Church History

“We have heard with our ears, O God, our fathers have told us, what work Thou didst in their days, in the times of old…”

Ps. 44:1

“And what shall I more say?  For the time would fail me to tell of… [those] who through faith subdued kingdoms, wrought righteousness, obtained promises… of weakness were made strong, waxed valiant in fight… and others were tortured, not accepting deliverance; that they might obtain a better resurrection…  of whom the world was not worthy.”

Heb. 11:32-38

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Subsections

Early Church
Medieval Church
Reformation & Puritan Era

American Church
English Church
Scottish Church

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Order of Contents

About
Beginners
  6
Brief  9
In-Depth  15
Latin  7

Comprehensive Sets  3
Encyclopedias  6
Dictionaries  9

Bibliographies
.     Church History  15
.     General History  5

Why Historical Scholarship is Precarious

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About

If Christ loves and cares about his Church, so should you.

All of the ‘Beginner’ books are recommended and will be very readable and engaging for the person looking to learn about Church history for the first time, or the fourth time.

Beyond that though, some discernment is required (James 1:5).  We have compiled these resources in order to provide some of the best materials in the field in the public domain on the net.  There is a wealth of information, more than one can comprehend really, though you will have to divide the wheat from the chaff here necessary.

We have sought to build a collection where, if one has a question relating to a specific point in Church history, you will be able to find more detailed information on the subject here than you ever wanted to know.  Hence, we have freely spoiled the Egyptians (Ex. 12:36), namely the 1800’s German liberals who emphasized exhaustive scholarship, for the task:

“Nevertheless, historical scholarship reached a level of maturity by the mid-nineteenth century that, in many respects, has not been surpassed to this day.  In terms of the utilization of primary sources, energy in accumulating these sources, critical power in comparing them, and detachment in their interpretation, it is the case that the accomplishments of a hundred and fifty years ago, particularly in Germany, are seldom surpassed today.  And much that is written today falls far below those standards.”

– J. Bradley & R.A. Muller, Church History, p. 17

If, in the unlikely event, you are not able to find the information you need in the general histories below, you will more than likely find your answer in the more in-depth histories on the smaller time period subsections linked above (which are still under construction).  If all else fails you, the bibliographies near the bottom of this page won’t.

Please enjoy reading below of the works of God recorded in the earth, and may his Kingdom come on earth, as it is in Heaven, till Christ comes to take us Home.

* – denotes some of the more prominent works, though this is sometimes an arbitrary designation and the other works should be consulted too.

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For Beginners  6  Recommended

Bits & Fragments

Ferguson, Beeke, Haykin – Church History 101: the Highlights of 20 Centuries  Buy  (2016)  99 pp. in a small booklet

Houghton, S.M. – Sketches from Church History: An Illustrated Account of 20 Centuries of Christ’s Power  Buy  (Banner of Truth, 1980)  256 pp.  ToC

Houghton was been a long time editor with the Banner of Truth, known for his encyclopedic knowledge of Church history and his 40,000+ books.

Knoll, Mark – Turning Points: Decisive Moments in the History of Christianity  Buy  3rd ed.  (2012)  360 pp.

Knoll is a reformed-evangelical and historian of especially the American Church.

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Whole Histories

Kuiper, B.K. – The Church in History  Buy  (1951; CSI Publications, 1984)  420 pp.  ToC

Kuiper (1877-1961) was Dutch reformed and was the first history professor at Calvin Theological Seminary in Grand Rapids.

Needham, Nick – 2,000 Years of Christ’s Power  Buy  (1998)  multiple volumes

Needham is a reformed baptist and is a lecturer at Highland Theological College in Scotland.  His work is both popular and detailed enough that know some about the subject will still learn.

Gonzalez, Justo – The Story of Christianity  Buy  (1984; Prince Press, 1999)  830 pp.  ToC 1, 2  See also the rev. and updated ed. (2010), vol. 1, 2  ToC 1, 2

Gonzalez is a Cuban-American Methodist who is known for his lucid writing style.  This work gives one a drag-race overview of the whole of church history.


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Brief Histories  8

1600’s

Spanheim, Jr., Frederic – Ecclesiastical Annals from the Commencement of Scripture History to the Epoch of the Reformation  2nd ed.  trans. George Wright  (1689; London, 1840)  550 pp.  ToC

Spanheim Jr. (1632–1701) was a German reformed theologian who taught in the Netherlands, succeeding J. Cocceius.  On this work, see Kurtz’s comments.

“Frederick Spanheim, of Leyden, founded his Summa historice eccl. (a.d. 1689) upon a most accurate and conscientious use of sources and a searching criticism, with a view to the refutation of [Cardinal] Baronius.” – Philip Schaff

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1800’s

* Hase, Charles – A History of the Christian Church  (1875)  755 pp.  ToC

Hase (1780–1864) was a German born, resident of France who specialized in Byzantine history.

“Of the smaller manuals of Church history, one of the most important is that of Hase…  It is a condensed narrative of a thorough scholar, written in a pithy and sometimes racy style.” – G.P. Fisher

Blackburn, William – History of the Christian Church from its Origin to the Present Time  (1879)  735 pp.  ToC

Blackburn (1828–1898) was a presbyterian and graduate of Princeton Theological Seminary.

* Zenos, Andrew – Compendium of Church History  (Presbyterian Board of Publication, 1896)  345 pp.  ToC

Zenos (1855-1942) was a Princeton modernist, but a great historian.  The publisher was conservative.

ed. Gwatkin, H.M. – The Church, Past & Present: a Review of its History  (1899)  310 pp.  ToC  This work has several contributors, mainly Anglican clergy.

Gwatkin (1844–1916) was a Cambridge professor.

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1900’s

* Fisher, George Park – History of the Christian Church, with Maps  (Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1900)  162 pp.  ToC

Fisher (1827–1909) was an American professor of Church History at Yale.

Walker, Williston – A History of the Christian Church  (1918)  605 pp.  ToC

Walker (1860–1922) was a Yale professor.  “Perhaps the best of the one-volume histories, though rather too packed, and less good toward the end.” – Owen Chadwick

Clarke, C.P.S. – Short History of the Christian Church: from the Earliest Times to the Present Day  (1929; Longmans, 1949)  560 pp.  ToC

Clarke was an Anglican canon and a lecturer in Church History.

Bainton, Roland – Christendom: a Short History of Christianity & its Impact on Western Civilization, vol. 1, 2  (1966)  ToC 1, 2

Bainton (1894–1984) was a British born, professor of ecclesiastical history at Yale and a Reformation scholar.

Johnson, Paul – A History of Christianity  (1979; Touchtone, 2005)  576 pp.  ToC

Johnson (b. 1928).  Good writer and historian; from a secular perspective.


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In-Depth Histories  14

1700’s

* Mosheim, Johann – Institutes of Ecclesiastical History, Ancient & Modern in Four Books, vol. 1 (Birth of Christ – Charlemagne), 2 (Charlemagne – Reformation), 3 (Reformation – 1700)  trans. James Murdock  (†1755; Robert Carter, 1861)  no ToC

Mosheim (1693–1755) was a German, moderate Lutheran, and considered by many to be the father of modern, scientific history.  A classic.

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1800’s

Waddington, George – A History of the Church from the Earliest Ages to the Reformation  (1835)  570 pp. double-columned  ToC

Waddington was a Cambridge scholar.  See Schaff’s comments.

Dollinger, J.J. – A History of the Church, vol. 1 (to 313), 2 (313-680), 3 (680-1124), 4 (1124-1513)  (1840-1842)  ToC 1, 2, 3, 4

Dollinger (1799–1890) was the most learned Roman Catholic historian of the 19th century, per J.A. Fisher.  See Kurtz’s comments.

Neander, Augustus – General History of the Christian Religion and Church, vol. 1 (to 312), 1.5 (Doctrinal),  2 (312-590), 3-4 (590-814 / 814-1078), 5 (1073-1294), 6 (1294-1517)  (1850)  ToC 1, 1.5, 2, 3-4, 5, 6

Neander (1789–1850) was a liberal German scholar.  See Philip Schaff’s commendation of his teacher, but also his fuller criticisms here.

* Gieseler, John – A Compendium of Ecclesiastical History, vol. 1 (to 400), 2 (400-1073), 3 (1073-1305), 4 (1305-1409), 5 (1400-1517)  (1854)

Gieseler (1792–1854) was a German historian.  He copiously references sources and authorities and quotes original documents in full in the footnotes.

“Profoundly learned, acute, calm, impartial, conscientious, but cold and dry.” – Philip Schaff

“It is generally considered the best of all the text-books on church history.” – J.A. Fisher

Robertson, James Craigie – History of the Christian Church, vol. 1 (64-590), 2 (590-1122), 3 (1122-1303), 4 (1303-1517)  (1864)

Robertson (1813–1882) was a Scottish born, English Churchman.

“The author, a Canon in the English Episcopal Church, is a well-informed scholar, and writes in a moderate and candid spirit.” – G.P. Fisher

Guericke, Henry E. – Manual of Church History, vol. 1 (to 590), 2 (590-1073)  trans. William G.T. Shedd  (1872)

Guericke was a German professor.  “The tone of the book is that of a Lutheran polemic.” – J.A. Fisher

Kurtz, Johann Heinrich – Church History, vol. 1 (to 911), 2 (911-1600), 3 (1600-1800’s)  (1889)  The translator, John MacPherson, was not the Scot in the Free Church of Scotland, though another edition of this work was translated by Alfred Edersheim.

Kurtz (1809–1890) was one of the more ‘evangelical’ German liberals.  He treats of the international Church after the Reformation.

“Its author writes in sympathy with the Lutheran creed.  The facts are clearly presented and well arranged.  It is an excellent work.” – G.P. Fisher

* Schaff, Philip – History of the Christian Church, 7 vols.  †1893  from the 1910 Charles Scribner’s edition

Schaff (1819–1893) was a very influential and good, Swiss-born, American church historian and professor in the German Reformed Church.

“The greatest monument of American scholarship in the field of church history.  Orthodox, liberal, readable… It is peculiarly rich in bibliographies.” – J.A. Fisher

“Philip Schaff… is sometimes considered the father of American church history… because he brought together the best advances in the study of church history and set new standards for the discipline in the United States… and set forth his own understanding of church history, called ‘The Reformed-Catholic Percpective.’…  Yet while Schaff represented the best in post-Enlightenment historiography, the influence of Hegel was so pervasive that the work suffers from at least three characteristic weaknesses…

Schaff understands history in terms of steady improvement, but he is, in the first place, naively optimistic…  Second, the historian is able to truly comprehend past events, and to unfold them, just as they originally stood, before the eyes of the readers.  Finally, like Neander and Tholuck, Schaff is overly optimistic about the historian’s ability to discern the hand of providence and the guiding spirit of Christianity in history.” – Bradley & Muller, p. 17

Sheldon, Henry – History of the Christian Church, vol. 1 (Early), 2 (Medieval), 3 (Modern), 4 (Modern), 5 (Modern)  (1894)

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1900’s

* Hurst, John Fletcher – History of the Christian Church, vol. 1 (to 1300’s) 2 (1300’s-1900)  (NY: Eaton & Mains, 1900)  1,000 pp. each  ToC 1, 2

Hurst (1834–1903) was an American bishop in the Methodist Episcopal Church and the first Chancellor of the American University in Washington, D.C.

Moeller, Wilhelm – History of the Christian Church, vol. 1 (to 600), 2 (600-1517), 3 (1517-1648)  (1902)  555 pp.

Moeller was a German professor.

Milman, Henry Hart – History of Latin Christianity, including that of the Popes, vol. 1-2, 3-4, 5-6, 7-8  (1908)  The history goes up to AD 1455.

Milman (1791 –1868) was an ecclesiastic and ‘an English church historian of the first rank’ (Kurtz).

“…he write for the literary class.  It is a useful complement to Neander.  The learning is ample, the style is animated, but with a predilection for the Latin element.  On the Papacy in the Middle Ages, and on the topics connected with literature and art, Milman is both entertaining and instructive.” – G.P. Fisher

* Latourette, Kenneth Scott – A History of the Expansion of Christianity, vol. 1 (to 400’s), 2 (500-1,500), 3 (1,500-1,800)  (1937)  ToC 1, 2, 3

Latourette (1884–1968) was an American involved in missions and a graduate of Yale.  This is a well-known work in the field.

Hughes, Philip – A History of the Church  (1947)  1426 pp.  This history goes up to 1520, as the author died before completing the fourth planned volume.

Hughes (1895–1967), not to be confused with Philip Edgecumbe Hughes, was a Roman Catholic historian.

The Pelican History of the Church, vol. 1 (Early Church), 2 (Middle Ages), 3 (Reformation), 4 (1648-1789), 5 (1789 – Present), 6 (Missions), 7 (Cold War)  (1960 ff.)


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In Latin  7

For reformed works on single periods of history, see the list by Schaff on p. 81.

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1500’s

ed. Flacius, Matthias – The Magdeburg Centuries, vol. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13  1559-1574  Here is the 1st ed. of the whole work on a German website.

Flacius (1520-1575).  This was the first Protestant church history, written by Lutheran scholars, covering the first 13 centuries.  Read more about it at Wiki and in this journal article.

“They rest throughout on careful studies, produce many documents that were previously unknown, and with an unsparingly bitter polemic against the Romish doctrinal degeneration, address themselves with special diligence to the historical development of dogma.” – Kurtz

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1600’s

Hottinger, J.H. – Ecclesiastical History of the New Testament, vol. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9  (1651 ff.)

Hottinger (1620–1667) was a Swiss reformed theologian.  On this work, see Kurtz’s comments.

“In the Reformed church, John H. Hottinger of Zurich proposed to furnish a counterpart to the [Magdeburg] Centuries.  His work evinces great knowledge, particularly of the East, with love of order and justice.  But it is unequal, devoting five volumes to the sixteenth century alone.  It drags in, too, according to the taste of these times, much foreign matter; the history, for instance, of the Jews, Pagans, and Mohammedans; accounts of remarkable natural phenomena, earthquakes, locusts, famines, floods, monstrosities, eclipses of the sun and moon, etc., as foretokening the fortunes of the church.” – Philip Schaff

Casaubon, Isaac – 16 Exercitations of Sacred & Ecclesiastical Things Against Cardinal Baronius  (1614)  690 pp.  Index, of Scripture, of Authors

Casaubon (1559-1614) was a reformed classical scholar and philologist, first in France and then England.  The Romanist cardinal Baronius (1538-1607) had written a history of the Church against the Magdeburg Centuries above.  Here Casaubon criticizes Baronius’s work.  Kurtz says this work is amongst the ‘most important of all’ the protestant historiography literature, along with that of Basnage below.

Basnage, Samuel

Political & Ecclesiastical Annals to AD 645, vol. 1, 2, 3  (1706)

Historical-Critical Exercitations of Sacred & Ecclesiastical Things Against Cardinal Baronius  (1692)  700 pp.  ToC

“The two Frenchmen, James Basnage, minister at the Hague, and Samuel Basnage, minister in Ziitphen, wrote, the former [in French] against Bossuet, the latter against Baronius; both, especially James, with the purpose of showing that the true church of Christ has never failed, and has, at all times, had faithful witnesses.” – Philip Schaff

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1700’s

Weismann, Christian E. – An Introduction to the Memorable Ecclesiastical Things of the Sacred History of the New Testament, vols. 1 & 2  (1718)

Weismann (1677-1747) was a Lutheran professor of theology at Tubingen.

Lamp, Friedrich – A Synopsis of Sacred & Ecclesiastical History  (1726)  620 pp.  ToC

Lamp (1683–1729) was a German, reformed, pietist pastor and professor.

Venema, Herman – Institutes of Ecclesiastical History, vol. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7  (1777 ff.)

Venema (1697-1787) was reformed, and was called by Kurtz ‘the Mosheim of this church’.


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Comprehensive Sets  3

Oxford History of the Christian Church, 20 vols.  Buy  1977 ff.

Ancient Society (to Gregory the Great)
Orthodox Church
France (to Middle Ages)
East-West (to 1400’s)
Early Reformation: Continent
Reformation: Britain & Ireland
England (1688-1791)
France (1700’s)
Germany & Scandinavia (1700-1918)
England, Ireland, Scotland, Wales (1900-2000)

Papal Monarchy & Western Church (1050-1250)
Popes & European Revolution (1789-1815)
Popes (1830-1914)
Papacy (1914-1958)

Australasia
India
Africa (1450-1950)

ed. Jedin & Dolan – History of the Church, 10 vols.  Buy  (1979)

“A standard reference by Catholic scholars.  Each volume has a bibliography of 50-100 pages.” – Bradley & Muller

The Cambridge History of Christianity, vol. 1 (to Constantine), 2 (to 600), 3 (to 1100), 4 (to 1500), 5 (Eastern), 6 (to 1660), 7 (to 1815), 8 (to 1914), 9 (to 2000)  Buy  (1989-2004)


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Encyclopedias  5

They just don’t make encyclopedias like they used to.  Encyclopedias at the end of the 1800’s and early 1900’s are some of the most scholarly and in-depth that have ever been printed, especially in the field of history, and cover topics too specific, detailed and lengthy for modern abridgments.

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General Knowledge

Encyclopedia Britannica 11th Edition  29 vols.  1911

This was the best, longest and most in-depth Encyclopedia Britannica ever printed.

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Religious & Church History

McClintock & Strong – Cyclopedia of Biblical, Theological & Ecclesiastical Literature  12 vols.  (1867-1887)

The Catholic Encyclopedia  1907-1912

The New Schaff-Herzog Encyclopedia of Religious Knowledge  12 vols.  1908-1914

ed. Hastings – Encyclopaedia of Religion & Ethics, vol. 1 (A-Art), 2 (Arthur-Bunyan), 3 (Burial-Confessions), 4 (Confirmation-Drama), 5 (Dravidians-Fichte), 6 (Fiction-Hyksos), 7 (Hymns-Liberty), 8 (Life & Death-Mulla), 9 (Mundas-Phrygians), 10 (Picts-Sacraments), 11 (Sacrifice-Sudra), 12 (Suffering-Zwingli)  1908-1927

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Other Religions

Jewish Encyclopedia  (1901-1906)

Islam

ed. Hughes – Encyclopedia of Islam  (1913)

ed. Meri, J. – Medieval Islamic Civilization: an Encyclopedia, 2 vols.  (2006)


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Dictionaries  9

General Works

1800’s

Robinson, John – A Theological, Biblical & Ecclesiastical Dictionary  (1835)  1,110 pp.

Buck, Charles – A Theological Dictionary… together with… Ecclesiastical History  (1838)  500 pp.

Staunton, William – An Ecclesiastical Dictionary  (1861)  700 pp.

Eadie, John – The Ecclesiastical Cyclopaedia, or Dictionary  (1862)  680 pp.

Eadie was the stalwart Biblical commentator and scholar of the Scottish United Presbyterian Church.

Blunt, John Henry – Dictionary of Sects, Heresies, Ecclesiastical Parties & School of Religious Thought  (1874)  660 pp.

Benton, A.A. – The Church Cyclopedia, a Dictionary of Church Doctrine, History, Organization & Ritual  (1886)  760 pp.  associated with the Protestant Episcopal Church

Addis & Arnold – A Catholic Dictionary: containing some Account of the Doctrine, Discipline, Rites, Ceremonies, Councils & Religious Orders of the Catholic Church  (1893)  980 pp.

This work is rather full and has a lot of things not found in other dictionaries.

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1900’s

Thein, John – An Ecclesiastical Dictionary  (1900)  760 pp.

ed. Cross – The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church  Buy  3rd ed.  (1958 / 1974 / 1988 / 1997)  1,820 pp.

“In a class by itself as a single-volume work of historical reference.  Packed with accurate information, it has selective but exact bibliographies.” – Owen Chadwick


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Bibliographies for Church History  15

Articles

1800’s

Schaff, Philip

ch. 4, ‘The Principal Works on Church History’  in History of the Apostolic Church with a General Introduction to Church History  (1854), pp. 61-160  Schaff here gives extended annotations on the works.

‘General Introduction: Literature’  in History of the Christian Church, vol. 1

Hase, Charles – ch. 2, ‘General Literature’  in A History of the Christian Church  (1875), pp. 7-12

Hase was a German born, resident of France who specialized in Byzantine history.

“Condensed, skillfully arranged, and well-written.” – J.A. Fisher

Kurtz, J.H. – ‘History of General Church History’  in Church History  (1888), vol. 1, pp. 12-22

Kurtz gives commentary on all the major ecclesiastical histories that have been written since the Christian era.

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1900’s

Hurst, John Fletcher – ‘Literature of Church History’  in History of the Christian Church  (1900), vol. 1, pp. 1-14

Fisher, George P. – Appendix, ‘Notes on the Literature of Church History’  in History of the Christian Church  (1900), pp. 671-97

Moeller, Wilhelm – History of the Christian Church  (1902), vol. 1, pp. 6-26

‘History of Church History’
‘Introduction to the Knowledge of the Literature and Sources of Church History’

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Books

1800’s

Dowling, John Goulter – An Introduction to the Critical Study of Ecclesiastical History  (1838)  330 pp.  ToC

Fisher, John Alonzo – A Select Bibliography of Ecclesiastical History, Annotated  (1885)  70 pp.

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1900’s

Coulter & Hoseh – Historical Bibliographies: a Systematic & Annotated Guide  Buy  (1935; rep. 1965)

“A useful guide to older materials.” – Bradley & Muller

Case, McNeill, Sweet, Pauck, Spinka – Bibliographical Guide to the History of Christianity  (Univ. of Chicago, 1937)  250 pp.  ToC

“Case is not selective, is more for specialists…” – Owen Chadwick

Chadwick, Owen – The History of the Church; A Select Bibliography  Buy  (1973)

Blockx, Karel – Bibliographical Introduction to Church History  Buy  (1982)  This is not annotated and it has no title index.

Gorman & Gorman

Theological & Religious Reference Materials: General Resources & Biblical Studies  (Greenwood Press, 1984)  540 pp.  ToC

Theological & Religious Reference Materials: Systematic Theology & Church History  Buy  (1985)

“This is the best recent guide for the literature of church history and historical theology, but the second volume in the series must be used in conjunction with the first, since there is much material on church history in the first volume.

These two volumes provide detailed annotations for most reference works in church history, but the organization is poor.  Standard denominational bibliographies are dispersed throughout the volumes, but can be located through the indices.” – Bradley & Muller

Kepple, Robert & Muether, John – Reference Works for Theological Research  Buy  3rd ed.  (Univ. Press of America, 1992)  264 pp.  ToC  Pages 129-65 covers church history, with all items annotated.

Muether is associated with the Orthodox Presbyterian Church and has written numerous history books on reformed history.

“Kepple’s and Muether’s guide to reference works remains one of the most useful general tools for theological research in all fields… [T]his work offers a solid and well-organized beginning point for all theological researchers: It should be of great interest to college and seminary students as a means of aquainting them with the contents of a good reference room, to graduate students and teachers in coordinating their own basic research efforts… This is a fine work that deserves to be widely known.” – Muller

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2000’s

Bradley, J.E. & Muller, R.A. – Church History: an Introduction to Research Methods & Resources  2nd ed.  Buy  (2016)  293 pp.

Muller is a professor of Historical Theology at Calvin Theological Seminary and Bradley is a professor of Church history at Fuller Theological Seminary.  The 2nd edition is necessary for its valuable online resources.  The first half of the book is a how to guide on historical research and methods; the second half is devoted to bibliographies of up-to-date resources.


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Bibliographies of General History  5

Books

1800’s

Adams, Charles Kendall – A Manual of Historical Literature with Brief Descriptions  (1889)  760 pp.  ToC

Hurst calls this ‘invaluable’.

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1900’s

eds. Dutcher, Shipman et al. – A Guide to Historical Literature  (MacMillan Co., 1931)  1,230 pp.  ToC

Peirce, David Roland – A Select Bibliography of History  Buy  (1966)

ed. Norton, Mary Beth – The American Historical Association’s Guide to Historical Literature, vol. 1, 2  3rd ed.  Buy  (Oxford Univ. Press, 1995)  ToC

“A major topical bibliography to serials, series, bibliographical tools, books, articles, etc., in all fields of historical investigation, annotated.  Covers intellectual and religious history but needs to be supplemented in the specific areas of philosophy and theology.” – Bradley & Muller

Berkowitz, David – Bibliographies for Historical Researchers  Buy  (1969)

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2000’s

Fritze, Coutts & Vyhnanek – Reference Sources in History: an Introductory Guide  2nd ed.  Buy  (2004)  334 pp.  ToC

“The best, most recent, comprehensive guide.” – Bradley & Muller

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Why Historical Scholarship is Precarious

Quote

J.B. Russell, ‘The Myth of the Flat Earth’  (1997)

“History is precarious for three reasons: the good reason [is] that it is extraordinarily difficult to determine ‘what really happened’ in any series of events; the bad reason [is] that historical scholarship is often sloppy; and the appalling reason [is] that far too much historical scholarship consists of contorting the evidence to fit ideological models.

The worst examples of such contortions are the Nazi and Communist histories of the early- and mid-twentieth century.”

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“Wherefore seeing we also are compassed about with so great a cloud of witnesses, let us lay aside every weight, and the sin which doth so easily beset us, and let us run with patience the race that is set before us…”

Heb. 12:1

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