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Helps for the Pronunciation of Greek
The traditional pronunciation for classical and koine (including Biblical) Greek was invented by Erasmus (d. 1536) and is known as the Erasmian system. The system is artificial and has never been used by Greeks in any part of their history. Yet as it is still widely used today as a default (it is called the “standard pronunciations” by Mounce), and it is intuitively easier for English speakers, there is good reason for the beginner to learn with it.
Scholars have sought in the last century to reconstruct the original pronunciation(s) of how Greek was actually spoken by the ancient Greeks. This imitation of historical Greek phonology is known as the historical pronunciation.
For more on this subject, see Wikipedia: ‘Pronunciation of Ancient Greek in teaching’ & ‘Ancient Greek phonology’.
Mounce, William – pp. 8-11 in Basics of Biblical Greek Grammar 3rd ed. (Zondervan, 1993), ch. 3, ‘The Alphabet & Pronunciation’
McLean, B.H. – 2. ‘Pronouncing Hellenistic Greek: the ‘Historical’ Greek Pronunciation System’ in Hellenistic & Biblical Greek: a Graduated Reader (Cambridge University Press, 2014), pp. 37-41
Pickering, John E.L. – An Essay on the Pronunciation of the Greek Language (Cambridge: Hillard, 1818) 70 pp.
“…does modern Greek pronunciation approximate Ancient or Biblical Greek pronunciation? John Pickering makes a compelling case that it does…”
This was replied to by N.F. Moore, On the Pronunciation of the Greek language… (NY: Eastburn, 1819) 46 pp.
Sturtevant, Edgar H. – The Pronunciation of Greek & Latin 2nd ed. (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1977) 190 pp. ToC
Kantor, Benjamin – The Pronunciation of New Testament Greek: Judeo-Palestinian Greek Phonology and Orthography from Alexander to Islam Ref Buy (Eerdmans, 2023) 896 pp.
Helps for Learning Greek Accents
‘A Guide to Greek Accents’ (2004) 5 pp. at Chioulaoshi.org
Hewett, James A. et al. – ‘Accents’ in New Testament Greek: a Beginning & Intermediate Grammar (Baker Academic, 2017), pp. 259-67
Helps on Reading Greek Ligatures
A ligature is an alphabetic-like abbreviation, or symbol, standing for more than one letter. There was a height of using ligatures, one in nearly every third word, in Post-Reformation writings in the 1500’s.
pp. 3-4 & 6-7 in Alphabetum Graecum… (Paris, 1550)
Bullions, Peter – ‘Ligatures or Abbreviations’ in The Principles of Greek Grammar… 20th ed. rev. (NY: Pratt, 1851)
‘Example Images’ in ‘Greek Ligatures’ at Wikipedia
Ingram, William H. – ‘The Ligatures of Early Printed Greek’
Greek printed in the 1500’s is filled with ligatures, where more than one letter is printed as a special combined letter. The article gives background on the subject and then gives a list of the ligatures on pp. 382-89, giving their meanings.
Greek Dictionaries, Parsing Guides & Concordances
New Testament Background, Survey, Authenticity & Introduction
Bible Dictionaries & Encyclopedias