Medieval Church History & Renaissance

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Church History

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Order of Contents

About
General History
.     Brief  12
.     In-Depth  13
.     On Large Parts of the Middle Ages  2
.     Political Theory  7
.     The Holy Roman Empire  3
.     Byzantine Empire  7
.     Special Studies  6
.     The Renaissance  7
.     Lists of Persons, Dates & Events  2
.     Maps  3
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Church History
.      Histories  8
.      Special Periods  6
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 Eastern and Latin Churches  3
.      The Papacy  12
.      English Church  10
.      Patrologies
.      Antiquities
.      Councils & Creeds  16

Christians Under Islam  23
Theology, Philosophy & Thought  42
Bible Commentaries
Primary Sources
Bibliographies  11


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About

While the Middle Ages have been popularly known as the Dark Ages for a reason, before the pure light of God’s Word broke forth in more unhindered magnitude and extent during the Reformation, yet the Christian will be edified in reading the stories of many of God’s sincere saints, and their devotion to Him, even in these spiritually trying times.

One also sees in this era the prophesied, development (2 Thess. 2:1-12) of the corruption in the early Church that would insidiously grow into the systemic-apostasy and Great Whore of Revelation (Rev. 17): the Papal Antichrist, arrogantly exalting itself in the place of Christ over his Church and oppressing his people with every deceit, superstition and device born out of the mystery of iniquity.

With a bit of discernment reading these complex times, our faith will be greatly helped in reading of God’s dear saints and how they overcame the world by faith.

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Medieval Church history is sprawling, but this webpage will give you a great foundation for the era and will likely answer most of your questions about it.  Most of the resources here are fully and freely available in the public domain.

Our general history section of the era is extensive as the general history of the Middle Ages is largely a history of the Church, or closely related thereto.  Likewise, Medieval Church histories often come close to being general histories of the era.

As Early Church history is not always easily distinguished from Medieval Church history for the 500-800 AD time-frame, be sure also to check our page: Early Church History.

For a brief, succinct, sketch of the leading Church history of the Middle Ages (by an Anglican), we would recommend:

Adolphus, O. – ‘Seventh Century’ & ‘Mediaeval Church’  1865  34 pp.  in Compendium Theologicum; or Manual for Students in Theology… intended for those preparing for Theological Examinations, pp. 169-203

Happily, we found that a number of contemporary, scholarly works by Cambridge and Oxford, which are very comprehensive and detailed, are fully available online:

The Oxford History of Medieval Europe  1992  430 pp.

The Shorter Cambridge Medieval History, vol. 1, 2  1960

The Shorter Cambridge Medieval History  1978  580 pp.

The Cambridge Medieval History, vol. 1 (300-476), 2 (Saracens), 3 (Germany, Western), 4 (Eastern, 717-1453), 5 (Empire vs. Papacy), 6 (Papacy Victory), 7 (Decline of Empire & Papacy), 8 (Close of Middle Ages)  1929

The New Cambridge Medieval History, vol. 1 (500-700), 2 (700-900), 3 (900-1024), 4.1 (1024-1198), 4.2 (1024-1198), 5 (1198-1300), 6 (1300-1415), 7 (1415-1500)  2005

The Cambridge Modern History, vol. 1: the Renaissance  1907  845 pp.

ed. Audi, Robert – The Cambridge Dictionary of Philosophy  1995  910 pp.

We are also pleased to provide a significant section on Christians under Islam.  Historically, when extensive lands were conquered through jihad by Islam, both in the Middle Ages and in more modern history, Christians with other non-Muslims, upon principle from the Koran, were subjugated as ‘dhimmi’, an oppressed, second-class citizenship, whose ‘rights’ might be taken away at nearly any moment (especially for frequent and recurring massacres).

We highly recommend the writings of Bat Ye’or, who, with first class scholarship, has brought these issues to light in the modern scene, impartially and with full documentation.  Be sure to especially pick up her book: 

The Dhimmi: Jews and Christians under Islam  Buy  1985  440 pp.

While there are forces at play in the modern world affecting Islam which did not exist in centuries past, yet, if consistent history means anything, Muslims predictably, when stirred up, and especially when in power, return to their historic and religious roots.  It would be well for you to know what those historic and religious roots are.

May this humble collection of Medieval resources be a blessing to you, and may it in part facilitate the spread of Christ’s spiritual Kingdom throughout the world, as yeast fills a loaf of bread (Mt. 13:33).

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General History of the Middle Ages

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Brief General Histories  12

1800’s

Sheppard, John – The Fall of Rome and the Rise of New Nationalities  1861  810 pp.  a series of lectures

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1900’s

Bourne, Henry E. – A History of Mediaeval and Modern Europe  1905  560 pp.

Adams, George Burton

Civilization during the Middle Ages, especially in relation to Modern Civilization  rev. 1922  470 pp.

Medieval and Modern History, with Maps and Illustrations  1905  535 pp.

Adams was a professor of History at Yale.  This is designed to be a textbook.

Dewe, J.A. – Medieval and Modern History: its Formative Causes and Broad Movements, with maps  1907  545 pp.

Davis, H.W.C. – Medieval Europe  1911  265 pp.

Souttar, Robinson – A Short History of the Medieval Peoples, from the Dawn of the Christian Era to the Fall of Constantinople  1912  705 pp.

Thorndike, Lynn – The History of Medieval Europe  1917  740 pp.

A text-book for college students.

Davis, William S. – A History of Mediaeval and Modern Europe for Secondary Schools  1920  660 pp.

Dawson, C. – The Making of Europe  1932  260 pp.

Southern, R.W. – The Making of the Middle Ages  Buy  1953  280 pp.

“Impressive, especially on the 11th century.” – Owen Chadwick

Keen, Maurice – The Pelican History of Medieval Europe  1969  350 pp.

ed. Previte-Orton

The Shorter Cambridge Medieval History, vol. 1, 2  1960

The Shorter Cambridge Medieval History  1978  580 pp.

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In-Depth General Histories  12

1700’s

Gibbon, Edward – The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire  1782   6 vol. ed.  Scroll down the page a way where there is a full table of contents with links.  For Christianity during this period, see especially chs. 37 (Conversion of Barbarians) & 51 (Christians under Islam)  The history goes up through the close of the 1500’s.

Invaluable material from a classic, though Gibbon was anti-Christian.  The scope of the work is so broad that it is practically a general history of the Middle Ages.

“Unsurpassed in the skillful use of sources and artistic composition, but skeptical and destitute of sympathy with the genius of Christianity.” – P. Schaff

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1800’s

Hallam, Henry – View of the State of Europe During the Middle Ages, vol. 1, 2  1882

Emerton, Ephraim

An Introduction to the Study of the Middle Ages (375-814)  1889  310

Emerton was a professor of history at Harvard.

Mediaeval Europe (814-1300)  1896  650 pp.

The Beginnings of Modern Europe (1250-1450)  1917  585 pp.

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1900’s

ed. Johnson, A.H. – Six Ages of European History from AD 476 to 1878  1909  in 6 vols.

Masterman, J. Howard – The Dawn of Mediaeval Europe, 476-918  305 pp.

Lees, Beatrice – The Central Period of the Middle Age  320 pp.

Lodge, Eleanor – The End of the Middle Age, 1273-1453  335 pp.

Fletcher, Charles R. – The Making of Western Europe, being an attempt to Trace the Fortunes of the Children of the Roman Empire, vol. 1 (The Dark Ages, 300-1000), 2 (The First Renaissance, 1000-1190)  1912

Reads in a popular vein.

Young, G.F. – East and West Through 15 Centuries, being a General History from 44 BC to AD 1453, vol. 1 (44 BC-395 AD), 2 (395-750)  1916  It appears that volumes 3 & 4 never reached the press.

Coulton, G.G. – Life in the Middle Ages, vol. 1, 2, 3-4  1928

The Cambridge Medieval History, vol. 1 (300-476), 2 (Saracens), 3 (Germany, Western), 4 (Eastern, 717-1453), 5 (Empire vs. Papacy), 6 (Papacy Victory), 7 (Decline of Empire & Papacy), 8 (Close of Middle Ages)  1929

Coulton, G.G. – Five Centuries of Religion, vol. 1 (1000-1200), 2 (1200-1400), 3, 4 (Last Days of Medieval Monachism)  1929

Holmes, George – The Oxford History of Medieval Europe  1992  430 pp.

Southern, R.W. et al. – The Story of the Middle Ages, 5 vols.  Buy  1998

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2000’s

The New Cambridge Medieval History, vol. 1 (500-700), 2 (700-900), 3 (900-1024), 4.1 (1024-1198), 4.2 (1024-1198), 5 (1198-1300), 6 (1300-1415), 7 (1415-1500)  2005

Periods of European History, 8 vols.

Oman, Charles – The Dark Ages, 476-918  1903  545 pp.

Tout, T.F. – The Empire and the Papacy, 918-1273  1921  535 pp.

Lodge, R. – The Close of the Middle Ages, 1273-1494  1902  605 pp.

Epochs of Modern History

Church, R.W. – The Beginning of the Middle Ages  1895  290 pp.

Johnson, A.H. – The Normans in Europe  1896  320 pp.

Cox, George W. – The Crusades  1874  240 pp.


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On Large Parts of the Middle Ages  2

Curteis, Arthur – History of the Roman Empire, from the Death of Theodosius the Great to the Coronation of Charles the Great, AD 395-800, with maps  1875  340 pp.

Hodgkin, T. – Italy and her Invaders, vol. 1 (376-476, Visigothic Invasion), 2 (376-476, Hunnish & Vandal Invasions), 3 (476-535, Ostrogothic Invasion), 4 (535-553, Imperial Restoration), 5 (553-600, Lombard Invasion), 6 (600-744, Lombard Kingdom), 7 (744-774, Frankish Invasions)  1916

“In spite of its restricted title, this work is practically a general history of Europe from the 4th to the 9th century.” – Paetow

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Political Theory  7

Shorter Accounts

McIlwain, C.H. – Chs. 5-6 of The Growth of Political Thought in the West  1956  212 pp.

Sabine, G.H. – Chs. 10-17 of A History of Political Theory  1951  150 pp.

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One Volume

Gierke, Otto – Political Theories of the Middle Age  1900  260 pp.

Kern, Fritz – Kingship and Law in the Middle Ages  1939  235 pp.

Ullmann, W. – Medieval Papalism: the Political Theories of Medieval Canonists  Buy  1949  256 pp.  Routledge Library Editions: Political Science, Vol. 36

Tellenbach, G. – Church, State and Christian Society at the Time of the Investiture Contest  Buy  1959  220 pp.

The Investiture Controversy was one of the major turning points of the Middle Ages.

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In-Depth

Carlyle, R.W. & A.J. – A History of Mediaeval Political Theory in the West, vol. 1 (100’s-800’s), 2 (900’s-1200’s), 3 (900’s-1200’s), 4 (900’s-1100’s), 5 (1200’s), 6 (1300-1600)  1970

“The standard exposition.” – Owen Chadwick


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The Holy Roman Empire

Bryce, James – The Holy Roman Empire  1876  510 pp.

“This is the best book on the subject in any language.” – Louis Paetow

Bury, .B. – A History of the Later Roman Empire, from Arcadius to Irene, vol. 1, 2

Fisher, Herbert – The Medieval Empire, vols. 1, 2  1898


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The Byzantine Empire  7

Works

Finlay, George – History of the Byzantine Empire from 716-1453, vol. 1 (716-1057), 2 (1058-1453)  1853

Oman, C.W.C. – The Byzantine Empire  1908  385 pp.

Foord, Edward – The Byzantine Empire: the Rearguard of European Civilization  1911  515 pp.

Baynes, N.H.

The Byzantine Empire  1926

Byzantium: an Introduction to East Roman Civilization  1948  500 pp.  Oxford

Vasiliev, Alexander – History of the Byzantine Empire, 324-1453  1958  640 pp.

Vasilev (1867–1953) was considered the foremost authority on Byzantine history and culture in the mid-20th century.  His work remains one of a few comprehensive accounts of the entire Byzantine history, on the par with those authored by Edward Gibbon and Fyodor Uspensky.

“…from the original work in Russian of the history of the Great Byzantine Empire.  It is the most complete and thorough work on this subject.  From it we get a wonderful panorama of the events and developments of the struggles of early Christianity, both western and eastern, with all of its remains of the wonderful productions of art, architecture, and learning.” – Southwestern Journal of Theology

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Bibliography

Paetow, Louis – ‘The Byzantine Empire’  in A Guide to the Study of Medieval History, pp. 66-67


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Special Studies  5

Munro & Sellery – Medieval Civilization: Selected Studies from European Authors  1904  400 pp.  33 studies

Hill, David – A History of Diplomacy in the International Development of Europe, vol. 1, the Struggle for Universal Empire, 2, the Establishment of Territorial Sovereignty3, the Diplomacy of the Age of Absolutism  1905

Woolley, Reginald – Coronation Rites  1915  235 pp.

The Inquisition

Lea, H.C. – A History of the Inquisition of the Middle Ages, vol. 1, 2, 3  1888

Turberville, A.S. – Medieval Heresy and the Inquisition  1920  275 pp.

Maycock, A.L. – The Inquisition from its Establishment to the Great Schism: an Introductory Study  1927  320 pp.


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The Renaissance  7

1900’s

The Cambridge Modern History, vol. 1: the Renaissance  1907  845 pp.

Battifol, Louis – The National History of France: the Century of the Renaissance  1916  460 pp.

Durant, Will – The Renaissance: a History of Civilization in Italy from 1304-1576  1953  840 pp.

Lucki, Emil – The History of the Renaissance, vol. 1, 2 (Church & Religion), 3, 4, 5 (Politics & Political Theory)  1963

ed. Grendler, Paul – Encyclopedia of the Renaissance, 6 vols.  Buy  1999

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2000’s

Johnson, Paul – The Renaissance: a Short History  2000  210 pp

Johnson is a popular journalist and writer in history.

ed. Najemy, John – Italy in the Age of the Renaissance, 1300-1550  2004  340 pp.  in The Short Oxford History of Italy


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Lists of Persons, Dates & Events

Thorndike, Lynn – ‘Chronological Table’  in The History of Medieval Europe  1917

‘Appendices’ 1960  20 pp.  in The Shorter Cambridge Medieval History, vol. 2, pp. 1123 ff.

Includes lists of: Roman Emperors, Byzantine Emperors, German Kings & Holy Roman Emperors, Popes & Leading Events.


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Maps

McClure, Edmund – Historical Church Atlas  1897  195 pp.

“The best general atlas for the use of students in schools and undergraduates in college.” – Paetow, 1917

The Cambridge Medieval History Maps, vol. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7  1911

Shepherd, William – Historical Atlas  1911  320 pp.

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Church History

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Church Histories

Brief Sketch

Adolphus, O. – ‘Seventh Century’ & ‘Mediaeval Church’  1865  34 pp.  in Compendium Theologicum; or Manual for Students in Theology… intended for those preparing for Theological Examinations, pp. 169-203

Excellent succinct summary of some leading themes in the Middle Ages by an Anglican.

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1800’s

Workman, Herbert – The Foundation of Modern Religion: A Study in the Task and Contribution of the Medieval Church  1862  255 pp.

Trench, R.C. – Lectures on Medieval Church History  1879  465 pp.

Hurst, John F. – Short History of the Medieval Church  1887  130 pp.

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1900’s

Deanesly, Margaret – A History of the Medieval Church, 590-1500  Buy  1954  285 pp.

Baldwin, Marshall – The Medieval Church (the Development of Western Civilization)  Buy  1970

“This collection contains documents in English which illustrate Christian life during four periods: the early patristic age, the Carolingian era, the tenth through mid-twelfth centuries, the high middle ages (1150-1300).  Each section presents material on a wide range of topics of interest to the student, and brief bibliographies are provided for further study.  An index of subjects and personalities is provided.” – G.E. & Lyn Gorman

Bainton, Roland

The Medieval Church  1979  198 pp.

Early and Medieval Christianity  Buy  1962  261 pp.


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Special Periods  6

to the 1200’s

Carwithen & Lyall – The Christian Church from the Fourth to the Twelfth Century  1856  320 pp.

Bell, Kenneth – Mediaeval Europe: a Text-Book of European History, 1095-1254  1911  280 pp.

Flick, Alexander – The Rise of the Mediaeval Church and its Influence on the Civilisation of Western Europe from the First to the Thirteenth Century  1909  640 pp.

1200-1500

Workman, Herbert

The Dawn of the Reformation, vol. 1 (Wycliff), 2 (Hus) 1901

John Wyclif: a Study of the English Medieval Church, vol. 1, 2

Huizinga, J. – The Waning of the Middle Ages: a Study of the Forms of Life, Thought and Art in France and the Netherlands in the 14th and 15th Centuries  1922  360 pp.  Penguin Books

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History of the Eastern and Latin Churches

Histories of the Eastern and Latin Churches

Workman, Herbert – The Church of the West in the Middle Ages, vols. 1, 2  1900

Lagarde, Andre – The Latin Church in the Middle Ages  1915  620 pp.  trans. Archibald Alexander


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The Papacy  12

Encyclopedia

The Catholic Encyclopedia  1907-1912

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General Works

Kidd, B.J. – The Roman Primacy to AD 461  Buy  1936

Kidd (1864–1948) was an Anglican priest and historian.

Ullmann, W. – The Growth of Papal Government in the Middle Ages  1955

Creighton, Mandell – A History of the Papacy from the Great Schism to the Sack of Rome, vol. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6  1904

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Lives & Histories of the Popes

von Ranke, Leopold – The History of the Popes during the Last Four Centuries, vol. 1 (0-1500), 2 (1589-1870), 3 (1450-1780)  The title refers to the emphasis on 1450-1870, though a synopsis is given of their whole history from the 1st century

von Ranke (1795–1886) was a German historian who was one of the most important historians of the 1800’s, due especially to his modern, source-based method.

Bower, Archibald – The History of the Popes, vol. 1 (33-700), 2 (701-1264), 3 (1265-1844)  1844  Continued from 1758-1844 by Samuel H. Cox.

Bower (1686–1766) was a Scottish historian of varying faith.

Pastor, Ludwig – A History of the Popes from the Close of the Middle Ages, 5 vols.  1898 ff.  The volumes of the 40 vol. set are searchable here.

“Pastor had materials which Creighton [above] lacked, but Creighton is sometimes curiously preferable.” – Owen Chadwick

Mann, Horace – The Lives of the Popes in the Early Middle Ages, 18 vols.  1902 ff.

“Goes from 590-1304.  Not critical enough, but using good materials.” – Owen Chadwick

Duchesne, L. – The Book of the Popes, to the Pontificate of Gregory I  1916  200 pp.

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Special Topics

Gregorovius, Ferdinand – History of the City of Rome in the Middle Ages, vol. 1, 2 (568-800), 3, 4.1, 4.2, 5.1 (1200-1260), 5.2 (1260-1305), 6.1 (1305-1354), 6.2 (1355-1420), 7.1 (1421-1496), 7.2 (1497-1503), 8.1, 8.2  1894

“Vigorous, readable, one-sided.” – Owen Chadwick

Duchesne, L. – The Beginnings of the Temporal Sovereignty of the Popes  1908  320 pp.

Lunt, W.E. – ‘The Financial System of the Medieval Papacy in the Light of Recent Literature’  1934  43 pp.

Tierney, Brian – Foundations of the Conciliar Theory; the Contribution of the Medieval Canonists from Gratian to the Great Schism  1968  290 pp.

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The Western Schism

The Western Schism of 1378 to 1417 is when the Roman Catholic Church had 3 competing popes.  This is not to be confused with the ‘Great Schism’ of 1054 which divided the Eastern Church from the Western Church, though people have sometimes used interchangeable names.

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Salembier, L. – The Great Schism of the West  1907  420 pp.

Salembier was a Roman Catholic professor.

Locke, Clinton – The Ages of the Great Western Schism  1897  320 pp.  in Eras of the Christian Church

Ullmann, Walter – The Origins of the Great Schism: a Study in Fourteenth Century Ecclesiastical History  1910  270 pp.

Jordan, G.J. – The Inner History of the Great Schism of the West: a Problem in Church Unity  1930  210 pp.

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Bibliography

Of Primary Sources

Paetow, Louis – ‘The Papacy’  in A Guide to the Study of Medieval History, pp. 94-95

Of Secondary Sources

Paetow, Louis – ‘The Medieval Papacy’  1917  in A Guide to the study of Medieval History, pp. 48-49

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The English Church  10

Williams, Hugh – Christianity in Early Britain  1912  490 pp.

Hunt, William

The English Church: From Its Foundation to the Norman Conquest (597-1066)  1912  440 pp.

The English Church in the Middle Ages  1888  220 pp.  in Epochs of Church History

Stephens, W.R.W. – The English Church from the Norman Conquest to the Accession of Edward I, 1066-1272  1904  365 pp.

Capes, W.W. – A History of the English in the Fourteenth and Fifteenth Centuries  1900  405 pp.

Brooke, Z.N. – The English Church and the Papacy, from the Conquest to the Reign of John  1931  260 pp.

Del Mar, Alexander – The Middle Ages Revisited, or the Roman Government and Religion and their Relations to Britain  1900  405 pp.

Manning, Bernard – The People’s Faith in the Time of Wyclif  1919  215 pp.

Abram, A. – English Life and Manners in the Later Middle Ages  1913  430 pp.

Coulton, G.G.

Life in Ancient Britain: a Survey of the Social and Economic Development of the People of England from Earliest Times to the Roman Conquest  1920  275 pp.

Social Life in Britain from the Conquest to the Reformation  1918  565 pp.

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Patrologies

Patrologies

Patrologies are works that give bios of the prominent saints.  Many patrologies do not reach into the Middle Ages, but a number of these do.


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Antiquities

Smith, W. & Cheetham, S. – A Dictionary of Christian Antiquities… from the time of the Apostles to the age of Charlemagne, vol. 1 (A-J), 2 (K-Z)  1908

Most of the other Works of Antiquities are geared around the early Church, but you can check those as well.

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Councils & Creeds

Councils & Creeds  16


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Christians under Islam

We highly recommend the works of Bat Ye’or, 1985 ff. below, as they are the best on the subject.

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Primary Sources

Examples

‘Islam and the Jews: The Status of Jews and Christians in Muslim Lands, 1772 CE’  Internet Medieval Sourcebook at Fordham University

ed. Gottheil, Richard – ‘An Answer to the Dhimmis’  1292  from  Journal of the American Oriental Society, vol. 41, 1921  70 pp.

Gottheil gives an introduction to the document, reproduces it in Arabic, and then provides a translation on p. 416 ff.

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Testimony

ed. Muir, William – The Apology of Al Kindy, written at the Court of Al Mamun, AD 830, in Defence of Christianity Against Islam  1882  95 pp.

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The Crusades

ed. de Joinville, John – Chronicles of the Crusades, being Contemporary Narratives…  1848  570 pp.

“The present volume comprises the three most interesting contemporary chronicles of the crusades which have been handed down to us…” – Preface

Hallam, Elizabeth – Chronicles of the Crusades: Eye-Witness Accounts of the Wars Between Christianity and Islam  2000  400 pp.

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Secondary Literature

Articles & Chapters

1700’s

Gibbon, Edward – chs. 51-52, ‘Conquests by the Arabs; State of the Christians under their Government’  of The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire  1782 

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1900’s

Gottheil, Richard J.H. – ‘Dhimmis and Moslems in Egypt’  1908  64 pp.  in Old Testament and Semetic Studies in Memory of William Rainey Harper, vol. 2, pp. 351-414  ed. Harper, Brown, Moore

Cambridge – Chs. 10-12  of The Cambridge Medieval History, vol. 2, pp. 302-390  1913  82 pp.

Affected by the turn to a more positive view of Islam in the early 1900’s amongst academia.  Pp. 329-330 lays out the author’s historiographical perspective.

ed. Hastings, James – Encyclopedia of Religion and Ethics  1918/21

‘Persecution (Muhammadan)’

‘Toleration (Muhammadan)’

Informative, though overly positive.

Tritton, A.S. – ‘Islam and the Protected Religions’  in The Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland, No. 2 (Apr., 1931), pp. 311-338

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2000’s

Ye’or, Bat – ‘Dhimmitude Past and Present: An Invented or Real History?’  2002

Stillman, Norman – ‘Dimma’  in Medieval Islamic Civilization: an Encyclopedia, vol. 1, A-K  2006  Vol. 2 is not online, except in preview form on GB

Stillman

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Books

1800’s

Haines, C.H. – Christianity and Islam in Spain, 756-1031  1889  185 pp.

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1900’s

Wherry, E.M. – Islam and Christianity in India and the Far East  1906-7  240 pp.  Lectures at Princeton Theological Seminary

“The papers published in this volume… sum up the results of many years of study in connection with missionary work in India…  these chapters show that in Islam, preaching and teaching normally follow upon the heels of the invading Moslem army, and on the other hand that the preaching of Islam invariably calls in the aid of the secular power.

We also learn how very difficult it is for a church once made subject to the Moslem conqueror to exert any active influence for the evangelization of its Moslem neighbors.” – Preface

Tritton, A.S. – The Caliphs and their Non-Muslim Subjects: a Critical Study of the Covenant of ‘Umar [AD 637]  1930  250 pp.

Browne, L.E. – The Eclipse of Christianity in Asia from the time of Muhammad till the Fourteenth Century  1933  Buy  Cambridge

Stillman, Norman – Jews of Arab Lands: A History and Source Book  Buy  1979  474 pp.

Stillman

Ye’or, Bat

The Dhimmi: Jews and Christians under Islam  Buy  1985  440 pp.

‘Dhimmi’ is the historical term for the second-class citizenship of non-Muslims living in Muslim lands.  Yeor’s works contain first class scholarship and impartially relate from the primary sources what it was like for Christians and Jews to live under Islamic rule, and the various laws and living conditions, or lack thereof, that applied to them.

Bat Ye’or, or ‘Daughter of the Nile’, is the pseudonym, of a woman who grew up in Egypt as a British citizen and observed first hand the Islamic treatment of non-Muslims.

Part of the Preface by Jacques Ellul:

“…The reader will see that in many ways the dhimmi was comparable to the European serf of the Middle Ages…  the dhimmi: his status was not the product of historical accident but was that which ought to be from the religious point of view and according to the Muslim conception of the world.  In other words, it was the expression of the absolute, unchanging, theologically grounded Muslim conception of the relationship between Islam and non-Islam…  One must know as exactly as possible what the Muslim did with these unconverted conquered peoples, because that is what they will do in the future (and are doing right now)…

But precisely what seems to me interesting and striking about Islam, one of its peculiarities, is the fixity of its concepts…  Wherever the social organization is based upon a system, it tends to reproduce itself far more exactly…

For the conquering Islam of today, those who do not claim to be Muslims do not have any human rights recognized as such…

..although we perceive a very great diversity in the reality of the dhimmi’s existence, this in no way changed the identical and profound reality of his condition.  The second argument put forward by our critic was that the ‘persecutions’ to which the dhimmi was subjected had been greatly exaggerated.  He spoke of ‘a few outbursts of popular anger,’…  the ‘few’ outbursts, in fact, were historically very numerous and massacres of dhimmis were frequent.  Nowadays we ought not to overlook the considerable evidence (which was formerly overstressed) of the slaughter of Jews and Christians in all the countries occupied by the Arabs and Turks, which recurred often…

…The Muslim world has not evolved in its manner of considering the non-Muslim, which is a reminder of the fate in store for those who may one day be submerged within it.”

The Decline of Eastern Christianity under Islam: from Jihad to Dhimmitude: Seventh to Twentieth Century  Buy  1996

Islam and Dhimmitude: Where Civilizations Collide  Buy  2001

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2000’s

ed. Thomas, David – Syrian Christians under Islam  2001  240 pp.  Brill

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Bibliographies

Thompson, James W. – ‘Mohammed and the Rise of the Arab Empire’  1907  2 pp.  in Reference Studies in Medieval History, pp. 39-40

Peters, Rudolph – Jihad in Medieval and Modern Islam  Buy  1977  90 pp.  Brill

“Provides a bibliography of translations of classical sources on the jihad.” – Bat Ye’or

Gouryh, Admer – ‘Syrian Christianity Under Islam: Bibliography’  n.d.  American Foundation for Syriac Studies

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Video, True Account

Time Of Violence: The True Story How European Christians Lived Under Islam And Turks, part 1, 2  1988  a Bulgarian film with subtitles in English

“Based on eyewitness written accounts.  In the 17th century, a Bulgarian
Christian region is selected by the Ottoman rulers to serve as an example of conversion to Islam.  A Janissary who was kidnapped from the village as a boy now serving the Ottoman sultan is sent to force the reluctant inhabitants to convert.  The Bulgarian christians have to chose between physical annihilation and losing their spiritual identity.  Ultimately torture, violence, and rebellion break out.  Based on real events and the novel “Time of Parting” (Vreme Razdelno) by Anton Donchev…  

The novel is based on two individual eyewitness written accounts – by the priest Aligorko and the Venetian.  The resulting text is a translation of the original French and Old Bulgarian (Old Church Slavonic) texts.  All names, characters and events appear in the original manuscripts.”


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Medieval Theology

Also check treatments of the Middle Ages in Historical Theologies of the whole Christian era.  See also the philosophy section below as theology and philosophy strongly overlap in the Medieval era.

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1800’s

Poole, Reginald – Illustrations of the History of Medieval Thought in the Departments of Theology and Ecclesiastical Politics  1884  405 pp.

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1900’s

Gilson, Etienne Henry – Reason and Revelation in the Middle Ages  Buy  1946  114 pp.

Gilson is a Roman Catholic scholar.

McCracken, George – Early Medieval Theology  Buy  1957  428 pp.

Laistner, Charles – The Renaissance of the Twelfth Century  1957  440 pp.

Leff, Gordon – Medieval Thought: St. Atugustine to Ockham  Buy  1958  Penguin Books

Cassidy, Frank – Molders of the Medieval Mind: The Influence of the Fathers of the Church on the Medieval Schoolmen  Buy  1966

Meyendorff, Jean – Byzantine Theology: Historical Trends and Doctrinal Themes  Buy  1974

Evans, G.R.

The Medieval Theologians: An Introduction to Theology in the Medieval Period  Buy  2001  408 pp.

Philosophy and Theology in the Middle Ages  Buy  1993  152 pp.

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2000’s

Oberman, Heiko – The Harvest of Medieval Theology: Gabriel Biel and Late Medieval Nominalism  Buy  2001  512 pp.

Brown & Flores – Historical Dictionary of Medieval Philosophy and Theology  Buy  2007  464 pp.

D’Onofrio, Giulio – The History of Theology II: The Middle Ages  Buy  2008  560 pp.

A Roman Catholic scholar writes for laymen.

Ginther, James – The Westminster Handbook to Medieval Theology  Buy  2009  240 pp.  Westminster John Knox Press is a liberal publisher.  This is laid out as a dictionary, besides introductory articles

van Nieuwenhove, Rik – An Introduction to  Medieval Theology  Buy  2012  308 pp.  Cambridge

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Specific Doctrines in the Middle Ages

Webb, Clement – ‘Natural Theology in the Middle Ages’  1915  220 pp.  in Studies in the History of Natural Theology

Carlson, C.P. – Justification in Earlier Medieval Theology  Buy  1975  157 pp.

Evans, G.R. – Law and Theology in the Middle Ages  Buy  2001  272 pp.

Paasch, J.T. – Divine Production in Late Medieval Trinitarian Theology: Henry of Ghent, Duns Scotus, and William Ockham  Buy  2012  240 pp.  Oxford

The Early & Medieval Church on Limited Atonement

Much of Medieval thought did not use the paradigm of limited atonement, though there were some significant precedents.

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Greek Orthodox Theology

Article

Louth, Andrew – The Nature of Eastern Orthodox Theology  2010  28 pp.

Louth briefly surveys Athanasius, Dionysios the Areopagite, Maximus the Confessor, and Gregory Palamas, who cover a period of about a millennium, stretching from the fourth to the fourteenth century.

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Book

Lossky, Vladimir – Orthodox Theology: an Introduction  Buy  1978

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Philosophy

1900’s

Turner, William – Part 2, Section B, Scholastic Philosophy  1903  178 pp.  in History of Philosophy, pp. 244-422  1903

de Wulf, Maurice

History of Medieval Philosophy  1909  510 pp.

Philosophy and Civilization in the Middle Ages  1922  325 pp.

Rickaby, Joseph – Scholasticism  1911  140 pp.

Workman, Herbert – chs. 6-9  of Christian Thought to the Reformation, pp. 128-243  1916  115 pp.

Workman (1862–1951) was a Methodist minister and pastor.

Husik, Isaac – A History of Mediaeval Jewish Philosophy  1918  520 pp.

Gilson, Etienne Henry

The Spirit of Medieval Philosophy  Buy  1940  490 pp.

History of Christian Philosophy in the Middle Ages  Buy  1955  820 pp.

“This authoritative Roman Catholic treatment is arranged chronologically from Justin Martyr to Nicholas of Cusa [†1464]… An extensive bibliography (pp. 552-804) covers every name and topic mentioned in the text, and an index of authors and historians is provided… [it] is not for the absolute beginner.” – G.E. & Lyn Gorman

Copleston, F. – Medieval Philosophy  Buy  1952

“For the schoolmen the following are standard accounts:” – Owen Chadwick

Maurer, Armand Augustine – Medieval Philosophy  Buy  1962  in A History of Philosophy, vol. 2

ed. Armstrong, Arthur – The Cambridge History of Later Greek and Early Medieval Philosophy  Buy  1967

Jones, W.T. – A History of Western Philosophy: the Medieval Mind, vol. 2  1969  380 pp.

ed. Audi, Robert – The Cambridge Dictionary of Philosophy  1995  910 pp.

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2000’s

Kenney, Anthony – Medieval Philosophy (A New History of Western Philosophy, Vol. 2)  Buy  2007  352 pp.  Oxford

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Medieval Thought  5

1900’s

Taylor, Henry

The Mediaeval Mind: the History of the Development of Thought and Emotion in the Middle Ages, vol. 1, 2  1914

The Classical Heritage of the Middle Ages  1903  415 pp.

Thought and Expression in the Sixteenth Century, vol. 1, 2  1920

Poole, Reginald – Illustrations of the History of Medieval Thought and Learning  1920  340 pp.

Leff, G. – Medieval Thought from S. Augustine to Ockham  Buy  1958

Knowles, M.D. – The Evolution of Medieval Thought  Buy  1962

Green, Otis – The Literary Mind of Medieval and Renaissance Spain  1970  280 pp.

Ward, Benedicta – Miracles and the Medieval Mind: Theory, Record, and Event, 1000-1215  1982  346 pp.

Manchester, William – A World Lit Only by Fire: the Medieval Mind and the Renaissance; Portrait of an Age  1993  350 pp.


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Bible Commentaries

Most of the major medieval Bible commentaries that have been translated into English are referenced and/or linked in our Bible Commentaries section, under their specific book of the Bible.

Exhaustive Bibliography of Commentaries from the Middle Ages in Latin:

Repertorium Biblicum  Most browsers allow one to right-click on the page and automatically translate it

“…provide basic data about the individuals they reference, and then proceed to indicate in exhaustive detail what these people wrote and the location of the sources… [it is] arranged alphabetically by author… [and] lists all known editions and the locations of virtually every Bible commentary… written in the Middle Ages.” — Bradley & Muller


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Primary Sources

The older, standard editions of the Church fathers in English (ed. Schaff) and Greek (ed. Migne) go up to about 800 AD.  The fathers in Latin (ed. Migne) goes up to 1200 AD, right before the major Summas and commentaries thereon in the 13th century.  The older standard edition of all of the church councils and their decrees in Latin goes from the beginning up to 1902 AD.  All of these are fully online:

Early Church Primary Sources

For more Medieval fathers in print form, see the Catholic University of America’s series: Fathers of the Church Medieval Continuations  Buy

For a few hundred Medieval texts that have been translated into English and printed by Liverpool University, see their series, Translated Texts for Historians  Buy  For a similar number, see also Oxford Medieval Texts  Buy  Dallas Medieval Texts has published about 50 volumes  Buy  TEAMS Middle English Texts has done a few hundred  Buy  The series, Medieval Philosophical Texts in Translation, has around 50 in it  Buy

For a broad range of Medieval primary source documents online, see the Medieval Sourcebook at Fordham University (use the sidebar on the left to browse).


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Bibliographies of Primary Sources

Books

ed. Paetow, Louis – Guide to the Study of Medieval History  1917

”Source Books’:  Short Selections from the Sources for Schools’ 

‘Large Collections of Original Sources’

Works referenced before or about 1930 can usually be found at Internet Archive.

ed. Farrar & Evans – Bibliography of English Translations from Medieval Sources  Buy  1964

“…for its time an exhaustive effort…” – Bradley & Muller

Ferguson, Mary Anne – Bibliography of English Translations from Medieval Sources, 1943-67  Buy  1975  274 pp.

Continues Farrar and Evans work.

Boyle, Leonard – A Survey of the Vatican Archives and of its Medieval Holdings  Buy  2001

Bradley, James & Muller, Richard – Church History: An Introduction to Research Methods and Resources  Buy  2nd ed. 2015  293 pp.  The 2nd edition is necessary for the internet resources.

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Website

‘Introduction to Medieval Studies Resources’  at Stanford

“Ferguson in turn as been continued online at Stanford University’s Medieval Studies site… and arguably students ought to begin with the resources at this well-maintained and often updated site.” – Bradley & Muller

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Bibliographies on the Middle Ages  14

1800’s

Sonnenschein, William – pp. 53-55 of The Best Books: a Reader’s Guide  1891

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1900’s

Thompson, James W. –  Reference Studies in Medieval History  1907  130 pp.

Davis, H.W.C. – ‘Note on Books’  1911  2 pp.  in Medieval Europe, pp. 255-6

Paetow, Louis – A Guide to the Study of Medieval History  1917  580 pp.

This is one of the “General resources that all researchers in medieval studies ought to be familiar with…” – Bradley & Muller

Davis, Ralph Henry – Medieval European History, 395-1500: a Select Bibliography  Buy  1968  48 pp.

“…provides narrative commentary on some 600 items in twenty-two sections, none of which is devoted more than marginally to ecclesiastical topics.” – G.E. & Lyn Gorman

The Cambridge Medieval History – ‘List of Bibliographies’ in vol. 1 (300-476), 2 (Saracens), 3 (Germany, Western), 4 (Eastern, 717-1453), 5 (Empire vs. Papacy), 6 (Papacy Victory), 7 (Decline of Empire & Papacy), 8 (Close of Middle Ages)  1929

Harvard University – General European and World History: Classification Schedule, Classified Listing by Call Number, Chronological Listing, Author and Title Listing  Buy  1970  959 pp.

“This 959 page bibliography lists some 37,000 titles on world history and the history of Europe in general.  Scholarly journals are included.  The whole field form medieval to modern times is covered.  This is suitable primarily for those unfamiliar with the range of titles available in history.  Especially noteworthy for church historians is the section on the crusades.” – G.E. & Lyn Gorman

Stokes, Lawrence – Medieval and Reformation Germany (to 1648)  Buy  1972

“Aimed particularly at students limited to works in English, this narrative bibliography treats some 1400 books and articles on Germany.  The sic main sections cover bibliographies…  Most of the works discussed are major scholarly or reference volumes plus key survey articles.  An author index is provided.  This is an excellent starting point for the beginner.” – G.E. & Lyn Gorman

Univ. N.C. at Chapel Hill – Medieval and Renaissance Studies: A Location Guide to Selected Works and Source Collections in the Library of the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill and Duke University  Buy  1974

Constable, Giles – Medieval Monasticism: a Select Bibliography  Buy  1976  198 pp.

“This bibliography of some 1000 books and articles provides a broad overview of medieval monasticism by subject.  Coverage includes history, economics , daily life, rules, government, education and related topics.  The annotations are brief and factual.  Constable is suitable for beginning students of monastic life and history.” – G.E. & Lyn Gorman

Crosby, Bishko & Kellogg – Medieval Studies: A Bibliographical Guide  Buy  1983  1,131 pp.

“Of continued usefulness in all fields…” – Bradley & Muller

Boyce, Gray – Literature of medieval history, 1930-1975: A supplement to Louis John Paetow’s A Guide  Buy  1986  2,630 pp.

This is one of the “General resources that all researchers in medieval studies ought to be familiar with…” – Bradley & Muller

ed. Brady, Heiko, Tracy – Handbook of European History, 1400-1600: Late Middle Ages, Renaissance, and Reformation, 2 vols.  Buy  1994-5

“The Later Middle Ages, Renaissance and Reformation are well covered…” – Bradley & Muller

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2000’s

Bradley, James & Muller, Richard – Church History: An Introduction to Research Methods and Resources  Buy  2nd ed. 2015  293 pp.  The 2nd edition is necessary for the internet resources.

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Bibliographies on the Renaissance

‘Bibliographies’  in The Cambridge Modern History, vol. 1: the Renaissance  1907

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Related Pages

Church History

Historical Theologies

The History of Musical Instruments in Worship