of the most holy Trinity is able to be known by being lead by reasons and from natural light?’

“We do not approve that out of Keckerman, that the most holy Trinity may be known by the light of nature.”

5. ‘Whether the divine essence may bear the essence? [No]’

6. ‘Whether the divine persons really differ? [We distinguish]’

7. ‘Whether Calvinists may sincerely believe in the omnipotence of God?’

8. ‘Whether the doctrine of the mercy of God may be retained in the schools of the Calvinists, being patched and covered over?

10. ‘Whether in the broad meaning God may be called a father of all people?’

 “We do not deny, nor does Beza, as it is callumniated.”

3. Human Nature of Christ  636
4. The Personal Union  637
5. On Personal Propositions  639
6. Communication of Properties  639

1. ‘Whether the communication of properties may be verbal?’  639
2. ‘Whether the communication of properties may be figurative?’  640
3. ‘Whether, with respect to the definition of the communication of properties, the proper genus having been sought out, may be preached?’  640
4. ‘Whether the communication of properties may be so constructed and understood in the concrete.’  641
5. ‘Whether the genuses of the communication of properties are distinct?’  641
6. ‘Whether really or verbally only, or ketikos [Greek], God is said to have suffered for us?  641
7. ‘Whether koinopoiesis [Greek, a communion of effects], or the communication of effects, may be a grade of the communication of properties?’  642
8. ‘Whether the doctrine of the communion of effects of the Calvinists may be the consensus of the decrees of the Synod of Chalcedon?’  642
9. ‘Whether the gifts communicated to the human nature of Christ by the personal union were only created and finite, or whether those essential properties of divinity and gifts may be infinite?’  642
10. ‘Whether Infinite power may have been joined to Christ the man?’  644
11. ‘Whether Christ as man may have universal power and a full knowledge of all things?’  644
12. ‘Whether the human nature of Christ with respect to the person, the Logos, ought to be religiously worshipped? [No]’  646

“Truly not….  further this we say, Christ, as He is Mediator, is not to be religiously adored in worship; and that we say with Zanchi, Cameron and the Leiden professors…”

13. ‘Whether Christ according to the flesh may have been given judicial power over the living and the dead?’  647
14. ‘Whether the flesh of Christ may be life-giving?’  647
15. ‘Whether Christ after the Ascension may be present by his body with his militant Church in these lands?’  647
16. ‘Whether the presence of Christ is bounded in the lands to only the limit of the Church, or whether, further, it even encompasses other creatures?’  649

7. On Some Other Articles of the Apostles’ Creed Concerning Christ  651

1. On the Nativity
2. On the Obedience of Christ
3. On the Descent to Inferos
4. On the Resurrection
5. Of the Ascension to Heaven
6. Of the Session at the Right Hand

8. Holy Spirit  653
9. On Liberty in Acting [Agendo653
10. Sin  654
.     Appendix: On the Traduction of the Soul  [Contra]
11. Law  657

1. ‘Whether in the First Table of the Law, four commands ought to be numbered, in the Second, six; or whether in the First, three, in the Second, seven?’  657

2. ‘Whether it may be a sacriligious thing that Luther, in his Smaller Catechism, left out the words on images?’  658

3. ‘Whether the Church may be bound to copying off Ex. 20 precisely in the recitation of the Decalogue, so that it be an impious deed to stray from it in any way?’  658

4. ‘Whether in the command on images, besides adoration, it may further prohibit making them?  I respond: it ought to be affirmed…’  658

12. Gospel  659
13. Difference of the Sacraments of the Old & New Testament  659
14. Saving Faith

1. ‘Whether infants having been baptized may have faith?’  660
2. ‘Whether a believer is properly of the elect?’  661

15. Predestination  662

Alting, Henry – A Logical & Theological Exegesis of the Augsburg Confession with an Appended Problem: Whether the Reformed Churches in Germany ought to be Known & Held to be Partners with Respect to the Augsburg Confession?; a Syllabus of Controversies which the Reformed currently have with the Lutheran is Appended  (Amsterdam, 1647)

Alting exegetes this major Lutheran confession and argues the Reformed position.

Table of Contents

A Harmonizing Disputation on Confessions: an Exhibiting of the Augsburg, Palatinate & Swiss Orthodox Confessions  no page numbers  99 theses

Garlands on the Harmonic Disputation taken out of an Epistle of Calvin to Bullinger in which it is thus written about Luther

Table of Contents

An Exegesis of the Augsburg Confession

To the Reader: a Summary of each Article

Prolegomena  1
1. God  5
2. Original Sin  13
3. Christ  20
4. Justification  32
5. On the Way of Coming to Faith  [on the Ministry]  41
6. Good Works  47
7. Church  53
8. Hypocrites in the Church & of the Ministry of the Corrupt  59
9. Baptism  62
10. Lord’s Supper  69
11. Private Confession & Absolution  75
12. Repentance  78
13. Use of the Sacraments  83
14. Ecclesiastical Order  88
15. Ecclesiastical Rites  91
16. Civil Things  95
17. Last Judgment  99
18. Free Choice  102
19. Cause of Sin  106
20. Faith & Good Works  109
21. Worship of Saints  111

Appendix:  Problem: Whether the Reformed Churches in Germany ought to be Known & Held to be Partners with Respect to the Augsburg Confession?  114-28

1st Reason  116
2nd Reason  121
1st Objection  124
2nd Objection  126
3rd Objection  127
4th Objection  127
5th Objection  128

A Syllabus of Controversies with the Lutherans

Extended Latin Table of Contents

Table 130
Prolegomena 131

1. Who was Luther?  Where is of his life.  131
2. Who are those Called the Lutherans, and how many are of their kind?  136
3. Whether Christians following Luther may rightly denominate themselves Lutherans?  137
4. Which are the greatest heads in controversy between us and the Lutherans?  139
5. What then are all the responsibilities of the godly as long as these controversies are so bitterly agitated?  140

Part 1, Controversies About Doctrine 142

1. Of the Supper of the Lord  142

1. ‘It is queried in defense of the words of Christ, ‘This is my body; this is my blood’, whether they are to be received as in, with and under this bread is my body; so the Lutherans will have it.  Or whether the significance is that the bread and wine are signs of my body and blood? which is our explanation.’  143

2. ‘It is queried whether the true body of Christ and his true blood are taken hold of [percipiantur] in the Supper by the mouth of the body, or whether through faith alone?  The first, the Lutherans, the latter we affirm.’  157

3. ‘It is queried whether the impious and hypocrites, apart from the external symbols, do not receive the true body of Christ and his true blood less than the faithful themselves?  They the affirmative, we hold and support the negative.’  167

2. Of the Person of Christ  177

“The State of the controversy:  The question is whether the essential properties of God, namely, omnipresence, omniscience, omnipotence and the life-giving power [vis vivicandi], are really communicated to Christ’s human nature, so that it is rightly said that the humanity, or human nature of Christ, is omnipresent, omniscient, omnipotent and in itself life-giving?  They affirm; we deny.’  177

The general question is treated of first, and then it is treated more particularly with regard to the specific attributes of God, on p. 191 ff.

3. Of Providence  214

“The state of the controversy is whether from our doctrine of providence, it is able to be concluded by a just, necessary consequence that God is the Author of all sins, however many are perpetrated?  The Lutherans affirm; we deny.’

4. Of Predestination  225


On p. 225 bot, in discussing the state of the question, Alting ennumerates how the Lutherans commonly frame the controversy with 4 slanted questions of their own.  In responding to these four questions, one by one, Alting, under point 2, p. 226 mid, affirms the universal Fatherhood of God over all men by creation, and under point 3, affirms the sufficiency of the atonement for all men and a thousand worlds; he defines a way in which the atonement is not sufficient for the reprobate.

1. ‘On Election to Life:  Whether that may be universal, that is, whether all men may be elected to eternal life?  [No]’  227

2. ‘Of the Cause of Election:  Whether election may be by foreseen faith? or whether foreseen faith may be the impulsive or instrumental cause of election unto life? [No]’  232

3. ‘Of the Death of Christ:  Whether Christ may have died for all and every man according to the decree of election?  [No]’  235

4. ‘Of the Immutability of Election:  Whether those who have been elected to life and given the Spirit of regeneration, are able to fall from salvation and to be damned?’  [No]’  244

5. ‘On Reprobation:  Whether the only and singular cause of reprobation may be sin?  The Lutherans everywhere affirm; we on the contrary deny.’  250

5. Of Baptism  253

“The state of the controversy:  Whether the grace of regeneration may be so bound to the ceremonies of baptism that all who are outwardly wettened with water are regenerated by the power of the Holy Spirit?  The affirmative is of the Lutherans, the negative from us.”  253

Part 2, Controversies About Ceremonies  258

1. Of the Discrepancy of Rituals in the Administration of Baptism & the Supper  261  “Lutherans everywhere affirm [the following questions]; We, on the contrary, deny.”

Question 1, ‘Whether in the right administration of baptism, exorcism is adjoined; and in the administration of it in the case of necessity, it is able to be permitted to women by right?’  261

Question 2, ‘Whether the breaking of the bread is so an indifferent ceremony that it may be left off?  Whether the Supper ought to be offered separately to the sick?  And whether rations of bread by place are to used for hosts (commonly so called) or circular wafers of bread?’  265

Question 3, ‘Whether the Supper is to be administered on an altar?’  Whether the wine, in a goblet, is to be stretched forth and poured to the communicants, so that, indeed, the minister being dressed in white garments, each of the elements is not given into the hands, but is put into the mouths of the communicants?’  270

2. Of Other Certain Rituals  274

“The State of the controversy is:  Whether private confession and absolution is necessary?  Whether bowing of the knees and an uncovering of the head is at the mention of the name of Jesus has been commanded?  and lastly, whether Latin songs may be allowed in public assemblies?  The Lutherans affirm; we deny.”

3. Of the Furnishing of Church Buildings [with Images & Organs]  278-81

“The state of the controversy is:  Whether in church buildings of Christians images are to be tolerated, and also whether organs ought to be used?  They affirm; we deny.”


Hoornbeek, Johannes – bk. 9. ‘Of Lutherans’  in A Sum of Controversies in Religion with Infidels, Heretics & Schismatics  (Utrecht, 1653; 1676), pp. 608-738

Spanheim, Jr., Frederic – ‘The Principle Controversies with Augsburgians [Lutherans], Commonly Called Confessional Theologians’, pp. 305-69  in A Historical-Theological Chain of Select Controversies on Religion…  (Leiden, 1683)

Spanheim, Jr. (1632-1701) was a German reformed professor of theology at Heidelberg and Leiden, and son of Frederic Spanheim, Sr. (d. 1649).

Meier, Gerhard – The Mild Judgments of the Papists & Reformers on Luther the Divine  (d. 1695; Bremae, [n.d.])  12 pp.

Meier (1616-1695) was a reformed professor of theology at Bremen, Germany.  This is a collection of positive quotes about Luther from many various theologians.



Strimesius, Samuel – An Ingenuousness Examination into the Controversies of Evangelicals, that is, of the Lutherans & the Reformed, Between Themselves: Public Lectures & Disputations in a Series Set up by B. Spanheim, & Divided into Two Parts, of which is Expunded in the First, the Less-Fundamental Disagreement of the Lutherans & the Reformed; in the Latter the Fundamental Consensus of Them is Set Forth & Vindicated, with a Pacific-Apologetic Preface [at the beginning of the volume]  (Frankfurt: Schrey, 1708)  1,049 pp.  ToC

Strimesius (1648-1730) was a reformed professor of philosophy, physics and theology at Frankfurt, Germany.

Stapfer, Johann – ch. 20. ‘Of the Consensus & Dissent of Protestants, or of the Reformed & of the Church Adhering to the [Lutheran] Augsburg Confession’  in Institutes of Universal Polemical Theology… vol. 5  (Zurich, 1756), pp. 124-312

Stapfer (1708-1775) was a professor of theology at Bern.  He was influenced by the philosophical rationalism of Christian Wolff, though, by him “the orthodox reformed tradition was continued with little overt alteration of the doctrinal loci and their basic definitions.” – Richard Muller



Latin:  From a Romanist Perspective


de Raemond, Florimond – A Synopsis of All the Controversies of these Times, even Between the Lutherans, Calvinists, & Indeed, Many Others, or the Memorable History of the Rise, Progress & Ruins of Heresies in the 6th Age…  (1655)  ToC

de Raemond (1540-1602) was a French jurist and antiquary.  He was a pupil of Petrus Ramus and a Protestant convert, but later reverted to Catholicism.  It was in this latter time of his life that he wrote this book.




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