Polemical Theologies & on Controversies

For a bishop [elder] must be…  the steward of God; not selfwilled, not soon angry…  sober…  temperate…  Holding fast the faithful word as he hath been taught, that he may be able by sound doctrine both to exhort and to convince the gainsayers.  For there are many unruly and vain talkers and deceivers…  whose mouths must be stopped…  that they may be sound in the faith.”

Titus 1:7-11

“And Elijah came unto all the people, and said, How long halt ye between two opinions? if the Lord be God, follow Him: but if Baal, then follow him.”

1 Kings 18:21




Polemical, elenctic or controversial theology is aimed at, and organized by refuting errors, false doctrines, sects, heresies and false religions with Scripture and the light of nature.  ‘Polemic’ and ‘elenctic’ come from Greek words meaning ‘war’ and ‘refutative’ respectively.




Heresiographies, Surveys of Sects & Religions, & on Heresies & Error

Atheism                                        Separatism & Brownism
Islam                                             Antinomianism
Judaism                                        Erastianism
Socinianism                                  Voluntaryism
Romanism                                    Ecclesiocracy
Greek & Eastern Orthodoxy         Prelacy & Episcopacy
Lutheranism                                  Congregationalism & Independency
Arminianism                                  Hyper-Preterism
Libertines                                      Anabaptism



Order of Contents


Polemical Theologies  7+
Systematic Theologies Emphasizing Polemics  8+
On Controversies  2
On the Polemical Theologian  1


Polemical Theologies  18+
Systematic Theologies Emphasizing Polemics  16+
Bible Commentaries Emphasizing Polemics  2
On Controversies  8+
On the Polemical Theologian  2

French  1
Biblio  1



Handbooks of Polemical Theology


Rutherford, Samuel – A Survey of the Spiritual Antichrist, Opening the Secrets of Familism & Antinomianism in the Antichristian Doctrine of John Saltmarsh & William Del, the Present Preachers of the Army now in England, & of Robert Town, Tobias Crisp, H. Denne, Eaton & Others: in which is Revealed the Rise & Spring of Antinomians, Familists, Libertines, Swencfeldians, Enthusiasts, etc., the Mind of Luther, a Most Professed Opposer of Antinomians, is Cleared & Diverse Considerable Points of the Law & the Gospel are Discovered, in Two Parts  (1648)  IA

The first half of the book is on the history and rise of Antinomians and Familists.  The second half is a survey and refutation of Antinomianism.

Lyford, William – The Instructed Christian, or the Plain Man’s Senses Exercised to Discern Both Good and Evil, being a discovery of the Errors, Heresies, and Blasphemies of these Times, and the Toleration of them…  †1653  350 pp.

Dickson, David – Truth’s Victory Over Error: or the True Principles of the Christian Religion  Buy  1662, being the first positive commentary on the Westminster Confession.  It is polemical in nature.

Rijssen, Leonard – A Complete Summary of Elenctic Theology & of as Much Didactic Theology as is Necessary  trans. J. Wesley White  MTh thesis  (Bern, 1676; GPTS, 2009)  316 pp.  with an Introduction by White

Turretin, Francis – Institutes of Elenctic Theology, 3 vols.  ed. James Dennison Jr.  Buy  (1679–1685; P&R)



Thornwell, James, H. – Collected Writings, vol. 3, ‘Theological & Controversial  Buy  (1871)

This volume takes up the Rationalist and Papal controversies.

Girardeau, John L.

Calvinism & Evangelical Arminianism  Buy  HTML, 1890  584 pp.

This book covers the gamut of the breadth of soteriology.

Discussions of Philosophical Questions  1900  532 pp.

A modern title to this book would be “Conflict of Worldviews”.  This work and the below work contain much of Girardeau’s writings on systematic issues.  Many in his day desired him to write a systematic theology, but it did not happen.

Discussions of Theological Questions  Buy  534 pp.



Various – The Fundamentals, 4 vols.  Buy  1909

This was the foundational work of fundamentalism as a counter-response to the growing liberalism of the day.  These volumes were intended to be a systematic defense of Christianity against liberal errors.  It includes 100 articles authored by leading scholars including B. B. Warfield, James Orr, G. Campbell Morgan, Charles Erdman, H. C. G. Moule, and Bishop Ryle.  This set is solid.  It does not contain the numerous distinctive weaknesses that fundamentalism would later develop.



Systematic Theologies that Emphasize Polemics


Calvin, John – Institutes of the Christian Religion, vols. 123  Buy  (1559)  tr. Henry Beveridge  ToC



Trelcatius, Jr., Lucas – A Brief Institution of the Common Places of Sacred Divinity, Wherein, the Truth of Every Place is Proved, and the Sophisms of Bellarmine are Reproved  2nd ed.  (1610)  595 pp.

Trelcatius Jr. (1573-1607) was a professor of theology at Leiden.  Robert Bellarmine was a prominent Roman Catholic apologist.

Leigh, Edward – A System or Body of Divinity… wherein the Fundamentals & Main Grounds of Religion are Opened, the contrary Errors Refuted, most of the Controversies Between us, the Papists, Arminians & Socinians Discussed & Handled  (London, 1654)

van Mastricht, Peter – Theoretical-Practical Theology  (RHB)



à Brakel, Wilhelmus – The Christian’s Reasonable Service, in which Divine Truths concerning the Covenant of Grace are Expounded, Defended Against Opposing Parties…, vols. 1234  Buy  1700, translated by Bartel Elshout

de Moor, Bernard – Continuous Commentary on John Marck’s Didactic-Elenctic Compendium of Christian Theology  Buy  (1761- 1772)

Only the first five chapters, in five volumes, are presently (2023) available in English translation, but look for further volumes in the future.  As portions are translated, excerpts are being put up at the blog.  The table of contents to the whole has been translated on the page, Reformed Systematic Theologies in Latin, 1651-1700’s.

De Moor “maintained the fundamental line of confessional orthodoxy without drawing heavily on any of the newer philosophies…  [and he] maintained a fairly centrist Reformed position… Vitringa and De Moor served as codifiers and bibliographers of the earlier tradition, the former from a federalist, the latter from a nonfederalist perspective.  Indeed, De Moor’s efforts did for later Reformed orthodoxy what the massive system of Quenstedt did for Lutheranism in the concluding years of the seventeenth century: the work was so exhaustive and so complete in detail and bibliography that it virtually ended the development of Reformed doctrine in the form of orthodox system.” – Richard Muller



Hodge, Charles – Systematic Theology, vol. 1 (Theology), 2 (Anthropology), 3 (Soteriology & Eschatology)  Buy  (1872-4)

Dabney, Robert L. – [Systematic Theology] Syllabus & Notes of the Course of Systematic & Polemic Theology Taught in Union Theological Seminary, Virginia  Buy  (1878)  915 pp.  ToC



Berkhof, Louis – Systematic Theology  Buy  784 pp.

This is a classic, brief, one volume systematic theology.  It was originally intended to be an abbreviated summary of the thought of Bavinck’s four volume Reformed Dogmatics.  The online link does not include Berkhof’s introduction to systematic theology, though the copy for purchase linked does.

Henry, Carl – God, Revelation & Authority, 6 vols.  Buy  1976-1983

Henry was an influential evangelical of the mid-1900’s and professor of theology at Fuller Theological Seminary.  His work is massive, philosophical and something of a bedrock in its field.  While not a complete systematic theology, it is a more than complete defense of the doctrine of God and revelation.



On Controversies


Dury, John – pp. 4-18  of pt. 1 of A Case of Conscience Concerning Ministers Meddling with State Matters in, or out of, their Sermons…  (London, 1649)




Werenfels, Samuel – A Discourse of Logomachus [Word-Fighting]: or Controversies about Words, so Common Among Learned Men…  (1711)  236 pp.  ToC



On the Polemical Theologian

Witsius, Herman – ‘The Character of the Genuine Theologian’  tr. Archibald Alexander  in The Biblical Repertory & Theological Review  (April, 1832), pp. 158-170

The original Latin of the title was, ‘Theologus Modestus [Moderate, Temperate]…’





Polemical Article


Vitringa, Campegius – Controversial Theses upon Doctrine of the Christian Religion, Part 1  (Franeker: Halmam, 1701)  8 pp.  11 theses with 3 more appended theses

Vitringa was Dutch reformed and here affirms or denies theses in the name of the reformed, contra her opponents.



Polemical Theologies


Theological Tracts, in which many of the Doctrines of the Christian Religion are Restored to Whole and Defended from the Word of God Against the Heretical Sects of our Times, vol. 123  (Geneva, 1570)  ToC 1, 2, 3  Indices: Subject 1, 2, 3  Scripture 1, 2, 3

Beza (1519-1605)

Table of Contents

Vol. 1

To the Reader

1. A Confession of the Christian Faith, & a Collation of the Same with Papal Heresies  1  Subject Index

1. Trinity  1
2. God the Father  1
3. Jesus Christ the only Son of God  2
4. Holy Spirit  6
5. Church  32
6. Last Judgment  55
7. Brief Antitheses between the Papacy & Christianity  56-79

2. Another Brief Confession of Faith, with the Same Method as Above  80

3. That Heretics Ought to be Punished by the Civil Magistrate, against the Mishmash of Martin Bell & the Sect of the New Academics  85

Servetus the Heretic  85
The three parts of this tract  87
Refutation of Bellius’s dividion of heretics  88
Of hypocrites & schismatics  89
How many kinds of heretics  91
Origin, definition & duties of the Magistrate out of philosophers’ books    91
Same out of books of Scripture  92
Two cities: one of God, another of the Devil  92
Twofold right of the city of God, i.e. the Church  92
Ecclesiastical & civil jurisdictions  92
Human laws, divine law  93

1st Part: Whether heretics are to be punished?  94

Martin Luther on  94
Brentz, Erasmus, Calvin, Lactantius  95
Chrysostom, Jerome, Augustine, Hilary  96
1st Argument [of an Adversary]  96
2nd Argument  103
3rd & 4th Arguments  108
5th Argument, from the Authority of Gamaliel  109
6th Argument, from the Authority of Paul  109
7th Argument, from the Description of Love  110
8th Argument, that Christians ought to be Mild & Merciful  110
9th Argument  112
10th Argument  114
11th Argument  117
12th Argument  117

1st Argument [of a different adversary]  119
2nd Argument  121
3rd Argument, from the Example of Christ & the Apostles  122
4th Argument, because the World is not able to Judge of Heresy  124
5th Argument, because many Princes Abuse their Power  125
6th Argument, from the Authority of the Ancient Church  126

Whether to Punish Heretics with Capital Punishment is Prohibited to a Magistrate?  128

Arguments of an Adversay Answered

1st Argument, from the Parable of the Tares  128
2nd Argument, that it is not allowed to Magistrates to Kill the Soul  133
3rd Argument, from the Parable of the Tares, from the Judgment of the Academies  135
4th Argument, for then the Greatest Part of Men would be Killed  136
5th Argument, because Paul does not Command to Kill, but to Avoid Heretics, & He Desires the Jews to be Anathematized  138
6th Argument, because Paul Prohibits Anyone to Judge before the Time  139
7th Argument, because the Fear of Death Makes Hypocrites  139
8th Argument  140
9th Argument, from the Authority of the Ancient Church  141

Confirmation of the Question Put Forth  142

That Heretics are to be Punished  143
1. Heretics are able by Law to be Punished by the Citizenry, even the Magistrate  143
2. From the Authority of the Word of God  145
3. From the Perpetual Custom of the Foreign Nations  147
4. From the Consensus of the Recent Doctors of the Church  148

Beza quotes and/or references Luther, Melanchthon, Urbanus, the German Church, Brentius, Bucer, Capito, Bullinger, Musculus & the Genevan Church.

Heretics, further, have occassionally been coerced to capital punishment  150

Further Arguments

1. From the Gravity of the Crime of a Heretic  151
2. From the Authority of the Word of God  153

Beza discusses numerous Mosaic laws, the abrogation of the Law, the Decalogue, ceremonies, how the Judicial Law differs from the Decalogue, how the Judicial & Ceremonial laws differ, how far the Judicial Law is not abrogated, etc.

Examples of the New Testament  161

Beza responds to 9 arguments of an opponent (numbered in the margins)

Examples of Ecclesiastical History  167

Conclusion of the Whole Disputation  167

Block quote from Bullinger, Decades, Sermon 8  167-8

4. A Sum of the Whole of Christianity, or a Description & Distribution of the Causes of the Salvation of the Elect & of the Destruction of Reprobates, Collected & Explicated out of the Sacred Writings  170

Table 170

ch. 1, That the question on the eternal predestination of God is neither curious, nor is it of small necessity in the Church of God  171

ch. 2, Of the eternal counsel of God in itself hidden, that yet at length it is known by its effects  171  7 aphorisms

ch. 3, Of the execution of the eternal counsel in that which is common to the elect and reprobate  177  6 aphorisms

ch. 4, Wherein the order of the causes the Lord manifests his election in, and in a certain respect brings about the way, will be opened  180  13 aphorisms

ch. 5, Wherein the order the Lord executes the counsel of reprobation and manifests the thing itself is begun  190  7 aphorisms

ch. 6, Of the last and full execution of the counsel of God in both the elect and reprobate  194  5 aphorisms

ch. 7, In what way this doctrine may be able to be publicly and profitably set forth  197

ch. 8, In what way persons may be able to apply this whole doctrine to themselves with some fruit  199  5 aphorisms

5. A Sum of Doctrine on a Sacramental Thing  206

On Christ:

1. Of the Person of Christ  206
2. Of the Office of Christ
3. Of the Gifts which are Conferred to the Elect from Christ
4. In what way Christ with his gifts is laid hold of by us

On a Sacrament

1. For what purpose and to what end have the sacraments been instituted?  207

2. From where is the efficacy of the sacraments?  207

3. What is the formal cause of the sacraments?

4. What is the power of this formal cause?

5. What is the material of the sacraments?

6. In what way is the thing conjoined with the sign?  208

7. What is to be judged of these formulas, ‘The body of the Lord is in, with, or under the bread,’ or ‘next to the bread’ and if indeed there are others of another kind

8. What is to be made of this formula, ‘Christ is present bodily, really and substantially in the Supper’

9. What is to be thought of this formula, ‘Christ is present and distributed in the Supper in an incomprehensible way  209

10. In what way is the reality [res] of the sacrament communicated to us?

11. In what way is the sense in these sayings to be admitted: ‘To chew the body of the Lord’ & ‘To drink his blood’ and like things

12. In what way are those words to be explained, ‘This is my body’ and ‘This is my blood’

13. Who are the unfaithful  210

Conclusion  210

6. A Plain & Perspicuous Tract on the Lord’s Supper, in which the Calumnies of Joachim Westphal [a Lutheran] are Refelled  211

7. Cyclops, A Dialogue on the True Communication of the Body & Blood of the Lord, against the Fabrications of Tilemann Heshusen [a Lutheran]  259

8. A Purging of the Calumnies which have been Spattered on the Genevan Church by Tilemann Heshusen [a Lutheran]  312

9. A Response to the Calumnies of Sebastian Castellio which Endeavor to Subvert the Sole Foundation of our Salvation, that is, the Eternal Predestination of God  337

10. A Response to the Defenses & Reprehensions of Sebastian Castellio which Defend his Interpretation of the New Testament Against Beza & in Turn Tries to Reprehend his Version  425

11. A Response to the Arguments of Johannes Brent & the Theses of Jacob Andreae [who were Lutherans] which seek to Confirm the Omnipresence of the Body of Christ, that is, [a Response] against the Renewed Errors of Nestorius & Eutyches  507

[Nestorius (386-450) held, to simplify, that Christ was two persons.  Eutyches (c. 380-c. 456) held that Christ had one mixed nature.]

12. Of the Hypostatic Union in Christ of the Two Natures, an Assertion Against Jacob Andreae  625

13. Homoiousias: of the Unity of the Divine Essence & the Three Personal Subsistences in it Against the Arians, an Epistle…  646

14. [21] Theses or Axioms on the Trinity of Persons & the Unity of Essence out of the Lectures of Theodore Beza  651

15. Some Variously Numbered Psalms of David Expressed: a Specimen of the Whole Future Work if the Lord so Provides  654

[Includes Ps. 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 15, 18, 19, 22, 24, 34, 36, 37, poetic preface to 51, 51, 52, 104, 118, 130, 136, 137, 138, 148]

16. A Short Book of Christian Questions & Responses, in which the Principal Heads of the Christian Religion are Propounded  669


vol. 2

1. Of Polygamy & Divorces  1

Of Polygamy 1
.    Of the Other Kind of Polygamy  8
.    Out of the Synod of Neo-Caesariana  60
.    Out of the Synod of Laodicea  60

2. Of Repudiations & Divorces  64

Of Divorces  105-37

3. A Council Ought to be Constituted for the Peace of the Christian Churches:  To the Sacred, Majestic, Caesar & Established Congregations of the Roman Empire of Augustus  138

4. A Defense of the Sacramental Conjunction of the Body & Blood of Christ with the Sacred Symbols Against the Most False Demonstrations of Matthew Flacius Illyricus & the Apology of the Same  152

Demonstrations of Illyricus with Responses by Beza

1st  152
2nd  155
3rd  157
4th  159
[Sic] 5th  167
7th & 8th  174
9th  176
10th  177
11th  178
12th  180
13th  181
14th  182
15th  189
16th  199
17th  201
18th, 19th & 20th  206
21st  209
22nd, 23rd, 24th, 25th  214
26th  241
27th  247
28th  249
29th & 30th  251-57

5. A Defense to the Libel of the Sorbonne Pseudo-Theologian, F. Claude de Xainctes, to which has been given the title, ‘An Examination of the Calvinian & Bezan Doctrine of the Lord’s Supper, Collected out of the Writings of the Same Authors’  257  [No subdivisions]

6. A Response to the Railings of Friedrich Balduin [a Lutheran] of Ecebol, the Apostate  287

7. Another Defense to the Response of Francis Claude of Xainctes  334

To the Magnificent & Honored Lords, the Lord Consul & Senate of Bern  382

Psalms 11 & 23  405

8. A Brief & Necessary Response to the Calumnies of Dr. Nikolaus Selnecker [a Lutheran] & the Theologians of Jena [Germany]  407  [No subdivisions]

9. A Modest & Christian Defense to the Abusive & Virulent Response of Dr. Nikolaus Selnecker  423

Dedication  423
The Defense  428

On the First Head of the Cause, that is, on the Place of Peter, that one ought to Lay Hold of Christ in Heaven  431

To the 2nd & 3rd Part of the Response of Selnecker, of which one is on the Ascension of Christ, the other on the Ubiquity of the Same  437

To that which is Called the Defense of Selnecker  449

10. The Third Defense to the Crying of Nikolaus Selnecker  453

Of the Person of Christ  455-80

Subject Index

The Continuous Judgment of Cyril [from the Gospel of John] on the Communication & Enlivening Power of the Body of Christ, Explicated out of the Writings of the Same & Other Fathers, by the Author Christian Hessiandro  1  [No subdivisions]

The Diallacticon of a Good & Learned Man, on the Truth, Nature & Substance of the Body & Blood of Christ in the Eucharist  31

To All Christians  32
The Diallacticon  33-65


vol. 3

Dedicatory Epistle

1. The Third Response to Francis Claude of Sainctes  1

1. On the Things of the Eucharstic Controversy  1
2. From Where One Ought to Seek an Explanation of the Institution of the Eucharist  2
3.  4
4.  5
5.  6
6.  10
7.  11
8.  17
9.  31
10.  In No Way is our Judgment in Expounding the Words of Christ Absurd  43-53

2. A Defense to the Acts of the Assembly of 15 Theologians having been recently held at Torgau [Germany]  53

The Lutheran assembly had condemned 20 propositions as false which were aimed at the Reformed view; Beza responds to each in turn.  Then (p. 64) Beza answers 16 questions about the Supper.

To the Brief Confession or Affirming Part (so-called)  67

Beza responds to each of the 10 paragraphs of their brief confession about the Supper in turn.

3. A Mild & Christian Dispute with Dr. Johann Pappus [a Lutheran], a Doctor of the Church of Strassburg [Germany], on the Hypostatic Union of the Two Natures in Christ & its Effects  74  (1574)

Arguments of Beza with Responses Following

1.  74
2.  76
3.  77
4.  78
5.  79
6.  81
7-9  83
10.  84
11.  86
[sic] 13.  91
14.  92
15-16  93
17-19.  94
20.  95
21-22.  96
23-24.  97
25-26.  98-101

4. A Response for the Truth for the Body of Christ Against the Fiction of Ubiquity & the Clamor of William Holder  101

Pseudo-Truths  110
Of Falsehoods  118
Of Calumnies  121

5. A Response to Some Rotten Calumnies of Jacob Andreae [a Lutheran], Partly Recently Fabricated & Partly Repeated from Elsewhere  124

Theses of Andrea with Response by Beza

1.  124
2-3.  125
4-5.  126
6-8.  127
9-10.  128
11-12.  129
13-15.  130
16-21.  131-2

6. A Tract on the Visible Marks of the True Catholic Church  132  [No subdivisions]

7. A Response on the Lord’s Supper against the Dogmas of Jodoc Harch of Montens  148

Beza gives an introduction and then gives block quotes from Harch’s work, with page references, till p. 161.  The Beza responds under these subheadings:

Of the Signs in the Lord’s Supper  161
Of the Things Sacramentally Signified in the Lord’s Supper  161
Of the Analogy of the Signs & the Thing Signified  162
Of the Conjunction or Copulation of the Signs & the Things Sacramentally Signified in the Lord’s Supper  162
On the Perceiving of the Signs & Things Signified in the Lord’s Supper  162
Of the Effects of the Lord’s Supper  162
On the Way & Rule of Administering the Lord’s Supper  164-86

8. A Book of Theological Epistles  186

Dedication  186
Epistles  187

10  215
20  227
30  244
40  251
50  261
60  273
70  284
80-84  290-309

9. Two Homilies Against the Errors of the Sacramentarians for the True Presence of Christ in the Lord’s Supper  309  (1574)

1st Homily  309
2nd Homily  314

10. Another Part of Questions & Responses, which is on the Sacraments  324

To the Christian Reader  324
ToC  324

1-3  On the Sacraments in General & on the Term ‘Sacrament’
.         328
4-12  The Fundamentals of the Definition of Sacraments  329
13-16  The Definition of Sacrament for the Sign  331
17-18  The Definition of the Sacrament for the Whole Mystical
.         Action  332
19-40  An Exposition of the Particular Definition of the
.         Sacraments  332
41-52  On the Conjunction of the Signs & the Things Signified
.         in the Sacraments  333
53-68  Of the Perception of the Signs & the Things Signified
.         334
69-76  A Collation of the Old & New Sacraments  337
77-86  Of the Sacramental Forms of Speaking  339
87  Of the Number of the Christian Sacraments  341
88-89  Of Baptism  341
90-91  Of External Baptism  342
92-100  Of the Things Signified in Baptism  342
101  Of the Antiype in Baptism  343
102-113  An Analytical Tract on Baptism  343
114-160  Various Questions on Baptism  344
[sic] 162-167  Of the Lord’s Supper & the Various Names of it
.         351
168-202  Of the Lord’s Supper Itself  352
203-237  On the Explication of the Words, ‘This is my Body’ &
.         ‘This is my Blood’  356
238-249  Various Questions on the Lord’s Supper  363

11. The Life of John Calvin Accurately Described  365  The years are in the margins.

The Testament of John Calvin  383
A Catalogue of Books Written by John Calvin  388

12. A Short Book of Theodore the Presbyter of Rhaithu Against Some Heresies Now & Formerly Opposing the Hypostatic Union of the Two Natures in Christ, now set forth First in Greek & Made into Latin [in Parallel Columns] by Theodore Beza of Vezel, to which is Adjoined a Collation of the Same Heresies with the Recently Agitated Controversies on the Same Thing  390

Theodore of Raithu (fl. late 6th or early 7th century) was a Christian theologian, considered the last of the Neo-Chalcedonians.  The book translated here is Προπαρασκευή, The Preparation, also sometimes known as Basic Indoctrination.

Intro  390
The Opinion of Mani  391
The Opinion of Paul of Samosota  391
The Opinion of Apollinarius  391
The Opinion of Theodore of Mopsuestia  392
The Opinion of Nestorius  392
The Opinion of Eutyches  392

The [True] Definition of the Church [about Christ]  393
An Explication of the Definition  393

The Opinion of Julian  396
The Opinion of Severus & the Definition of the Church  396-8

To the Reader  398
A Sum [Collation] of the Orthodox Doctrine on the Two Natures in Christ by the Hypostatic Union [by Beza]  399-401

13. A Most Complete Tract on the Doctrine & True Use of Predestination, out of Lectures of Theodore Beza on the 9th Chapter of the Letter to the Romans  402

Prolegomena  402
A Table  403
In What Way God may use the Will of Man?  407
Of the Fall of the Angels & the First Men  410
On Romans 9 [verse by verse]  413
On the Use of the Doctrine of Predestination that Pertains to Ministers of the Word of God & Others Judging of Others  436

Theses on Justification  437
Theses on Predestination  438
Theses on the Particular Application of Predestination to the Elect…  439
Theses on the Application of the Doctrine of Reprobation to the Reprobate  439

To the Christian Reader  440
Excertps from The Bondage of the Will by Luther  440




Voet, Gisbert – A Syllabus of Theological Problems, which, for the Needed Thing to be Proposed or Pressed, are Accustomed to be Used in Private & Public Exercises of Disputations, Examinations, Gatherings & Consultations…  First Part  (Utrecht, 1643)  530 pages  No page numbers  Abbreviations  No further parts are online.

Part 1, Of Theology,
Containing what Ought to be Believed

1st Section, The Precognitions, End, Principle & Subject of Theology, even God, with his External Common Works & their Opposites

Tract 1, Of the Precognitions & Principles of Theology

I. Of Theology

1. Natural Theology
2. Supernatural Theology

Creedal Theology [Not found]
Scholastic Theology [Mixed in with the Above]

II. Of the Chief Good or of Blessedness

Controversies of the 1st Kind
Controversies of the 2nd Kind
.      The Ultimate End of Man in Common
.      The Formal Rule of Blessedness
.      The Object & Requisites
.      The Attainment of Blessedness,
.      The Adjuncts, Cognates & Opposites

III. Of the Principles of Christian Dogmas

1. Divinity & Authority of Scripture

Controversies with Outsiders, from Faith
With Papists & Other of the Heterodox
of the Second Kind

2. The Necessity of Scripture
3. The Canonical & Apocryphal Books
.        Appendix: Apostles’ Creed
.        On the Use & Abuse of the Apocryphal Books
4. Integrity & Perfection of Scripture
5. Traditions
6. Perspicuity of Scripture
7. Reading of Sacred Scripture
8. The Authentic Edition & Translation
.         Appendix on Sacred Criticism
9. The Real Interpretation & Sense
10. The Judge of Controversies
.         On the [Pontifical] Circle
11. The Fathers & Ecclesiastical Writings

Tract 2, On God, the Names & Attributes of God, the Trinity of Persons & the Immanent Decrees or Actions of God

I. Of the Nature of God

1. Existence & Nature [Quidditate] of God, Whether there may be a God?
.        What is God?
2. Names of God in General & Specific
3. Attributes of God in General
4. Attributes of God in Specific

1st Kind

(1) Unity of God
(2) Primacy
(3) Simplicity
(4) Perfection
(5) Infinity
(6) Immensity
(7) Eternity
(8) Invisibility & Incomprehensibility
(9) Immutability

2nd Kind

(1) Intellect or Knowledge [Scientia] of God
.        Appendix: Of Ideas in God
(2) Will of God
(3) Grace of God
(4) Mercy of God
(5) Righteousness of God
.        Appendix: On the Right of God
(6) Veracity of God
.        Appendix: Of Falsity
(7) Power of God
(8) Goodness of God
(9) Love of God
Appendix: Hatred & Wrath of God
(10) Patience of God
(11) Majesty of God
(12) Glory of God
(13) Life of God
(14) Blessedness of God

II. Of the Trinity in General

1. Of the Equality, Mutual Relation & Order of Persons & Personal Notions, likewise of the Ways of SpeakingCorollaries
2. Of the Divine Relations [Not explicitly subtitled]
3. Of the Divine Notions, Powers & Notional Acts in General
4. Of the Procession & Origin of the Divine Persons
5. Of the Notional Acts, where is in specific of the Generating Power
6. Of the Giving & Mission of the Divine Persons; in Specific:

(1) Of the Person of the Father
(2) Of the Person of the Son
(3) Of the Person of the Holy Spirit

[Sic] V. Of the Decrees or the Immanent Actions of God

Tract 3, Of the External Works of God: Creation, of Angels, , Conservation, Providence, the Image of God, etc.

I. Of Creation & the Works of the Six Days

1. Creation in General
2. The Creature in General
3. The World
4. The Works of the 1st Day

Of Heaven
Appendix of Philosophical Questions
Of the Land
Of the Light of the First Day
Further Philosophical Questions
On Privation [in mostly Philosophical Matters]

5. The Works of the 2nd Day
6. The Works of the 3rd Day

The Land, the Dry Land Especially

Appendix: Questions of Physics & Geography:

On Water
On Floods
On Plants
On Physics
On Fossils
On Hell
On Paradise [Relating to Eden]

7. The Works of the 4th Day

On Stars (Philosophical, More Theological)
On Planets (Physical & Astronomical, including the Sun & Moon)
On the Effects & Consequences of the Stars
On Motion
On Daylight & Light, & Phases or Appearances from there Arising
Of Heat
On Occult Influences
On Time

8. The Works of the 5th Day

On Animals in General
On Fish & Birds

9. The Works of the 6th Day

Of Land Animals
Of Man in General
Of the Body
Of the Spirit
Of the Union of the Soul to the Body

Philsoophial Questions:
.     On the Powers or Faculties of the Soul
.     On the Intellect, or the Human Mind
.     On the Conscience
.     On Appetite in General
.     On Sensation
.     Of the Will
.     Of the Principles of Existance, or of the
.           Rise of Man
.     Of the Generation of Man
.     Of the Proper Adjuncts & Effects of Man, which they are accustomed to attribute to the account of the soul, the body or the total composite

II. Of Angels

1. Of the Angels in General

Whether Angels may Exist & were Created?
What they Are
Of What Qualities are they on Account of their Properties?
Of What Qualities are they on Account of their Intellect? & its Mode & Object
Of the Will
On Account of their Affections, Power, Actions & Adjuncts

2. Of the Good Angels in Specific
.        Intellect, Will, Power, Actions & Adjuncts

(1) Of the Guardianship of Angels
(2) Of the Order of the Angels & Heavenly Hierarchy
(3) Containing Cases about Interactions with Good Angels

3. Of Evil Angels
.         Species & Object, Intellect, Will & Affections
.         Power & Actions

(1) Of Spectres, & Antidotes to Them
(2) Of the Possessed [Energumenis]
.      Practical-Moral Problems
.      Practical-Ascetic Problems
.      Political, Medical-Theological
.      Textual, Historical
.       From Novelties of Historical Churches
(3) Of the Divisions & Orders of Demons
(4) Cases & Counsels about the Nature, Qualities & Operations of Evil Angels

III. Of the Conservation & Providence of God

1. Of Providence in General
2. Of Providence in Specific: of Conservation
.      Of Annihilation
3. Of Providence Strictly So-Called, or of Governance
.      The Object of it
.      Acts of Providence: of Premotion & Concursus
.              The Mode of Operating
.              About Rational Creatures
.              About Man (Animal & Civil Life, Eternal Life, Marriage, Public Things, Wars)
.              Physical Acts Before & After Conversion
.              Moral Acts around Salvation
.              About Irrational Creatures
.              An Indirect Act, or of Permission
.              Further are these

[Sic] 5. Of Adjuncts & Consequences of Providence
.              Of Necessity & Contingency
.              Of Chance, Fortune & Fate
.              Of the Use & Practice of this Doctrine

Appendix: Containing a Threefold Table, in which is the Form of an Antidote Against Any Tables of Calumnies of the Adversaries

First Table, Exhibiting the False Judgments or Opinions of Papists, Remonstrants, Socinians & Anabaptists…

1. Of the Children of Covenanted Parents being Damned if they are not indeed Baptized

2. Of the Inclination of Man to Evil Before the Fall

3. Of Mortality, Not being the Punishment of Sin

4. Of the Damnation of Innocent Men, the Power of which Not a Few Scholastics Give to God, even by this Distinction, that this Damnation does not Hold on this Occassion on Account of Punishment

5. On the Providence of God & of Uncertain Knowledge [Scientia], & of More Than Stoic Fate, Because it is in No Way Permitted to God to Establish Liberty

6. Of the Annihilation of the Body & the Mortality of the Soul

7. On Sanctification: the Catechism of the Remonstrants, #46, says, ‘From God being constituted the Author of Salvation, it is impossible for those which are knowing eternal life & are believing in Jesus, all which obey Him & are not able otherwise to evade eternal damnation, etc., all studiously seeking this way, not to come to obtaining eternal life.’

8. [It is impossible] for God not to receive in grace at the end of life the penitent sinner and the one desiring grace.

9. [?] That God may so lead the will and judge the sin and not so much the sinner, that the punishment has been divinely imposed, even imputed to Himself

10. That those truly faithful, if one does sin, and that in person insofar as he does, and while he does it, yet it may be of the Devil. Jacob Batelier in Accur. Exam., p. 43

11. That there is no hope, no certainty of salvation, except which is founded in the foregoing practice of piety.  Poppius in Angusta so thinks in The Consolation of the Sick, p. 426

The Second Table, Exhibiting the Hard Sayings & Phrases & Less than Fitting Distinctions of the Papists, Remonstrants & Lutherans

The Third Table, Exhibiting the True Judgments of the Papists, Lutherans & Remonstrants

1. On Original Sin & the Enslaved Will
2. On the Efficacy & Necessity of Grace in Conversion
3. On Putting Away Works from Justification & of the Right to Eternal Life
4. Of the Certainty of Salvation
5. Of Imperfection in this Life
6. Of Providence
7. Of Predestination & Reprobation
8. Of the State of Infants
9. Of the Foreknowledge of God & the Necessity of Consequence
10. Of the Efficacy of the Providence of God in Evil

IV. Of the Image of God, the Fall, Free Choice, etc.

1. Of the State of Integrity

(1) Of the Image of God Absolutely
(2) Of the Image of God in the Subject

(i) in Christ
(ii) in the Angels
(iii) in Man

(3) In Which Things the Image of God Consists

(i) Nature
(ii) Rectitude, or Supernatural Gifts
(iii) Dominion
(iv) Immortality

[Sic] (5) A Consideration of the Image of God in Man according to the Various States

(i) Image of God in Man Considered as far as the State of Innocence

(ii) First Man Considered Apart from Righteousness

(iii) Of the Powers of Man Apart from Righteousness

(iv) Of the Powers of Man Considered with Righteousness

(v) Whether the Image may have been in the Intellect?

(vi) Of the Dominion of Adam

(vii) Of Gifts


Of the Condition of the Progeny to be Born as far as the State of Innocence

Of the Image of God in Man After the Fall in the State of Destitution & Restitution Considered

Of the Image of God in Inferior Creatures

Tract 4, Of the Misery of Man, or of the State of Sin

I. Of the Fall of Adam

Of the Cause of the Fall
In which the Fall Consisted
Of the Greatness & Weight
Of Other Adjuncts, of the Necessity & Possibility
Of the Effects & Consequences

II. Of Enslaved & Free Choice

III. Of Sin

1. Of Sin in General

Of Evil
Of the Nature of Sin
Of the Subject of Sin
Of the Causes of Sin (General, Internal, External)
Of the Adjuncts of Sin
Of the Effects & Consequences of Sin
Of the Dividing of Sin

2. Of Original Sin

Whether it may be? & What it is?
Of the Subject
Of the Causes & the Propagation
Of the Adjuncts & Effects

3. Of Actual Sin

Of the Distinctions of Actual Sin in General
The Distinctions in Specific; of Participating in Sin
Of the Use of Spiritual Ones
Of the Sin of Omission
Of Reigning Sin
Of Spiritual Sin
Of the Sin of Ignorance, Contra the Consicence, & of Malice
Of Sin Contra Nature
Of Clamorous Sins
On Internal & External Sin, & that of the Mouth & of Work
Of Sins of Induration & Security

Of the Sin Against the Holy Spirit
.        Nature, Subject & Object
.        Causes, Adjuncts, Division
Of Backsliding Sin, or of Spiritual Backsliding


(1) Of Venial Sin
(2) Of the Seven Deadly [Capitalibus] Sins

IV. Of the Punishments of Sins in General

1. Of Punishment in General

Subject, Object, Causes
End, Adjuncts & Effects
Opposites: Remission
.     Of Change & Mitigation

2. Of the Punishments & All General, Direct Evils in Specific
.      In this Life
.      After this Life (See below on the 4 Last Things)


(1) Of Vanity & Human Misery
.       Inward
.       Outward, or of the Body
(2) Of the Infelicity & Dishonor of the Impious
(3) Of the Cross of the Pious
(4) Of the Persecution of the Church (See Below in the Tract on the Church)
(5) Of the Judgments of God

3. Of Indirect Punishments

2nd Section, Of Redemption

Tract 1, Of the Works of Redemption, or of God the Redeemer in General

I. Of Redemption & God the Redeemer

II. Of Predestination

1. Of Predestination in General
2. Of Election
.      Appendix: On the Book of Life
3. On Reprobation

III. Of the Covenants & the Gospel, & its Comparison with the Law

1. Of the Covenants in General
2. Of the Law, or the Covenant of Works
.        Of the End

3. Of the Covenant of Grace
4. Of the Dispensation of the New Covenant in the Old Testament from Adam to Christ, Exhibited

Of the Old Testament, General Questions
Of the Mode of the Dispensation from Abraham unto Moses
Exhibited from Moses unto Christ

5. Of the Mode of the Dispensation of the New Covenant after Christ, Exhibited, or of the Gospel

1-2 Commandments
3-7 Commandments
8 & 10 Commandments

Appendix: On the Title of the Covenants: of the Divine Promises

Tract 2, Of the Person, Offices & States of Christ the Mediator

I. Of the Person of Christ the Mediator

1. Of the Assumption & Union of the Human Nature

Of the Person Assuming
Of the Human Nature Assumed
Of the Mode of the Assumption, as far as the
.      Order
Of the Conception & Bearing
Of the Incarnation
Of the Hypostatic Union
Of the Birth & Nativity
Of Mary the Mother of Christ
Of the Circumstances of the Nativity of Christ
Of the Concomitants, Antecedents &
.      Especially of the Magi
Of the Star of the Magi

2. On the Consequences & Effects of the Union

Of Christ, Theanthropos
Of the Communication of Properties
Of Those Things which are Convenient to Christ by Reason of the Human Nature

Of the Knowledge [Scientia] of Christ &
.      his Ignorance
Of the Power of the Soul of Christ
Of the Defects of the Body
Of the Defects of the Soul
On the Will of Christ

Of Those Things which are Convenient to Christ by Reason of the Union: Of the Subjection & Obedience of Christ

II. Of the Offices of Christ the Mediator

1. Of the Mediator & the Office of the Mediator in
.       General
2. Of the Prophetic Office
3. Of the Priestly Office

Of the Presupposed Condition of the Priestly Office, which is on the Obedience of Christ to the Law

Of the First Part, or of the Act: The Sacrifice of the Priestly Office, even the Full Satisfaction & Expiation

Of the Second Part of Christ the Priest, even Intercession

Appendix: On Melchizedek

4. Of the Kingship of Christ
.          Of Christ the Judge

III. Of the States of Christ the Mediator

1. Of the Humiliation

Of his Life [Conversatione]
Of the Temptation
Of his Sufferings in General
Of Just Before the Passion, & of the Agony of
.      Christ
Of the Prayer in Agony
Of the Death of Christ
Of the Piercing of the Side of Christ
Of the Killers of Christ
Of the Cross
Of the Swooning of Mary
Of the Burial
Of the Descent to Inferos

2. Of the State of Exaltation

In General
Of the Transfiguration
Of the Resurrection
Of the Ascension of Christ
Of the Session at the Right Hand of the
.      Father

Appendix: On the Collation of the Types of Christ with its Archetype

Of the First Adam with Christ
Of Melchizedek with Christ (See the Appendix to the Priesthood)
Of Moses with Christ
Of David with Christ
Of Solomon with Christ
On the Messiah Contra the Jews
What Sort the Messiah would be
Whether the Messiah may have Come?
Whether Christ may be that Messiah?

Tract 3, Of the Effect of Christ the Mediator, that is, of Salvation, or of the Accomplishment & Application of Salvation

I. Of the Accomplishment of Salvation

1. Of the Obedience, Satisfaction & Merit of Christ

Of the Types of the Satisfaction of Christ

On the End to Which of the Satisfaction & Merit (including Sufficiency & Efficiency)

2. Of Human Satisfactions (with many absurd questions, including about Purgatory, Intercessions for the Dead, Indulgences, Release from Purgatory, Vows, Things Vowed & Pilgrimages)

II. Of the Application of Salvation, or of the Applied Grace of God in General

1. Grace
.      Of the Division & Cause of Grace
2. The Subject & Antecedents of the Application, that is, of the State of the Elect before Conversion
.       Some Problems More Hypothetical
3. The Salvation of Infants

Of Any & All Infants
Of Infants of Infidels
Of Infants of the Faithful in General
Of Elect Infants of the Faithful
Of Infants of the Faithful Dying Before the
.      Use of Reason
Absurd & Inept Questions of Papists

Appendix: Of Retards, the Insane & the Deaf

4. Of Calling, Regeneration & Conversion

Of Calling
Of Regeneration
.      Essence & Cause
.      Adjuncts & Effects
Of Regeneration in the Second Moment, or of
.      the Actual Conversion of a Sinner

Appendix: Of the Perfection of Regeneration Following & of the Perfection of Sanctification in Death or After Death

5. Of Repentance, Penance, etc.

Appendix: Absurd, Inept & Curious Questions of the Papists
.      On Penance in General
.      On the Sacrament of Penance (& as it is
.             Virtue & of its Effect)

6. Faith

On the Origin of Faith
Of the Form or Essence of Faith
Of the Receiving Subject of Faith
.      What, or of Those Having Faith
.      By Which
Of the Occupying Subject of Faith, or of the
.      Object
Of the Properties & Effects of Faith
Of the Perseverance of Faith & of the Saints
Of the Acts of Faith (Internal & External, or of
.      Confession)
Of the Effects & Opposites of Faith

7. Union & Communion with Christ
8. Reconciliation & the Remission of Sins
9 . Justification

As to the Term
Of Justification in General
Of the Causes of Justification
Of the Active & Passive Righteousness of
.       Christ
Of the Distinction of Justification into Active &
.       Passive

10. Adoption
11. Sanctification
12. Of the Dignity, Liberty, Glory & the Privileges of the Sons of God
.        In General
.        In Specific, in the New Testament After the
.                Appearing of Christ

Tract 4, Of the Church

I. Of the Church

1. Of the Church in General

Of its Definition & Nature
Of the Cause & Subject, or Material of the
.        Church
Of the Adjuncts & Properties
Of the Divisions or Distinctions of the Church

2. The Head of the Church, the Roman Pope & The Antichrist

Of Christ the Sole Head of the Church, & of
.       the Roman Pope
Of The Antichrist

3. Of the Visible Church & its Marks
.         Appendix: Of the Parts & Members of the
.               Visible Church, even of Ecclesiastical
.               Ministers, Government, Censures, etc.

4. Of the Church Before the Fall & After the Fall in the O.T.

Of the Church Before the Fall
From the Fall to Christ in General
Of the Church of the Patriarchs Until Moses
In Specific, Under Moses, the Judges, the
.     Kings & After the Captivity

5. The New Testament Church

In General
Of the Apostolic Church
Of the Ancient Church
Of the Medieval [Intermedia] Church
Of the 3rd Age [Aetate]

6. The Roman Church

7. The Church Having Been Reforming

In General
Of the Ancient: of the Waldenses & the
.      Bohemians
Of Recent Times, from Luther, in General
Of the Ancient, Protestant German Church, unto the Schism through the Book of Concord
Of the Anglican Church
Of the Swiss, French, Scottish, Belgic, Polish, Bohemian, Hungarian, Transylvanian & Numerous German Churches

8. The Modern Churches Beyond: the Western, Greek, of Moscow, Armenia, Egypt, Iberia, Syria, Jacobite, of Georgia, Ethiopia & the Indies.

II. Of the Tyrannical & Violent Enemies of the Church

III. Of the Opposites of the Church: of the Heterodox & Other Turbulent Persons

1. Of Apostates & Heretics in General
2. Of Atheism & Atheists
3. Of Heathenism & the Conversion of the Heathens
.      Of Heathenism in General
.      Of the Heathenism of the Ancient Time, or of
.          the O.T.
.            Before the Flood & From There unto Moses
.            From Moses to the Apostles
.       Of the Calling & Conversion of the Heathens

4. Judaism

Of the Defection & State of the Jews
Of the Adjuncts & Cognates of Judaism
Of the Distinction of Judaism
Of the Conversion of the Jews

(1) Of the Samaritans
(2) Of the Ancient Sects of the Jews
(3) Of the Ancient & Modern Semi-Judaizers

5. Of Mohommedism
6. Of the Ancient Heretics (Ebionites, Cerenthians, Valentinians, Marcionites, Manichees; Arians, Eunomians, Nestorians, Pelagians, etc.)

7. Of the Modern Enthusiasts & Libertines

In General
Of the Henry-Nicolatians
Of the David-Jorists
Of the Zwenckfeldians
Of the Franckists, of Ezekiel Metz, etc.
Appendix: On the Semi-Libertines, the
.        Libertine Sects & the German Interim &
.        the Intermisters

8. Of the Modern Anti-Trinitarians, or Anti-Christians, or Anti-Evangelicals, or of All Simultaneously, whether Concealed or Open

Of the Anabaptists
Of the Neo-Arians, named the Socinians
Of the Remonstrants in Belgium
Appendix: On the Doctrine of Conrad Vorsti

IV. Of Some, which, while They Openly Recede from the Papacy & Heresies, yet Cause an Uproar & Bring on Trouble Through Errors, Schisms & Scandals

1. Of Schism & Schismatics, by whatever way they
.     Illegitamately Secede

In General
Of the Errors & Schism of the Neo-Lutherans
.       On Some Intestine Contentions
Of the English Separatists, commonly called
.       Brownists or Barrowists

2. Of Moderates, the Tepid & Syncretists

In General

Of Those which Unduly Approve or Admit of Lukewarmness, Moderation & Toleration of Certain Dogmas of the Papists, the Remonstrants or the Anabaptists

Of Them which are either Tepid or Approve of Lukewarmness, Moderation & Toleration about the Government & Ceremonies, named Heirarchics [Formalists] in Disputes in England

3. Of the Disorderly, those Lax in Discipline, of
.       Scandalizers & those Scandalized

Tract 5, Of Signs  [Miracles, Prophecy, Sacrifices, Sacraments, etc.]

I. Of the Nature of a Miracle, of Displaying Things & Portents
.        Appendix: On Terrifying Panic
II. On Signs of the Times & Premonitions of Death
III. On Miracles

1. On the Essence & Cause of a Miracle
[2. is Skipped]
3. Of Miracles in Particular

On the Girl of Aurelia
On Faith & the Gift of Miracles

IV. Of Prophecy

1. Of Prophecy in General

(1) Of its Nature & the Definition of ‘Prophecy’
(2) Of the Subjects & Causes of Prophecy
(3) Of the Peculiarities, Adjuncts & Signs of Prophecy
(4) Of the Divisions of Prophecy

2. Of Rapture & Ecstacy
3. Of External Visions, or Apparitions
3. [sic] Of the Opposites of Prophecy
4. Of the Prophets in Specific

V. Of the Charismatic Gifts

1. Of the Charismatic Gifts in General
2. Of the Charismatic Gifts in Specific (of Miracles, Healings, Exorcism, Prophecy, Languages & Interpretation)

VI. Of Types, Ceremonies & Sacrifices

1. Of the Types & Ceremonies in General
2. Of Sacrifices, Priests, the Fire of the Sacrifices & Altars

VII. Of the Sacraments

1. Of Sacraments in General (Their Necessity, Cause, Efficacy & Effect, Absurd Questions about them, & their Number)

Appendix: Many Absurf & Inept Questions on the 5 False Sacraments

(1) On Penance/Repentance

On Contrition of the Heart (Of the Object, Quality, Time, Adjuncts & Effect)

On the Confession of the Mouth (Of its Necessity, Nature, Quality, Effect, Seal & Reservation of Fallings, etc.)

(2) On Confirmation
(3) On Extreme Unction
(4) On Marriage
(5) Of Orders

Appendix: On the Ministers of the Sacraments

2. On Circumcision
.        Appendix: On the Circumcision of Christ
3. On the Passover, or the Paschal Lamb
4. Of Baptism (Efficacy, Effect, Subject & Adjuncts of)

On Anabaptism
On the Minister of Baptism
On the Elements, Rites & Circumstances of Baptism
On the Baptism of John
Many Inept Questions on the Baptism of Christ

5. On the Lord’s Supper

On Transubstantiation & Consubstantiation
On the Mass-Sacrifice

VIII. On the Testings of Spirits

Tract 6, Of the Four Last Things

I. On Death

1. On Death in General (on its Nature, Causes, Subject, Adjuncts, Properties, Miracles & Rare Events around it, & Premonitions of)

2. On Death in Specific, of the Pious & Impious


(1) On Mourning for the Dead
(2) On Honoring the Dead & of Burial
(3) On a Particular Judgment of the Soul in Death, or After Death

II. Of the State of the Soul After Death

1. Of the Common State of the Pious & Impious

Of the Immortality of the Soul
On the Life & Operations of the Separated Soul
On the Knowledge of the Separated Soul
On the Adjuncts, Properties & Affections of the Separated Soul

(1) On Psychopannychia [Soul-Sleep]
(2) On Metempsuchosei, or the Transmigration of Souls
(3) On the Wandering of Souls

2. Of the Separated Soul in Specific

On the Separated Soul of the Blessed (Place, Felicity, Intellect & Will)
On the Separated Soul of the Damned (Place & Punishment)

Appendix: On Spectres, or Apparitions of Souls

3. On the Limbos (of the Fathers & of Infants)

4. Of Purgatory (On its Essence & Nature, Site & Place, Punishments, Duration, Relaxation of Punishment, Liberation out of, its Torturers & of the Condition of the Souls in it)


(1) Of the Repose, Refreshment & Sight of Blessed Souls
(2) Whether there be a Passage through Fire Burning to the Last Day?
(3) Of Prayers & Intercessions for the Dead

III. Of the State of the Body After Death & of the Resurrection

1. Of the Intermediate State of the Body in General, or of the Cadaver (Before & After the Whole Dissolution of it)

2. On the State of the Body in Specific (Of the Blessed & Damned)

3. Of the Resurrection (Knowledge of the Resurrection, on Whether & What it may be, on the Subject & Objection of it & of its Causes)


(1) Of the Living at the Last Day
(2) Of Others Not Having Died, such as Enoch & Elijah
(3) Of those that Died Twice
(4) Of the Resurrection of the Martyrs, Rev. 20 [& Premillennialism]

IV. The Coming unto Judgment & the End of the World

1. Of the Last Coming of Christ (Whether He may be Coming, From Where, What Place & in What Way, the Time of it, the Signs of it & its Effects & Consequences)

2. Of the Millennial Reign & Many Questions Inept & Absurd

3. Of the Last Judgment (Of the Judge, those Judged, the Place, Time, Way & Form)

4. Of the End of the World (Whether it may be, When, the Way, & of the Cleansing Fire or of the Conflagaration of the World)

V. Of Eternal Blessedness

1. Of Life Eternal (its Essence, the Beatific Vision & its Mode, & the Adjuncts & Properties of Eternal Life)

2. Of the Heaven of the Blessed

3. Of the Glorious Body

Appendix: Of the Blessedness & State of the Angels (in General & Before & After the Judgment)

VI. Of Eternal Death

1. Of the State of Eternal Death After the Judgment (in General, as to the Soul, Will, Intellect & Body)

2. Of Hell (Existence, Place & Situation, Hell-Fire, Whether there is Infernal Refreshment?)

Appendix: On Hell & the State of the Damned (in General & Before & After the Judgment)


Forbes, John – Historical & Theological Instructions on Christian Doctrine, the Varied State of Things, on the Errors & Controversies that have Arisen…  (Amsterdam, 1645)  Extended Table of contents  This work was commended by Polyander, Trigland, Spanheim, Voet, Maets, Hoornbeeck, Cloppenburg, Coccejus and Maresius, as well as Gerhard Vossi, an Arminian.

Forbes (1593-1648) was one of the Scottish Aberdeen doctors.  He held to episcopacy, defended the Five Articles of Perth (which introduced five innovations in worship) and argued that the Scottish National Covenant (1638) was unlawful.

This work of his gained him the reputation of being one of the greatest theologians of the reformed Church.  The covenanters ‘acknowledged his orthodoxy and high Christian character’, according to the DNB.  Rutherford critiques him in Divine Right of Church Government (1646) on pp. 652-3 and in the Appendix on kneeling for the Lord’s Supper and the nature of indifferent matters and Church authority.


Brief Table of Contents

1. Of God  1
2. Of the Mystery of the Incarnation  77
3. Of the Variegated Condition of the Churches, & many heresies & dissensions, of the 5th Ecumenical Council & of some other Councils, & then so far of the state of things after the Chalcedonian Council up to the time Emperor Heracles, & of the Political Government of Italy up until Charles the Great  96
4. Of Mohammed, & of his Impiety and Sects, & of Holy War & some other Wars  173
5. Of the Monothelites, & of Honorius, the Roman Pope, a Monothelite Heretic  222
6. Contra the Heresy of the Adoptionists  292
7. Of the Object of Religious Worship, & of the 7th & 8th Called Ecumenical Synods  301
8. Of the Pelagian Heresy, & its remnants: where is of the grace of God & the Free Choice of Man & some connected questions  373
9. Of the Sacraments in General, where is of the nature, efficacy & number of the Sacraments of the New Testament  441
10. Of Baptism, contra the errors of the Donatists, Papists & Some Others  473
11. Of the Eucharist  533
12. Of Repentance, & some Connected Questions contra the Errors of the Gnostics, the Most Blessed, the Libertines, Novatians, the Papists, etc.  625
13. Of Pugatory & of Votes for the Expired  670
14. Of the Unity of the Church, & of Schism  708
15. Of the Primacy of the Apostle Peter  734
16. Of the Successors of Peter & the Other Apostles  754

Maresius, Samuel – A New Synopsis of Elenctic Theology, or an Index of the Controversies of Faith out of the Sacred Scriptures, vol. 12  (1646-7)  Extended ToC 1 & 2

Maresius (1599-1673)

Table of Contents
Vol. 1

To the Reader

1. On God 1
2. On the Word of God 14
3. On the Trinity 75
4. On Christ 94
5. On the Church of Christ Battling on the Earth 152
6. On the Roman Pontiff 192
7. On the General Councils  269
8. On the Pastors of the Church 293
9. On Monastics & Pseudo Religionists 362
10. On Political Princes 415
11. On the State of the First Parents & Original Sin 461
12. On Actual Sins & the Cause of Sins 545

Vol. 2


13. On Free Choice & Predestination  1
14. On Grace  137
15. On Justification  217
16. On Merit  348
17. On Prayer, Fasting & Alms  395
18. On Sacraments & Sacramental Things  452
19. On Baptism  534
20. On Confirmation  570
21. On the Eucharist  583
22. On the Sacrifice of the Mass  695
23. On Repentance  769
24. On Indulgences  818
25. On Extreme Unction  837
26. On Ordination  856
27. On Marriage  874
28. On the Immortality of the Soul & the Resurrection of Bodies  918
29. On Purgatory & Hell  941
30. On Heaven, Heavenly Things [or Persons] & the Worship of Them  979


Alting, J. Henricus

The Scriptural Theology of Heidelberg, vol. 1, containing Didactic & then Elenctic Common Places (Freistad [= Amsterdam], 1646)

Table of Contents

Part 2, Elenctic Theology

1. Of Elenctic Theology in General  257
2. Of the Principle of Theology, the Word of God  266
3. Of God  328
4. Of Predestination  376
5. Of Creation  412
6. Of Providence  421
7. Of the Law  424
8. Of Sin & Free Will  449
9. Of the Punishment of Sin  474
10. Of the Person & Office of Christ  477
11. Of the Church  580
12. Of the Sacraments  593
13. Of Internal Calling and Justifying Faith  632
14. Of Justification  661
15. Of Sanctification  686
16. Of Glorification  693

Alting exegetes this major Lutheran confession and argues the Reformed position.

Table of Contents

A Syllabus of Controversies with the Lutherans

Extended Table of Contents

Table  130
Prolegomena  131

Part 1, Controversies About Doctrine

1.Of the Supper of the Lord. 3 Questions  142
2. Of the Person of Christ  177
3. Of Providence  214
4. Of Predestination, 5 Questions  225
5. Of Baptism  253

Part 2, Controversies About Ceremonies

1. Of the Discrepancy of Rituals in the Administration of Baptism & the Supper, 3 Questions  261
2. Of Other Certain Rituals  274
3. Of the Furnishing [Images & Organs] of Church Buildings  278

A New Elenctic Theology, or a System of Elenctics  (Amsterdam, 1654)  Detailed table of contents

To the Reader

1. Of the Nature of Theology  1
2. Of the Principle of Theology, Sacred Scripture  30
3. Of God  84
4. Of the Decrees of God & his Eternal Predestination  191
5. Of Creation  265
6. Of Providence  287
7. Of Sin in General & in Specific  320
8. Of Free Choice  355
9. Of the Punishment of Sin  384
10. Of the Law of God  402
11. Of the Gospel, or of the Covenant of Grace  455
12. Of the Person & Office of Christ  483
13. Of the Church  508
14. Of the Word & Sacraments  544
15. Of the Government of the Church: Ecclesiastical & Civil  641
16. Of Calling & Faith  712
17. Of Justification  734
18. Of Sanctification  778
19. Of Perseverance  811
20. Of Glorification  825

Appendix on the Syncretism of Religion  837-866

Wettstein, Gernler & Buxtorf – A Syllabus of Controversies in Religion which come between the Orthodox Churches & whatever other Adversaries…  (Basil, 1662)  No ToC

The work goes through 20 chapters in the order of systematic theology.  Each chapter has around 7-47 questions which state the issue, and then either affirms it or denies it, while stating the positions of the adversaries.  No further discussion is included.

The material was intended to provide disputation topics for students in the theological academy at Basil.

Table of Contents

1. Theology & Religion in General  3
2. The Principle of Theology: Sacred Scripture  4
3. God  9
4. Decrees of God & Predestination  13
5. Creation & the State of Creation  16
6. Providence  19
7. Law  21
8. Sin, Free Choice & the Punishment of Sin  26
9. Covenant of Grace  30
10. Person of Christ & the Incarnation  32
11. Office of Christ & of Both States  35
12. External Calling, where is of the Gospel & the Sacraments in General  41
13. Baptism  45
14. Sacred Supper  48
15. Internal Calling & Faith  54
16. Justification  56
17. Sanctification & Good Works  60
18. Glorification & Heads Deduced from it  64
19. Nature of the Church  68
20. External Government of the Church  75

Hoornbeek, Johannes

On the Conversion of the Indians & Heathens, in Two Books  (Amsterdam, 1669)  ToC  259 pp.

A Sum of Controversies in Religion with Infidels, Heretics & Schismatics  (Utrecht, 1653; 1676)  Index

Table of Contents


Dissertation on Controversies & Theological Disputations  1

1. Of Gentilism  56
2. Of Judaism  62
3. Of Mohammedism  70
4. Of Papalism  192
5. Of Anabaptism  330
6. Of Enthusiasts & Libertines, etc.  378
7. Of Socinianism  562
8. Of Remonstrants [Arminians]  575
9. Of Lutherans  608
10. Of Brownists, etc.  738
11. Of Greeks & Orientals  833


Addenda: The Judgment of the Theological Faculty in the Academy of Leiden on the Sects of the Brothers of the Rose-Cross  993

Prideaux, John – Manuductio ad Theologiam Polemicam  [An Introduction to Polemical Theology]  Ref  (1657)  255 pp.

Spanheim, Jr., Frederic – A Historical-Theological Chain of Select Controversies on Religion, even with the Greeks, Orientals, Jews & the Recent Anti-Scripturalists [Rationalists] [Plus Many Other Sects], in which the Fonts of Errors are Opened  (Leiden, 1683/1687)  Extended ToC  More Extended ToC

Spanheim, Jr. (1632-1701) was a German reformed professor of theology at Heidelberg and Leiden, and son of Frederic Spanheim, Sr. (d. 1649).

In most of the chapters, Spanheim first lays out historical preconsiderations as to the reason and rise of the controversy, and then, under the False Principles, he usually, briefly, goes through the subjects of systematic theology, expounding and refuting their particular errors.

Brief Table of Contents

To the Hearers

Select Controversies with Papists  35

Historical Prolegomena 35
On the False Principles  61
Appendix:  On the Papal Antichrist

The Principal Controversies with Anabaptists & Fanatics  95

Historical Prolegomena  95
Of the False Religious Principles  101
Appendix: On the Pattern [Momento] of the Errors of the Anabaptists  130

The Principal Controversies with Socinians & Anti-Trinitarians  132

Historical Prolgomena  132
Of the False Principle  140

The Principal Controversies with Today’s Arminians & Remonstrants  218

Historical Prolegomena  218
Of the False Principles  238

Appendix:  A Dissertation having Newly Refuted what [Claude] Pajonists Call Immediate Grace:  On the New Controversy in France about the Mode of the Operation of the Holy Spirit in Conversion  285

On the Occassion of the Anti-Remonstrant Controversy  285
State of the Question  288
Conclusion on the Importance of the Thing  298
Andrew Rivet, from his Last Hours  304

The Principle Controversies with Augsburgians [Lutherans], Commonly Called Confessional Theologians  305

Historical Prolegomena & Preconsiderations  305
Significant Controversies on the Lord’s Supper, from which begun the Schisms  335
Of the Providence of God, Predestination & Related Heads  339
On the Person of Christ, Theanthropos  355
Of Baptism  360
On Some Rites Not Wholly Indifferent  363
Of Mutual Tolerance Between Evangelicals  367

Select Controversies with Modern Greeks & the Oriental Church; a Historical Dissertation on the State of the Oriental Church & the Dissension from the Latin or Pontifical Church  369

The Greek Church which is Spoken of  369
The Genuine Greeks from the Spurious Distinguished  370
The Judgment on the Greeks which the Latins Made of Them  372

Of Gennadius Scholarius  [c.1400–c.1473]  375
Of those called Melkites  384
Of the Georgians & the Mingrelians  385
Of the Jurisdiction of the Father of Constantinople  387
Of the Remaining Patriarchs  390
The Fifth Held Patriarch by the Greeks  390

What the Controversies are with the Greeks  391
The Fundamental Doctrine of Them  394
Even of the Nestorians  395
Of the Latinizing of Them  396
The Jacobites, the Monophysites  398
Their Dissent from the Papists  400
The Maronites  401
The Armenians  402
Whether they Believe in Transubstantiation?  406
Of the Oriental Liturgies  407

What Agreement there may be with the Papists in Appearance  409
The Disagreement from the Latins set forth in a Proposition  410

What Greeks were Against the Latins through the Centuries  411
Through the 11th-12th Centuries  413
Through the 13th & 14th Centuries  414
Through the 15th Century, Before & After the Florentine Union  417

The Latins Contra the Greeks  419
The Dissent of the Greeks [from the Latins] in Doctrine  422
The Dissent in Rites  428
The Dissent in Ecclesiastical Discipline  434

Controversies with the Greeks, even the pure ones, or the Melkites, besides those which are on the Person of Christ especially with the Jacobites [Monophysites] & Nestorians

On the Person of the Holy Spirit; On the Procession of the Holy Spirit from only the Father, & of the Addition of the Term, ‘Filioque’  437

Of the Religious Worship of Creatures; on the Religious Worship of Pictorial Images  439

On the Invocation of Saints as Intercessors with God  442

Of the Person of Christ; on the Unity of the Person of Christ, Theanthropos, and of the Error of the Nestorians  444

Of the Distinction of Natures & then the Will in Christ & on the Council of Chalcedon  445

On Good Works & on the Power unto a Good Work; on the worthiness of works from congruency and a disposition unto grace  447

On Fastings & Abstinence from Certain Foods; on the States of Fastings, & of the Reason & Necessity of Them  449

On Abstinence from a Suffocated Thing & Blood  452

Of Feast Days; on the Necessity of Feasts, even in Honor of the Creatures  454

On Confession to a Priest; on Making Private Confession at Certain Times  456

On the Sacraments; on the Absolute Necessity of Baptism  458

On the Seven Sacraments of the Church  459

Of the Changing of the Elements in the Eucharist after the Descending of the Spirit [upon the words of consecration; that is, of transubstantiation]  463

Of Infants being Admitted to the Sacred Supper  466

Of Marriage  467

On Polygamy  469

Of the Last Things; of the State & Place of the Souls of the Faithful & of Prayers & Sacrifices for the Dead  470

Select Controversies with the Infidel Jews  473

Prolegomena on the Causes of Unbelief & the Means of Conversion  473
The Rejection of Them  474
Of their Future Conversion  474
The Two General Means  475
A Number of the Causes of Unbelief with as Many Opposing Remedies; the First Class of the Causes  476

Remedies Opposing  507

Of the False Theological Principles  528

Of the Talmud  531
Of the Kabbalistic Art  533
Of the True Principle of the Christian Religion; on the Books of the N.T.  536
Of God & the Holy Trinity  538
Of the Holy Trinity  542
Of the Works of Creation; of the Creation of Evil Angels  544
Of the Creation of All Spirits  545

Controversies with Pseudo-Philosophers, Rationalists, Anti-Scripturalists, etc.  642-95

A Compendious Dissertation on the Author of the Mosaic Books, contra the Writer of the Historical-Critical Old Testament  671

Clauberg, Johann & Martin Hund – Select Disputations, in which Controversies of Faith Against All Kinds of Adversaries (Principally the Socinians & Papists…) are Explicated  (Duisberg, 1665)

Clauberg (1622-1665) was a German theologian and philosopher.  Clauberg was the founding Rector of the first University of Duisburg, where he taught from 1655 to 1665.  He is known as a ‘scholastic Cartesian’.  Hund (1624-1666) was a professor of theology at Duisburg from 1655-†1666.


Table of Contents


Resurrection of the Flesh, 1-3  1
Trinity, 1-12  13


Word of God, 1-3  98
Power of the Word & Phrases of Sacred Scripture, 1-4  117
Consequences Deducted out of Sacred Scripture,1-11  145
Disputation on the Presupposition of Sacred Scripture  227


Of the Fundamental Truth of Faith, 1-12  242
Of the Novelty of Dogmas in Theology, 1-2  347
Of the End that Ought to be Aimed at in Theology  387
Of the Faith of Antichrist, 1-2  406


Of Oral Chewing, 1-6  424
Of the Multi-Presence of the Body of Christ, 1-3  452
Of the Nature of Liberty, 1-2  477
Of the Distinction of the Divine & Human Intellect  487


Of the Image of God, 1-7  491
Of the Election of Men to Salvation  530
Of the Testaments & Covenants of God  545
Of the Justification of Man Before God in All his Estate  550

Essenius, Andreas – A Synopsis of Controversial Theology & a Complete Index of the Passages of Sacred Scripture which the Adversaries Use to Seek to Strengthen their Errors & Attack & Deflect the Truth, & are Accustomed to Abuse, being Propounded by a Singular, Brief Method Through their Collections  (Utrecht, 1677)  479 pp.  There is no table of contents; it goes through the subjects like a systematic theology for 20 chapters in 108 pages; then follows, for most of the volume, the Index of Scripture places, being a commentary on many verses of most of the chapters of the whole Bible, stating and refuting the opinions of sects.

Essenius (1618-1677)

Turretin, Francis

Institutes of Elenctic Theology, vols. 123  (Geneva, 1679-1686; NY, 1847)  In English: Buy

Turretin (1623–1687)

Works, vol. 4, Disputations

Table of Contents

On the Necessity of Our Secession from the Church of Rome

1. The State of the Question is Propounded: the Roman Church is Argued to be Heretics  3
2. First Part on Roman Idolatry  31
3. Second Part on Roman Idolatry  53
4. Third Part on Roman Idolatry  77
5. On Roman Tyranny  97
6. On the Romish Babylon  125
7. A Demonstration of the Antichrist  147
8. Objections are Solved  181

A Decade of Miscellaneous Disputations

1. On the Book of Life  207
2. First Part on the Authority of Holy Scripture Against the Papists  233
3. Second Part on the Authority of Holy Scripture  253
4. On the Necessity of Good Works  271
5. On the Three Heavenly Witnesses out of 1 Jn. 5:7  289
6. On the Spirit, the Water and the Blood which Bear Witness in the Earth, out of 1 Jn. 5:8  307
7. Of Baptism out of the Cloud & Water, out of 1 Cor. 10:1-2  325
8. Of Manna, out of 1 Cor. 10:3  341
9. Of the Rock, Christ, out of 1 Cor. 10:4  357
10. Of the Brass Serpent  371

On the Satisfaction of Christ, Disputations 11-23  385-712  Table of Contents

24. A Theological Disputation on the Pontifical Circle  713  [in that the Papists say that one needs the Church to interpret Scripture, and yet the Church is proved out of Scripture]

25. A Textual Exercise on the Harmony of Paul & James on the Article of Justification  731

Rissen, Leonard – A Sum of Didactic & Elenctic Theologyout of Our Theologians, Especially out of Francis Turretin’s Institutes of Theology, so Augmented & Illustrated  (Bern, 1676; 1690)  Extended Latin ToC

Here is an introduction to the life of Rissen (1636-1700) with his chapter on Justification in English.

Brief Table of Contents

1. Of Theology  2
2. Of Scripture  15
3. Of God  64
4. Of the Most Holy Trinity  98
5. Of the Decrees of God  111
6. Of Predestination  124
7. Of Creation  147
8. Of the Providence of God  186
9. Of the Law & the Fall  203
10. Of the Covenant of Grace  257
11. Of Christ  268
12. Of the Offices of Christ  314
13. Of Conversion & Faith  371
14. Of Justification  411
15. Of the Decalogue & Good Works  456
16. Of the Church  554
17. Of the Sacraments  671
18. Of the Last Things  767

Cloppenburg, Johannes – All the Theological Works, vol. 2  (Elenctic & Christian Sabbath)  (Amsterdam, 1684)  ToC

Cloppenburg (1592-1652)

Heidegger, Johann H. – The Mound of the Council of Trent…  where is a Historical-Theological Anatomy of the Council of Trent…  vol. 1, 2  (Zurich: Gessner, 1690)  ToC 1, 2



Pictet, Benedict – A Brief Syllabus of Controversies  (Geneva, 1711)

Bk. 1, On Controversies Agitated from the Age of the Reformation

1. Of Atheists, Deists & Anti-Scripturalists  1

The Errors of Spinoza  3
Hobbes  9
Edward Herbert  12
The View of David George of Holland  13
Of Libertines  14

2. Of Jews  15
3. Of Mohammedans  29
4. Of the Papists  22

Of the Jansenists  33
On the View of Richard Simon  39

5. On the Anabaptists  40
.       On the View of the Schwenckfeldians  47
6. On the View of Weigel & the Weigelians  49
7. Propositions of M. de Molinos as they were Condemned by Innocent XI in 1687  57
8. Porpositions taken from the Book of Rev. Francis Salignac Fenelon, Archbishop of Cambrai [France] as they were Condemned at Rome by Innocent XII in 1699  68
9. Of Quakers  74
10. Of Antinomians  78
11. The View of the Anti-Trinitarians, Servetus, Valentinus Gentilis, Socinus & the Socinians  79
12. Of the Arminians, or the Remonstrants  92
13.  Of the Augustinian Evangelical Brethren  98
14. Of the Modern Greeks  100
15. Of the Russites or the Moscovites, the Copts & the Abyssinians, or the Ethiopians  106
16. Of the Pietists  113

Bk. 2, Of the Heretics which have Disturbed the Christian Church, by the Century  116

1. On the Heretics of the First Century  116
2. Of the 2nd Century  126
3. Of the 3rd Century  154
4. Of the 4th Century  159
5. Of the 5th Century  166
6. Of the 6th Century  172
7. Of the 7th Century  174
8. Of the 8th Century  175
9. Of the 9th Century  176

Lampe, Friedrich – Rudiments of Elenctic Theology  (Bremen, 1729)  ToC

Lampe (1683-1729) was a German Pietist pastor, theologian and professor of dogmatics. He was a Cocceian, and follower of Johannes d’Outrein.  He is known as the first Pietist leader from a reformed rather than Lutheran background.



Latin Systematic Theologies Emphasizing Polemics


Junius, Franciscus

The Theological Works, vol. 2, Elenctic  (Heidelberg, 1607; 1608)  The Latin table of contents is at the beginning of each volume.

Junius (1545-1602)

vol. 2, Elenctic

1. The First Defense of the Catholic Doctrine of the Sacred Trinity of Persons in the Unity of the Divine Essence Against Samosatenian Errors  1
2. The Second Defense  61
3. The Third Defense  125
4. An Examination of the Declarations & Arguments of Gratianus Prosper Against the Saving Doctrine of God, Baptism & Others  227
5. A Collation of the Catholic Doctrine of Nature & Grace  301

6. Animadversions on the First Controversy of the Word of God Written and Not Written of Robert Bellarmine of the Society of Jesus, so Called  405
7. On the Second Controversy on Christ the Head of the Whole Church  539
8. On the Third Controversy on the Highest Pontiff  633
9. On the Three Books on the Change of the Roman Empire from the Greeks to the Franks  879
10. On the Fourth Controversy, on Councils & the Church Militant  1023
11. A Single Book on the Church  997
12. On the Fifth Controversy, of the Members of the Militant Church  1173
13. Animadversions on the Appended Short Book to the 3rd Controversy  1429
14. On the Sixth Controversy, of the Church which is in Purgatory  1465

15. An Oration Against the Jesuits, a Sermon translated out of the French Idiom into Latin  1545

Animadversions on the Seventh Controversy of Robert Bellarmine, on the Church Triumphant, or of Glory & the Worship of the Saints  (St. Andrews, 1609)

Pareus, David – Theological Collections of Universal Orthodox Theology, where also All of the Present Theological Controversies are Clearly and Variously Explained, vol. 12  (1611/20)  Table of contents: vol. 12

Pareus (1548-1622)

Table of Contents, vol. 1

Collection 1, Disputations

1. Theology & the Word of God  3
2. God  8
3. The Son of God Incarnate  10
4. Problems on the Office of Christ the Mediator  12
5. Holy Spirit  15
6. Creation of the World, Angels & Men  16
7. Providence of God  18
8. Sin  21
9. Free-Will  27
10. Predestination  30
11. The Gospel & Grace  35
12. Justifying Faith  39
13. Justification by Faith, Appendix on Roman Justification  44
14. Sanctification, the other Benefit of Christ, which is Regeneration & Conversion unto God  58
15. Good Works  66
16. Sacraments in General, & the False Dogma of the Papists  69
17. Baptism  77
18. Lord’s Supper  79
19. The False & Horrid Dogma of Papists & Jesuits on the Eucharist & the Sacrifice of the Mass, out of Bellarmine & the Council of Trent  85
20. Church of God  97
21. The False Dogma of the Papists on the Church & its Notes  115
22. The Government & Ecclesiastical Ministry in the Apostolic Church  121
23. Church Government Before the Popes & under the Popes, & of the Primacy of the Pope  127

Collection 2, Disputations

1. Sacred Scripture  139
2. God & the Most Holy Trinity; Solution to the Sophisms Against the Distinction of Essence & Persons  141
3. Attributes of God  148
4. Creation of the World  153
5. Good & Bad Angels  156
6. Creation of Man & his First State  159
7. Providence of God  163
8. The Fall & the First Sin of Man  166
9. Sin in General & its Distinctions  170
10. Cause of Sin  174
11. The Nature, Propagation & Effects of Original Sin  179
Note on the Origin of the Human Soul  183
12. Free-Will of Man After the Fall  188
13. Punishment of Sin, Death & the Misery of Man  193
.      Testimony of S. Scripture on the Vindicatory Justice of God  196
14. Eternal Predestination of God  198
15. Grace & the Gospel  201
16. Old & New Covenant of God  204
17. Person, Office & Benefits of the Mediator  210
18. True Divinity & Humanity of Christ  213
19. Personal Union of the Two Natures of Christ  220
20. Threefold Office of Christ the Mediator  224
21. Passion, Death, Burial & Descent to ‘Inferos’ of Christ  228
22. Resurrection, Ascension & Session at the Right Hand of God of Christ  233
23. Satisfaction & Merit of Christ the Mediator  238
24. Faith  244
25. Justification  249
26. Person, Office & Gifts of the Holy Spirit  252
27. Regeneration & Conversion [Resipiscentia]  255
28. Appendix on Regeneration & Repentance, Comprehending the False Dogma of Romanists  260
Abrogation of Auricular Confession out of Socrate  264
29. The Law, its Abrogation & Use  266
30. Good Works  268
31. Christian Liberty, Human Traditions, Adiaphora & Scandal  272
32. Prayer  277
33. True Church  286
34. False Church & its Notes  289
35. Head & Members of the Church  294
36. Primacy of the Roman Pope  300
37. Antichrist  305
38. Ecclesiastical Government of the New Testament  309
39. Ministry & Ministers of the Church & their Calling  314
40. Power of the Church about Doctrine  322
41. Power of the Church about Discipline in Upholding Laws  326
42. Power of the Church about Discipline in Enacting Censures  337
43. Vows  342
.        Note on Vows, Councils & Decrees  349
44. Sacraments in General  351
45. Baptism  357
46. Lord’s Supper  365
47. Papal Mass  376
48. The Five False Marks of the Sacraments of the Papal Church  384
49. Marriage  392
Note out of Thomas: What Promise Makes or does not Make
Marriages  400
50. Civil Magistrate  403
51. Fasting & Alms  409
52. Indulgences & Purgatory  416
53. Resurrection of the Dead & the Last Judgment  420

Collection 3, Disputations

1. Sacred Scripture  427
2. God, One & Three  431
3. Person of Christ  433
4. Threefold Office of Christ the Mediator  435
5. Providence of God  437
6. Eternal Predestination of God  440
7. Sin  442
Note on Sin: in What Way the Theologian Disputes [It]  445
8. Free-Will  446
9. Law & Gospel  449
10. Justification by Faith  451
11. Good Works  454
12. Christian Liberty  456
13. Church  459
14. Sacraments, Baptism, Holy Supper & Antichrist  461

Collection 4, Disputations

1. Sacred Scripture  457
2. God & his Saving Knowledge  469
3. Person & Incarnation of the Son of God  472
4. Office of Mediator, Against the Blasphemies of Socinus  475
5. Providence of God  479
6. Eternal Predestination of God  483
Note on Some Theses of Augustine  489
7. Sin  495
8. Free-Will of Man, a Public [Disputation]  495
The Same, Free-Will of Man, a Private [Disputation]  501
9. Law & Gospel  502
10. Justification of Man Before God  505
11. Christian Liberty  508
12. Good Works  512
13. Church  516
14. Sacraments in General, & of Baptism  521
15. Lord’s Supper  523
16. Antichrist  527

Collection 5, Disputations

1. Sacred Theology & its Principles & Parts  535
2. Books Canonical & Apocryphal  538
3. Authority & Perfection of Sacred Scripture  542
4. Perspicuity & Interpretation of the Sacred Scriptures, & the Judgment of Controversies  545
5. God, One & Three  549
6. Creation of Man in the Image of God  553
7. Providence of God  555
8. Conversion [Resipiscentia]  558
9. Free-Will  563
10. Law & Gospel  564
11. Person of Christ  569
12. Office of Christ the Mediator  562
13. Antichrist  575
14. Predestination  577
15. Faith & Justification by Faith From Works  580
16. Church & its Members, Head & Qualities  583
17. Notes of the Visible Church  585
18. Sacraments in General & of Baptism  588
19. Lord’s Supper & the Papal Mass  590
20. Descent of Christ to ‘Inferos’, the Resurrection from the Dead, the Ascension to Heaven & the Session at the Right Hand  593

Collection 6, Disputations

1. Person & Office of Christ  599
2. Church  605
3. Free-Will of Man  607
4. Predestination  612
5. Sin  615
6. Faith & Justification  618
7. Good Works  620
8. Judgment of Controversies in Causes of Religion  624
9. Political Magistrate  626
10. Baptism  629
11. Holy Lord’s Supper  632
12. Prayer to God  634
13. Providence of God  638
Note on the Same  641

Collection 7, Disputations

1. Sacred Scripture  647
2. God  649
3. Person & Office of Christ the Mediator  650
4. Free-Will  653
5. Faith & Justification of Man Before God  655
6. Eternal Predestination of God  657
7. Christian Liberty  661
8. Church & Councils  663
9. Sacraments in General  606
10. Baptism  673
11. Eucharist of the Lord & the Papal Mass  675
12. Conversion [Resipiscentia]  679
13. Law & Gospel  681
14. Civil & Ecclesiastical Power  683
15. Marriage  686
16. Antichrist  689
17. Prayer to God & of an Oath  692

Collection 8, Disputations

1. Sacred Scripture  697
2. God  699
3. Person of Christ  700
4. Providence of God  704
5. Free-Will of Man  706
6. Eternal Predestination of God  708
7. Justification by Faith  711
8. Christian Liberty  713
Note on the Conscience, Good & Bad  715
9. Church & Councils  717
10. Sacraments in General  722
11. Baptism  722
12. Lord’s Supper & the Papal Mass  724
13. Repentance or Conversion [Resipiscentia]  726
14. Law & Gospel  729
15. Civil Power, or the Political Magistrate  731
16. Ministry & Ministers of the New Testament Church  734
17. Antichrist  736
18. Prayer to God  739
19. Marriage  741

Collection 9, Disputations

1. Sacred Scripture  747
2. God, One & Three  749
3. Eternal Predestination of God  752
4. Free-Will  755
5. Sin  757
6. Person & Office of Christ  760
7. Justification of a Sinful Man Before God  764
8. Church  767
9. Sacraments in General  771
10. Baptism  773
11. Sacred Lord’s Supper  777
12. False Dogma of the Papists About the Lord’s Supper  781
13. Monarchical State of the Church & of Antichrist  783
14. Blessedness, the Worship of Saints & Purgatory  787
15. Creation of the World  791
16. Justifying Faith & the Merits of Works  793
Note on Merit out of Biel & Thomas of Argentina  795

Collection 10, Disputations

1. Canon, Edition, Reading, Authority, Obscurity, Interpretation & Perfection of Sacred Scripture  803
2. God  807
3. Providence of God  809
4. Free-Will  812
5. Sin in General  815
6. Person of Christ  817
7. Office of Christ the Mediator  820
8. Faith & Works  823
9. Justification of Man Before God  826
10. Christian Liberty  827
11. Erroneous & False Dogmas About the Papists’ Sacrifice of the Mass  830
12. Divine Predestination  832
13. Church of God  834
14. Sacraments in General  836
15. Sacrament of Baptism  838
16. Sacred Supper of the Lord  841
17. Antichrist  845
.       Note on the Three & a Half Years of Antichrist  848
18. Prayer to Saints  849
19. Purgatory  853
20. Law & Gospel  857
21. Matrimonial Errors of the Pontiffs  860
22. Councils  862
23. Theological Question: Whether we are Schismatics or Heretics for Making a Secession from the Roman Church?  865
24. Authority, Perspicuity & Definitive, Judicial Use of the Sacred Scriptures  868


Table of Contents, vol. 2

Collection 1, Disputations

1. Creation of Man  3
2. Fall, or the First Sin of Man  6
3. Sin of Man in General: Original & Actual  9
4. Free-Will  13
5. Divine Providence  18
6. Person & Office of Christ the Mediator  23
7. Justifying Faith  28
8. Law of God  32
9. Gospel  37
10. Justification by Faith  40
11. Sanctification  43
12. Church  46
13. Eternal Predestination of God  50
14. Sacred Scripture  55
15. Sacraments in General  59
16. Baptism  63
17. Lord’s Supper  66
18. Good Works in Particular: Prayer, Fasting & Alms  72
19. Invocation, & a Species of it: an Oath  76

Collection 2, Disputations

1. Authority, the Canonical Books, Version & Interpretation of Scripture  83
2. Perspicuity & Perfection of Sacred Scripture  86
3. God, One & Three  89
4. Incarnation of the Son of God  91
5. Descent of Christ to ‘Inferos’  93
6. Providence of God  86
7. Sin  99
8. Predestination  103
9. Free-Will of Man  106
10. Justification of a Sinner Before God  110
11. Church  113
12. Ministry & Ministers of the Church & their Lawful Calling  117
13. Of the External or Ministerial Government of the Church-Militant  121
14. Sacraments in General  125
15. Baptism  129
16. Lord’s Supper  132
17. Regeneration, or the Conversion of Man to God  136

Collection 3

1. Canon, Versions & Reading of the Sacred Scriptures  141
2. Perspicuity & Perfection of Sacred Scripture  142
3. Of God & the Trinity of Divine Persons  143
4. Providence of God  144
5. Eternal Predestination of God  146
6. Original & Actual Sin  147
7. Grace & Free-Will  148
8. Of the Covenant, or the Harmony & Difference of the Old & New Testament  150
9. The Mediator Christ, Theses of Controversy with Pagans, Jews, Samosatenians & Sophists  151
10. The Natural Union in Christ & the Communication of Properties  153
11. Justifying Faith & Justification  155
12. The Certainty of Justification, the Necessity of Works & of Merit  156
13.  Conversion, or the Regeneration of Man  157
14. The Church & its Notes  159
15. The Calling of the Ministers of the Church  160
16. The Government of the Church, & the Primacy of the Pope  162
17. Antichrist  193
18. The Sacraments in General  164
19. Baptism  166
20. The Holy Supper of the Lord, or the Eucharist  167

Collection 4, Disputations

1. Canon & Perfection of Holy Scripture  171
2. Reading, Obscurity & Interpretation of Holy Scripture  172
3. God & the Holy Trinity  173
4. Sin  174
5. Providence of God  175
6. Divine Predestination  176
7. Grace & Free-Will  177
8. Harmony & Difference of the Old & New Testament  178
9. Christ the Mediator  179
10. Person of Christ the Mediator  180
11. Justification by Faith  181
12. Certainty of Grace & the Merits of Works  182
13. Church & its Notes  183
14. State of the Saints After this Life & of their Worship  184
15. Ministry & Ministers of the Church  185
16. Sacraments in General  187

Collection 5, Disputations

1. Canon, Authority & Perfection of Sacred Scripture  191
2. Perspicuity, Interpretation & the Judgment of Interpretation of the Sacred Scripture  192
3. God & the Sacred Trinity  193
4. Providence of God  194
5. Divine Predestination  195
6. Sin, its Cause & Effect  196
7. Grace & Free-Will  197
8. Christ the Mediator  198
9. Person of Christ the Mediator  200
10. The Communication of Properties in the Person of Christ, & of his Satisfaction  201
11. Ascension of Christ to Heaven & Session at the Right Hand of God  202
12. Antichrist  204
13. Justification by Faith  205
14. The Certainty of Faith & of Justification, & not the Perfection, Justification & Merits of Good Works  206
15. Church & its Notes  207
16. Sacraments in General  208
17. Baptism  210
18. Holy Supper of the Lord  211
19. Of Statues & Images in Church Buildings  212
20. Christian Liberty  213

Collection 6, Disputations

1. Sacred Scripture  217
2. God & the Holy Trinity  219
3. Providence of God  221
4. Eternal Predestination of God  223
5. Sin & its Cause  225
6. The Person & Office of Christ the Mediator  228
7. Grace of God & Free-Will  231
8. Communication of Properties in the Person of Christ  233
9. Satisfaction of Christ the Mediator for our Sins  237
10. Of the Burial, Descent to ‘Inferos’, the Resurrection, Ascension to Heaven & Session at the Right Hand of God of Christ  239
11. Antichrist  241
12. The Justification of a Sinner Before God  245
13. Perseverance of the Saints out of the Book of Augustine, On Good Perseverance  248
14. Merits of Good Works  252
15. Church & its Notes  254
16. Calling of Ministers of the Church  257
17. Sacraments in General  262
18. Sacrament of Baptism  264
19. Sacrament of the Eucharist, or the Supper of the Lord  267
20. Of Monks & the Monastic Perfection  270
21. Of Prayer to Saints  274

Collection 7

1. Authority, Reading, Necessity, Obscurity & Perfection of Holy Scripture  281
2. God, Creation of the World & Angels  263
3. Satisfaction of Christ for Us  285
4. Providence of God  287
5. Eternal Predestination of God  291
6. Person, Office & Benefits of Christ the Mediator  299
7. Justification by Faith  305
8. Merits of Good Works, the Restricting of Foods & Fasting
9. The Certainty of Faith, of Grace, of Justification, of Perseverance, of Salvation, Predestination & Finally of the Faithful, Against the Papistical Doubt  309
10. The Ecclesiastical Ministry, the Calling of Ministers & Ecclesiastical Discipline  315
11. Sacraments in General, in Specific of Baptism  320
12. Holy Supper of the Lord  326
13. Church  331

Collection 8, Disputations

1. Authority, Interpretation, Reading, Perfection & Necessity of Sacred Scripture  339
2. Sacred Trinity in the Unity of the Divine Essence  341
3. Providence of God & the Cause of Sin  342
4. Twofold Predestination of God: One of the Good to Glory; Another of the Evil to Punishment, Wherein is Prefixed the Title of the First Book of Fulgentius to Monimum  344
5. Person & Office of Christ the Mediator  348
6. Faith & Justification  350
7. Intercession & Prayer to Saints; & of Purgatory & Images  352
8. Antichrist  354
9. Church  356
10. Free-Will & Grace  357
11. Sacraments in General & of Baptism  359
12. Sacrament of the Supper of the Lord & of the Pontifical Mass  361
13. Sin, the Cause of Sin in General & of the First Sin  362
14. Original Sin & the Sin Against the Holy Spirit  364
15. Law & Gospel & of their Difference  366
16. Political Magistrate  368
17. Good Works  370
18. Omnipotence of God, & of its Abuse  371
19. Of Fleeing the Papacy  372
20. Continuation of Fleeing the Papacy  373
21. The Heaven of the Blessed  376
22. Perseverance of the Saints  378
23. Death of Christ for All  379
24. Of Fleeing & Taking up the Popish Mass  381
25. Of the Judgment of Controversies about Religion  382
26. Of Vows & Oaths in the New Testament  385

Collection 9, 40 Disputations on the Controversies of the Jesuit Cardinal, Robert Bellarmine

1. Of the Truths & Falsehoods of Bellarmine about the Canon of the Sacred Scriptures, Book 1, ‘Assertions on the Word of God’  389
2. Of the Truths & Falsehoods of Bellarmine about the Editions, Versions & Readings of the Sacred Scriptures, Book 2, ‘Assertions on the Word of God’  397
3. Of the Falsehoods of Bellarmine about the Interpretations of the Sacred Scriptures, Book 3, ‘Assertions on the Word of God’  403
4. Of the Vanities of Bellarmine about Traditions, Book 4, ‘Assertions on the Word of God’  413
5. Of God, One & Three, out of Bellarmine, Books 1 & 2, ‘Of Christ’  421
6. Of the Incarnation of the Son of God, out of Bellarmine, Books 3-5, ‘Of Christ’  424
7. Of the Vanities of Bellarmine about the Controversy of the Monarchical Church of the Apostle Peter, Book 1, ‘Of the Roman Pontiff’  430
8. Of the Vanities of Bellarmine about the Controversy of the Successors of the Roman Pontiff in the Monarchical Church of the Apostle Peter, Book 2, ‘Of the Roman Pontiff’  433
9. Of the Vanities of Bellarmine about the Controversy on the Antichrist, Book 3, ‘Of the Roman Pontiff’  436
10. Continuation of the Antichrist  442
11. Of the Vanities of Bellarmine about the Controversy on the Power of the Roman Pontiff, Spiritual & Temporal, Books 4-5, ‘Of the Roman Pontiff’  447
12. Of the Vanities of Bellarmine about the Controversy on Ecclesiastical Councils, Books 1-2  450
13. Of the Calumnies & Vanities of Bellarmine about the Controversy of the Church & its Notes, Books 3-4, ‘Of the Church Militant’  455
14. Of the Vanities of Bellarmine about the Controversy of Clerics, Book 1  465
15. Of the Vanities of Bellarmine about the Controversy of Monks, Book 2  467
16. Of the Vanities of Bellarmine about the Question of the Civil Power or Magistrate, Book 3, ‘Of Laymen’  470
17. Of the Vanities of Bellarmine about Purgatory, Books 1-2, ‘Of Purgatory’  476
18. Of the Vanities of Bellarmine about the Controversy of the Blessedness & Canonization of the Saints, Book 1, ‘Of the Blessedness of the Saints’  482
19. Of the Vanities of Bellarmine about the Controversy of the Veneration of Relics & Images, Books 2-3  487
20. Of the Vanities of Bellarmine about the Controversy of the Sacraments in General, Book 1, ‘Of the Sacraments’  492
21. Of the Vanities of Bellarmine about the Controversy of the Effect, Difference & Number of the Sacraments, Books 2, ‘Of the Effect of the Sacraments’  498
22. Of the Vanities of Bellarmine About the Controversy of the Sacrament of Baptism & of Confirmation  503
23. Of the Vanities of Bellarmine about the Controversy of the Eucharist, Books 1-2  510
24. Of the Vanities of Bellarmine about the Controversy of the Possibility of the Presence of the Body of Christ under the Appearance of the Eucharist, Books 1-2  515
25. The Vanities of Bellarmine about the Controversy of the Substance, Rite, Effect, Integrity & Veneration of the Sacrament of the Eucharist, Book 4, ‘Of the Eucharist’  520
26. Of the Vanities of Bellarmine about the Controversy of the Mass, Books 1-2  525
27. Of the Vanities of Bellarmine about the Controversy of the Pseudo-Sacrament of Penitence, Books 1-4  530
28. Of the Vanities of Bellarmine about the Controversy of Indulgences, Extreme Unction, Ecclesiastical Order & Matrimony  536
29. Of the Vanities of Bellarmine about the Controversy the Grace of the First Man, Book 1, & of the Definition & Partition of Sin, Book 1, ‘Of the Amiss.[?] of Grace’  540
30. Of the Vanities of Bellarmine about the Controversy of the Cause of Sin, Book 2, ‘Of the Amiss.[?] of Grace’  546
31. Of the Vanities of Bellarmine about the Controversy of the First Sin & its Effects, Books 3-6  550
32. Of the Vanities of Bellarmine about the Controversy of Grace & Free-Will, Books 1-2  557
33. Of the Vanities of Bellarmine about the Controversy of Free-Will, Books 3-4, ‘Of Grace & Free-Will’  562
34. Of the Vanities of Bellarmine about the Controversy of Free-Will in Morals & Spirituals, Books 5-6, ‘Of Grace & Free-Will’  568
35. Of the Vanities of Bellarmine about the Controversy of the Nature & Proper Act of Justification by Faith, Book 1, ‘Of Justification’  572
36. Of the Vanities of Bellarmine about the Controversy of the Formal Cause of Justification & of Inherent Righteousness, Book 2, ‘Of Justification’  572
37. Of the Vanities of Bellarmine about the Controversy of the Uncertainty, Immutability & Inequality of Righteousness, Book 3, ‘Of Justification’  590
38. Of the Vanities of Bellarmine about the Controversy of the Necessity & Righteousness of Works, Book 4, ‘Of Justification’  598
39. Of the Vanities of Bellarmine about the Controversy of the Merits of Works, Book 5, ‘Of Justification’  606
40. Of the Vanities of Bellarmine about the Controversy of the Good Works in Particular: Prayer, Fasting & Alms, Books 1-3  613

Scharp, John – A Course of Theology, in which All the Dogmas & Controversies of Faith Agitated in this Generation Between Us & Papists are Handled one by one and the Arguments of Bellarmine are Responded to, vol. 12 (Geneva, 1620)  Extended Latin Table of Contents

Sharp (1572-1648) was Scottish though was also influential in France.  Even though this work is against the Papists, Scharp handles most of the topics of theology in systematic order.

Brief Table of Contents

vol. 1

1. Of Theology  1
2. Of Sacred Scripture  8
3. Of Go  170
4. Of the Trinity  208
5. Of Predestination  288
6. Of Creation  366
7. Of the Image of God in Man Before the Fall  367
8. Of Angels  388
9. Of the Providence of God  408
10. Of Sin  411
11. Of Original Sin  456
12. Of Actual Sin  506
13. Of the Sin Against the Holy Spirit  522
14. Of the Evil of Punishment  531
15. Of Free Choice  542
16. Of the Law of God  585
17. Of the Gospel  688
18. The Covenant & Testament  701
19. Of Christ the Mediator  703
20. Of the Office of Christ  817
21. Of Calling  898
22. Of Justification  921
23. Of Repentance  1152
24. Of the Christian Life  1230
25. Of Christian Liberty  1236
26. Of Fasting  1251
27. Of Scandal  1265
28. Of Prayer  1269
29. Of Glorification  1280
30. Of the Resurrection of the Body  1284
31. Of the Last Judgment  1291
32. Of Life Eternal  1294
33. Of the Sacraments  1301
34. Of Baptism  1345
35. Of the Lord’s Supper  1381
36.  Of the Five Spurious Sacraments  1555


Vol. 2

1. Of the Church  9
2. Of the Church Triumphant  19
3. Of the Church Militant  87
4. Of the Body of the Church Militant  273
5. Of Councils  385
6. Of Monastics  441
7. Of Vows  457
8. Of the Magistrate  488
9. Of Purgatory  521

Alsted, Johann Heinrich

A Compendium of Theology, Exhibiting a Method of Scriptural Theology in 8 Parts  (Hanoviae, 1624)  Extended table of contents

Part 5, Polemical Theology, pp. 301-385

Alphabetical Index of Errors Pertaining to Polemical
Theology, p. 560 ff.

Polemical Theology, Exhibiting the Principal Eternal Things of Religion in Navigating Controversies  (Hanau, 1620; 1627)  Extended Table of Contents

Table of Contents

Prolegomena to Polemical Theology  1

Of the Division of Theological Controversies  1
Chronology of Councils  2
Chronology of Creeds  17
Chronology of Confessions [post-1500]  30
Chronology of Fathers  31
Chronology of Scholars  34
Chronology of Various Theologians  37
Chronology of Jewish Doctors  44
Chronology of Heretics & Schismatics  47
Are Theological Controversies to be Dragged on, and How?  62

Part 1, Controversies of the Jews & Muslims with Christians

1. Controversies of the Jews with Christians

1. Are Traditions Necessary Before the Word of God has been Written?  66
2. Are There Three Persons in the One Essence of God?  71
3. Is Jesus of Nazareth the Genuine Messiah Promised to the Fathers?  75
4. Is the Righteousness by which we Stand Before God the Righteousness of the Messiah, which is ours by a Gratuitous Imputation and True Faith?  103
5. Has the Legal Worship of the Old Testament been Necessarily Abolished by the Messiah?  109
6. Should the Felicity of the New Testament Church be the Specific Expectation of Any in These Lands?  111
7. Ought Jews to Convert to the Faith of Christ?  116
8. Is the Conversion of the Gentiles Predicted from the Prophets?  119
9. Is the Name YHWH Ineffable?  120
10. Does Scripture Propose to us Two Messiahs, One of Which is a Worldly King?  121
11. Are the Rabbis the Best Interpreters?  122
12. .What is the Certainty that the Jews Have in a Historical Event?  124
13. Is it Possible that a Man be Naturally Himself to the Gift of Prophecy?  125
14. Are Numerous Commandments of the Law of Moses Rightly Received from the Jews?  125
15. O’ Man, are you Able to Perfectly Fulfill the Law of God?  126
16. Are Prayers in the Name of the Messiah Obliged to be Received?  127
17. What Ought to be Discerned about the Kabbalistic Interpretation of Scripture by Gimmetrios, Notarickun, Athbasch, etc.?  128
18. Ought Not the Time of Appeasing to be Observed in Prayers?  129
19. Are the Orders & Names of the Angels Able to be Known by Us?  130
20. Has the Time of the Coming of the Messiah been Predicted and Made Definite by God in the Old Testament?  131
21. Do the External Ceremonies of Sacrifices, Purgings & Expiations Purify, of Themselves, the Soul?  132
22. Is the Long Duration of the Present Exile of the Jews an Expiation of Sins?  134
23. Are There Four Legislators of the World?  135
24. When has the Prophetic Word in the People of God Withdrawn?  136

2. Controversies of the Muslims with Christians  151

Part 2, A catholic Symphony

1. A Minor catholic Symphony  161

1. On the Apostles’ Creed  161
2. On the Decalogue  166
3. On the Lord’s Prayer  168
4. On Baptism  168
5. On the Lord’s Supper  169

2. A Major catholic Symphony: Theological Common Places  174

1. Sacred Scripture  174
2. God & of Three Persons in One Divinity  177
3. God the Father  179
4. God the Son  180
5. Holy Spirit  181
6. Creation  182
7. Providence of God  182
8. Man  185
9. Fall of Man  186
10. Sin  188
11. Free-Will  189
12. Law  191
13. Jesus Christ  193
14. Election  204
15. Repentance  206
16. Gospel  208
17. Grace of God  210
18. Faith  212
19. Justification  215
20. Good Works  218
21. Church  222
22. Sacraments  232
23. Baptism  238
24. Supper of the Lord  240
25. The Keys  248
26. Prayer  251
27. Resurrection & Life Eternal  254

Part 3, Controversies with the Samosatenians [Monarchianism, Adoptionism, Socinianism]

1. 8 General Controversies  258
2. An Examination of the Racovian Catechism [Socinian]  289

Sacred Scripture  289
The Way of Salvation  293
Knowledge of God  294
Person of Christ  298
Prophetic Office of Christ  311
Kingly Office of Christ  340
Priestly Office of Christ  341
Church of Christ  345

Part 4, Controversies with the Romanists

Sacred Scripture  349
Christ the Mediator  369
The Roman Pontiff  379
Councils  390
Of Controversies  394
Church  396
Clericis  406
Monastics  414
Laics [On the Civil Magistrate]  426
Church Striving in Purgatory  433
Burial  442
Church Triumphant in Heaven & of the Saints in Heaven  444
Relics, Images & the Worship of Things  451
Church Buildings & Feasts  461
Sacraments in General  465
Baptism & Confirmation  475
Sacrament of the Eucharist & the Sacrifice of the Mass  483
Repentance & Indulgences  502
The Three Other Sacraments: Extreme Unction, Ordination & Matrimony  513
Grace of the First Man in Paradise  520
The Loss of Grace & the State of Sin  526
Grace & the Predestination of God, & the Free-Will of Man  538
Justification & of Good Works in General  548
Of the Good Works in Specific: Prayer  566
.      Fasting  569
.      Alms  572

Part 5, Controversies Between Lutherans & Calvinists

Class 1, Preliminary Controversies  575
Class 2, Controversies about the Decalogue  586
Class 3, Controversies about the Creed  600
Class 4, Controversies about the Lord’s Prayer  647
Class 5, Controversies on the Sacraments in General  650
Class 6, Controversies on Baptism  655
Class 7, Controversies on the Holy Supper  660

Part 6,

Section 1, Of the Dogmas of Jacob Arminius & his Disciples

1. Decree of Predestination  675
2. The Universality of the Merit of the Death of Christ  679
3-4. The Grace of God & the Conversion of Man  680
5. Perseverance of the Saints & the Certainty of Salvation  683

Section 2, Index of Questions which are Ventilated Between Erudite Theologians  699

Section 3, An Admonition on the Errors of the Anabaptists  700

Alting, J. Henricus – A Method of Didactic Theology  (Amsterdam, 1656; 1662)

Alting (1583-1644).  This work is essentially the same as Alting’s, Theologia elenctica nova, sive systema elencticum (Amsterdam, 1654) and Theologia problematica nova, sive systema problematum theologicorum (Amsterdam, 1662).


Table of Contents

1. Nature of Theology  3
2. The First Principle of Theology, Sacred Scripture  4
3. God  10
4. Decrees of God in General, & of Predestination in Specific  16
5. Creation  22
6. Providence  28
7. Sin in General & in Specific  36
8. Free-Will in the State of Sin  42
9. Punishment of Sin  45
10. Law of God  49
11. Gospel & the Gospel Covenant  55
12. Person & Office of Christ  62
13. Church  71
14. Calling of the Militant Church by the Word & Sacraments  79
15. Government of the Church  89
16. The Gift of Repentance & Faith by Effectual Calling  98
17. Justification  105
18. Sanctification  112
19. Perseverence  119
20. Glorification  129

A Method of Catechetical Theology [in 127 aphorisms]  134-148

Prideaux, John – All the Theological Works Extent in Latin  (Tigur, 1672)  Table of Contents comes after the Dedication and Preface

Prideaux (1578–1650) was a reformed Anglican bishop and professor of theology.

Table of Contents

IV.  A Bundle of Theological Controversies

Introductory Inquiry: Of the Existence of God  531
1. Of the Scripture  533
2. Of the Knowledge of God  559
3. Of Sin  584
4. Of the Church  602
5. Of Redemption  665
6. Of the Sacraments  679
7. Of the Last Things  692

Essenius, Andreas – A Dogmatic Compendium of Theology, where, beyond Explanatory Theses & Scriptural Assertions, True Sentiments are Confirmed by Arguments Throughout in Controversies, Revoking a few certain groups, the Principal Exceptions & Objections of the Adversaries being Propounded & Solved, and also the Practical Use of these Places Described, this being the editions in use in the Schools, at the end is added a Tract on the Rule of Preaching by Johannes Hoornbeek  (Utrecht, 1685)  The table of contents is on p. 796

Essenius (1618-1677)

Table of Contents

1 – The Nature of Theology   1
2 – Faith   23
3 – Sacred Scripture   43
4 – God   97
5 – The Divine Persons   148
6 – The Decree of God   172
7 – Creation   193
8 – Providence   228
9 – The Legal Covenant   249
10 – Sin   387
11 – The Evangelical Covenant   432
12 – Christ the Mediator   474
13 – The Procuring of Salvation   535
14 – Calling and Regeneration   555
15 – Justification, Reconciliation and Adoption   566
16 – Sanctification   613
17 – Preservation and Confirmation   629
18 – Of Sealing   643
19 – Glorification   702
20 – The Church   726

Gautier, Thomas – Principles of Didactic Theology Briefly, Clearly and Entirely Given, with a Decision on the Principle Controversies out of the Sacred Scripture  (Marburg, 1696)  343 pp., 20 chs. There is a scope of the work after the preface and a subject index at the end.

Gautier (1638-1709)

Marck, Johannes à – A Compendium of Christian Theology, Didactic and Elenctic  (Amsterdam, 1696; 1722)

Marck (1656-1731)

Table of Contents

1 – Of the Name and Definition of Theology   1
2 – Of the First Principle [Principio] of Theology, or Sola Scriptura   18
3 – Religion   60
4 – Of the Name, Essence and Attributes of God   70
5 – The Persons of the Trinity   99
6 – The Divine Decrees   120
7 – The Predestination of Men to Salvation or Damnation   129
8 – The Divine Creation of the World   150
9 – Good and Bad Angels   171
10 – The Actual Providence of God   189
11 – The Worship of God and the Rule of His Law   200
12 – The Decalogue and of Each of its Precepts   229
13 – The Creation and Nature of Man   262
14 – The First State of the Integrity of Man, and a view of the Image
.            of God and the Covenant of Works   276
15 – The Sin of Men, and its Various Kinds   294
16 – The Various Penaltis of Human Sin   325
17 – The Covenant of Grace, the Gospel, and its Various
.            Economies   333
18 – The Mediator of the Covenant of Grace   347
19 – The Person of Jesus Christ   363
20 – The Three-fold Office of Christ the Mediator: Prophetic,
.             Priestly and Kingly   386
21 – The Two-fold State of Jesus Christ: of being Emptied, and
.            of Exaltation   420
22 – The Ordinances [officiis] of the Covenant of Grace: Faith
.             and Repentance   446
23 – The Effectual Calling of the Elect   468
24 – The Justification of the Elect Before God   477
25 – Sanctification and Good Works   497
26 – Prayer, Fasting, Set Hours, Alm[s], Vow[s]   510
27 – The Certain Preservation of the Elect   537
28 – Regeneration, Adoption, Reconciliation and Liberty   541
29 – The Sacraments of the Covenant of Grace; in particular:
.             Circumcision, Pascha [Passover & Easter] and ones
.             falsely named as such from the New Testament   551
30 – The Holy Baptism of Christians   578
31 – The Holy Supper of the Lord   604
32 – The Covenant Joining God and the Church   627
33 – The Varied Government [or Reign] of the Church   655
34 – The Blessed Glorification of the Elect   696

Braun, Johannes – The Doctrine of the Covenants, or A System of Didactic & Elenctic Theology  (Amsterdam, 1691)

Braun (1628-1708)

Table of Contents

Part 1, of the Instrument of the Covenants

Ch. 1  Of Theology, Religion & the Use of Reason in Theology  1

Locus 1. Of the Sacred Scripture  11

Ch. 2  Of the Necessity, Divinity & Authority of Sacred Scripture  11
Ch. 3  Of the Canon, the Apocryphal Books, Traditions & an Enthusiastic Spirit  19
Ch. 4  Of the Perfection, Perspicuity, Reading, Interpretation & Sense of Sacred Scripture  23
Ch. 5  Of the Sum Interpretation of Sacred Scripture & the Judge of Controversies.  Of the Study of Prophecy & the Periods of the Church of the New Testament, & of the Rule to be Observed in Interpreting Sacred Scripture, & of the Integrity of Sacred Scripture  36

Part 2, Of the Parts of the Covenant, or of God & Man

Locus 2. Of God & his Attributes  50

Ch. 1  Of the Existence of God  50
Ch. 2  Of the Unity, Names, & Attributes of God in General  61
Ch. 3  Of the Knowledge [Scientia] & Will of God  72
Ch. 4  Of the Power, Affections & Virtues of God  81
Ch. 5  Of the Truth of God & his Light in the Conscience of Man, or of the Conscience  91
Ch. 6  Of the Omnipresence, Eternity, Simplicity & Immutability of God  108

Locus 3. Of the Trinity & of the Deity of the Son & Holy Spirit  121

Ch. 7  Of the Trinity  121
Ch. 8  Of the Deity of the Son & the Holy Spirit  134

Locus 4. Of the Internal Operations of God, of Decrees, Predestination, Election & Reprobation  144

Ch. 9  Of the Internal Operations of God, & of Predestination, Election & Reprobation  144

Locus 5. Of the External Operations of God, of Creation & of the Angels  159

Ch. 10  Of the External  Works of God, & in specific of Creation  159
Ch. 11  Of Angels  174

Locus 6. Of the Providence of God  188

Ch. 12  Of the Providence of God  188

Locus 7. Of Man  206

Ch. 13  Of the Creation of Man, & of the Nature of the Soul [Mentis]  206
Ch. 14  Of the Faculties of the Soul, & its Union with the Body, & of the Immortality of the Whole Man  225
Ch. 15  Of the Image of God in Man  238

Part 3, Of the Covenants Themselves

Locus 8. Of the Nature of the Covenants, & of the Covenant of Works  249

Ch. 1  Of the Covenant in General  249
Ch. 2  Of the Covenant of Works  253

Locus 9. Of the Violation of the Covenant of Works through Disobedience, or of Sin  265

Ch. 3  Of the Violation of the Covenant of Works by Sin, or of Sin  265

Locus 10. Of the Covenant of Grace & its Mediator & of the Satisfaction of the Mediator  276

Ch. 4  Of the Covenant of Grace  276
Ch. 5  Of the Mediator, Christ & of his Surety, & of the Counsel of Peace  279
Ch. 6  Of the Satisfaction of the Mediator, or of the Solution of the Surety  293
Ch. 7  Of Universal Grace  299

Locus 11. Of Faith & Justification  303

Ch. 8  Of Faith  303
Ch. 9  Of Justification  313

Locus 12. Of Sanctification, Good Works, Repentance, Fasting & Prayer  322

Ch. 10  Of Sanctification  322
Ch. 11  Of Good Works  330
Ch. 12  Of Repentance  337
Ch. 13  Of Fasting & Prayer  341

Locus 13. Of the Promise & Threatening of the Covenant of Grace, or of Eternal Life & Death  351

Ch. 14  Of the Promise & Threat of the Covenant of Grace, or of Eternal Life & Death  351

Locus 14. Of the Promulgation & of the Necessary Powers to the Repentance of the Covenant of Grace; or of the Calling to Faith, Free Choice & the Grace of God  362

Ch. 15  Of the Promulgation of the Covenant of Grace, or of the Calling to Faith  362
Ch. 16  Of the Necessary Powers unto the Repentance of the Covenant of Grace, & of the Freedom of Choice  369

Locus 15 & Ch. 18. Of the Constancy of the Covenant of Grace, or of the Perseverance of the Saints  386

Part 4, Of the Economies of the Covenants

Locus 16 & Ch. 1. Of the Economy under the Promise  396

Locus 17.  Of the Economy under the Old Testament; of the Moral, Ceremonial & Judicial Law  412

Ch. 2  Of the Old Testament in General  412
Ch. 3  Of the Moral Law of God in General  421
Ch. 4  Of the First Three Precepts  429
Ch. 5  Of the Fourth Precept, or of the Sabbath  435
Ch. 6  Of the Precepts of the Second Table  453
Ch. 7  Of the Perfection of the Moral Law  459
Ch. 8  Of the Use of the Moral Law  465
Ch. 9  Of the Ceremonial & Judicial Law  476

Locus 18. Of the Word, Sacraments, the Church & Church Government under the Old Testament, & of the Abolition of the Old Testament  490

Ch. 10  Of the Word & Sacraments under the Old Testament  490
Ch. 11  Of the Church & Church Government under the Old Testament  495
Ch. 12  Of the Abolition of the Old Testament  501

Locus 19. Of the Economy under the New Testament in General & of the Messiah  507

Ch. 13  Of the New Testament  507
Ch. 14  Of the Messiah  509
Ch. 15  Of the Incarnation of Jesus Christ  513
Ch. 16  Of the Person & Personal Union, or of the Hypostasis of the Divine Nature & Human Nature of Christ, & of the Communion of Properties  518
Ch. 17  Of the Humiliation & Exaltation of Jesus Christ  536

Locus 20. Of the Gospel & of the Good Things of the New Testament  550

Ch. 18  Of the Gospel  550
Ch. 19  Of the Blessings of the New Testament  552

Locus 21. Of the Word & Sacraments under the New Testament  579

Ch. 20  Of the Word & Sacraments in General under the New Testament  579
Ch. 21  Of Baptism  592
Ch. 22  Of the Holy Supper  602
Ch. 23  Of the Mass of the Papists  615

Locus 22. Of the Church under the Church Government of the New Testament, of the Ministers of the Church, of Classes, Synods (or Councils), of the Law & of Ecclesiastical Discipline  620

Ch. 24  Of the Church  620
Ch. 25  Of Ecclesiastical Government under the New Testament  630
Ch. 26  Of Ecclesiastical Ministers under the New Testament  639
Ch. 27  Of Classes & Synods, or of Councils  655
Ch. 28  Of the Law & Church Discipline  660

Locus 23. Of Magistrates & of their Law about Political & Sacred Things  668

Ch. 29  Of Magistrates & of their Political Power  668
Ch. 30  Of the Power of Magistrates about the Sacred  675

Locus 24. Of the Various Declarations of the Church, of Antichrist & his Rise, Progress & Fall; & of the Glorious Reign of Christ in the Last Times  681

Ch. 31  Of the Various Declarations of the Church of the New Testament, & of the Antichrist  681
Ch. 32  Of the Fall of the Antichrist  695
Ch. 33  Of Glorious Reign of Christ after the Destruction of the Kingdom of Antichrist  700

Locus 25. Of the Resurrection of Bodies, of the Last Judgment, & of the End of the Ages  705

Ch. 34  Of the Resurrection  705
Ch. 35  Of the Last Judgment & the End of the Ages  713


van Mastricht, Peter – Theoretical-Practical Theology



Pictet, Benedict – The Marrow of Christian Theology, Instructive & Elenctic  (Geneva, 1711)  246 pp.  This is in a dialogue, question and answer format.  The Latin table of contents is at the end of the work.

Table of Contents

1 – Of Theology in General, the Existence of God, and Religion   1
2 – The Word of God and Sacred Scripture   6
3 – The One God and his Perfections   19
4 – The Trinity   35
5 – The Creation of the World, Angels and Man   50
6 – The Fall of the Angels and Man, and the Consequences   59
7 – Providence   73
8 – The Decrees of God Concerning the Salvation of Men   84
9 – Christ the Mediator, the Law, the Covenant of Grace   93
10 – The Benefits of Christ and Calling   128
11 – Justification   141
12 – Sanctification   154
13 – Renovation and Glorification   171
14 – The Church   189
15 – Sacraments   220

van den Honert, Johann – Institutions of Didactic & Elenctic Theology  (1735)  The whole work is in outline form, with various orations appended.

Honert (1693-1758)

Table of Contents

Preliminary: of Theology & Sacred Scripture  1-28

Book 1, of the Covenant of Nature & of Works

1. Of God  29-51
2. Of the Decree of God  52-59
3. Of Creation & the Providence of God  60-70
4. Of the Creation of Man, & of his First State  71-84
5. Of Angels  85-96
6. Of the Corruption of the Stock of Man  97-115

Book 2, of the Business of Grace

1. Of the Author of Grace: God the Father, Son & Holy Spirit  116-134
2. Of the Eternal Design to Work Grace & Wrath  134-152
3. Of the Suretiship of the Son & the Pact of Human Salvation  153-161
4. Of the Covenanting of the Covenant of Grace, by Calling & Faith  162-176
5. Of the Justification of a Sinner  176-184
6. Of the Sanctification of a Sinner  185-195
7. Of the Communion of the Church & of the Use of the Seals of the Covenant  196-209
8. Of the Glorification of Man after Death  209-216

Inaugural Oration on Regeneration  217
Inaugural Oration on Ecclesiastical History: Theologians Most Necessary  259
Oration on the Mutual Tolerance of Christians  299
Inaugural Oration on the Wisdom & Art of Ecclesiastical Oratory  361

Stapfer, Johann – Institutes of Universal Polemical Theology, Ordered in a Scientific Arrangement, vol. 12345  (Zurich, 1756)  The ToC to all the volumes is after the Preface in the first volume.

Stapfer (1708-1775) was a professor of theology at Bern.  He was influenced by the philosophical rationalism of Christian Wolff, though, by him “the orthodox reformed tradition was continued with little overt alteration of the doctrinal loci and their basic definitions.” – Richard Muller

Table Contents

Vol. 1

1. Of the True Rule of Study & of the System of Polemical Theology  1

2. Of the Cautions to be Observed in Polemical Theology  33

3. A Demonstration of the Truth of Theology is Exhibited  66

I. The Heads of it:  It is Agitated of the Divine Existence  67
II. Of the Attributes Dependent on the Divine Existence  73
III. Of the Attributes Dependent on the Divine Intellect  78
IV. Of the Will & Power of God  90
V. Of the Decrees of God in General  105
VI. Of the Wisdom, Goodness, Holiness, Justice, Omnipresence, & the Remaining Perfections of God  121
VII. Of Creation & Providence, & the Immortality of the Soul  176
VIII. Of the Dependence of Man on God as the Fundamental of Religion  208
IX. Of the First State of Man  213
X. Of Sin & the Consequence of It  228
XI. Of the Impotence of Man to Extricate Himself out of Infinite Evil & to Restore a Pristine State  242
XII. Of the Necessity of Revelation & the Criterion of it  258
XIII. Of Freedom, in which the Revelation of the Means of Human Deliverance is contained  282
XIV. Of the Religion of a Sinner in General  299
XV. Of the Person of the Deliverer & of his Properties  308
XVI. Of the Mystery of the Most Holy Trinity  310
XVII. Of the Counsel of the Most Holy Trinity about the Salvation of Man  322
XVIII. Of the Execution of the Decree of the Means of Salvation through Providing Christ  337
XIX. Of the Application of the Means of Deliverance  353
XX. Of the City of God  408
XXI. Of the Offices of Citizens & of the Public Worship  428
XXII. Of Rites, or of the Sacred Ceremonies that ought to be Adhered to in the Public Worship in General  440
XXIII. Of the Principal Rites of the Church, or of the Sacraments of Baptism & the Holy Supper  446
XXIV.  Of the Consummation of the Church  470
XXV. Of the Political Magistrate  491
XXVI. Of the Excellence of the Christian Religion  497

4. Of Fundamental Articles  513

5. Of Heresy & the way in which Heretics ought to be dealt with, even of the Tolerance of Schismatics  551

Vol. 2

6. Of Atheism
7. Of Deism
8. Of Epicureanism
9. Of Gentilism
10. Of Naturalism

Vol. 3

11. Of Judaism & Mohommedism
12. Of Socinianism
13. Of the Indifferentism of Religions, of Latitudinarianists, & of the Religion of Prudentists

Vol. 4

14. Of Papalism
15. Of Fanaticism
16. Of Pelagianism
17. Of the Remonstrants
18. Of Mennonites, or Anabaptists

Vol. 5

19. Of the Oriental Church
20. Of the Consensus & Dissent of Protestants, or of the Reformed & of the Church Adhering to the [Lutheran] Augsburg Confession

Appendix:  of the Heresies of the First Ages
Index of Things Contained in the Whole Work

De Moor, Bernard – A Continuous Commentary on John Marck’s Compendium of Didactic and Elenctic Christian Theology, vol 1234567  (Leiden, 1761-71)  The first three chapters are in English in three volumes: Buy

De Moor (1709-1780) has a number of disputations available at PRDL.  As portions of De Moor’s systematic are translated into English, excerpts are being put up at the blog.  Here is a review of the first volume by Dr. Ryan McGraw.

De Moor “maintained the fundamental line of confessional orthodoxy without drawing heavily on any of the newer philosophies…  [and he] maintained a fairly centrist Reformed position… Vitringa and De Moor served as codifiers and bibliographers of the earlier tradition, the former from a federalist, the latter from a nonfederalist perspective.  Indeed, De Moor’s efforts did for later Reformed orthodoxy what the massive system of Quenstedt did for Lutheranism in the concluding years of the seventeenth century: the work was so exhaustive and so complete in detail and bibliography that it virtually ended the development of Reformed doctrine in the form of orthodox system.” – Richard Muller


Table of Contents

vol. 1

1. Of the Term & Definition of ‘Theology’  5
2. Of the Principle of Theology, or of Sacred Scripture  114
3. Of Religion  447
4. Of God, with respect to his Names, Essence & Attributes  498
5. Of the Trinity of Persons  695
6. Of the Divine Decrees  897

A Theological Disputation on Mk. 15:25 & Jn. 19:14  943
A Theological Disputation on Eph. 5:14  957
A Theological Disputation on: Vindictive Justice Essential to God  996

vol. 2

7. Of the Predestination of Men to Salvation or Damnation  1
8. Of the Divine Creation of the World  117
9. Of Good & Bad Angels  285
10. Of the Actual Providence of God  420
11. Of the Worship of God & the Regulating Rule of It  503
12. Of the Decalogue, & of Each Precept of It  688
13. Of the Creation & Nature of Man  976

vol. 3

14. Of the First State of Integrity of Man, & a View Here of the Image of God & the Covenant of Works  1
15. Of the Sin of Men, & its Various Species  109
16. Of the Variegated Punishment of Human Sin  328
17. Of the Covenant of Grace, the Gospel & its Varied Economy  366
18. Of the Mediator of the Covenant of Grace  436
19. Of the Person of Jesus Christ  621
20. Of the Three-fold Mediatorial Office of Jesus Christ, even Prophetical, Priestly & Kingly  837

vol. 4

21. Of the Twofold State of Jesus Christ  1
22. Of the Offices of the Covenant of Grace, even Faith & Repentance  285
23. Of the Efficacious Calling of the Elect  440
24. Of the Justification of the Elect Before God  535
25. Of Sanctification & Good Works  769

A Theological Disputation on the Prayers of Christ in Gethsemane, Mt. 26:39 ff.  840
An Inaugural Theological Disputation about ‘the Times of Refreshing’, Acts 3:19

vol. 5

26. Of Prayer, Fasting, Vigils, Alms & of a Vow  1
27. Of the Certain Conservation of the Elect  255
28. Of Regeneration, Adoption, Reconciliation & Liberation  178
29. Of the Sacraments of the Covenant of Grace, & especially of Circumcision, the Passover & the Pseudo-Sacraments of the New Testament  218
30. Of Christian Baptism  372
31. Of the Sacred Lord’s Supper  553

An Addition of Theological Theses [on fundamentals of the Reformed faith] which were publicly defended after the last Disputation on the Passover  772

A Secular Festival in the year 1719, celebrated the 29th of May by Professors of Theology in the Academy of Leiden  777

vol. 6

32. Of the Church Having Been Joined to God by Covenant  1
33. Of the Varied Government of the Church  180
34. Of the Blessed Glorification of the Elect  586

Theological Considerations to the Academic-Political Judgment of Permitting, by a Dispensation from a Christian & Reformed Lord, a Leviriate Marriage with a Kinsman  737

A Decade of Digested Controversial Theses Joined in a Series, by Bavio Voorda  759

A Theological Disputation on Having Remembered the Coming of Christ, 2 Pet. 1:16  765

Inaugural Oration of Barnard de Moor on the Imperfect Felicity of the Militant Church  1745  807

An Oration on that which is Excessive in Theological Science  1747  901

vol. 7

Scripture Index  1
Index of Principal Things  39
Index of Hebrew & Greek Words  122
A Supplement to the Perpetual Commentary  127  (Later-added end-notes and additions throughout each volume)
Typos  94

Beck, Jacob Christoph – A Synopsis of Universal, Natural & Revealed Theological Institutions, Dogmatic, Polemical & Practical, having been in Use in the Lecture Room:  A Brief Theological Encyclopaedia is Given & Delineated  (Basil, 1765)  Here are the tables of contents to the Prolegomena, Dogmatics Section 1Section 2Polemics & Practical sections.

Beck was a professor of theology, history and Old Testament at Basel and was influenced by the philosophical rationalism of Christian Wolff.



Latin Bible Commentaries that Emphasize Polemics


Essenius, Andreas – A Synopsis of Controversial Theology & a Complete Index of the Passages of Sacred Scripture which the Adversaries Use to Seek to Strengthen their Errors & Attack & Deflect the Truth, & are Accustomed to Abuse, being Propounded by a Singular, Brief Method Through their Collections  (Utrecht, 1677)  479 pp.  There is no table of contents; it goes through the subjects like a systematic theology for 20 chapters in 108 pages; then follows, for most of the volume, the Index of Scripture places, being a commentary on many verses of most of the chapters of the whole Bible, stating and refuting the opinions of sects.

Essenius (1618-1677)

Arnoldi, Nicolaus – Light in Darkness, or a Simultaneously Brief & Succinct Vindication & Conciliation of Passages of the Old & New Testament that All of the Sects of the Adversary Abuse in Order to Sure Up their Errors  (Franeker, 1680)

Arnoldi (1618-1680) was a German reformed professor of theology at Franeker.  The work is laid out like a Bible commentary and comments on much of the whole Bible.



Latin:  On Controversies



Grynaeus, Johann Jakob – A Disputation on the Particular Controversies of Religion, in which is Agitated the Circumstances & Fonts of Disagreements  (Basil, 1589)

Jager, Josias – Disputation 2, Of Those Controversies which have Shaken the Highest Power of Order which ought to be Observed in the Militant Church  (Basil, 1589)  Johann Grynaeus presided.

Howie, Robert – Disputation 3, in which is Agitated Those Controversies which have Shaken the Solidity of Faith in Christ  (Basil, 1589)

Howie was a reformed Scottish theologian.  Johann Grynaeus presided.



Beuther Michael – Theological Theorems on the True Adjudication of the Principal Controversies of the Christian Religion which are Agitated in the Church in this our World…  in the Academy of Basil…  (1602)

Beuther was a German reformed minister and librarian.

Buxtorf, Johanne – An Inaugural Theological Disputation on Discretionary Judgment About Controversies of the Christian Religion  (Basil, 1656)




Bucer, Martin – On Conciliating, & the Legitimate Judging, of Religious Controversies & Judgments…  (1545)



Laurent, Gaspard – On Public Disputations in Controversies of Religion, an Extensive Investigation of the Old Writings having been Taken  (1602)  135 pp.

Vedel, Nicolaus – Rational Theology, or on the Necessity & True Use of the Principles of Reason & Philosophy in Theological Controversies, in Three Books, for the Veracity of the Whole Christian Religion, & Especially of the Confessions of the Evangelicals, Against the Sophists of the Last Times  (Geneva, 1628)  800 pp.  ToC

Vedel was a reformed pastor and professor at Geneva.  He argues against a number of different sects, on every side, in this work.

Du Moulin, Louis – An Epistle of an Irenic Lover of Brethren [Irenaei Philadelphi] to the Illustrious Man, Newly Reborn [Renatum Verdaeum] in which is Discussed the Movements & Controversies Newly Sprung Up in England around Religion, & the Book by Joseph Hall, which Asserts Episcopacy to be of Divine Right, is Driven Off  (1641)  122 pp.

Du Moulin (c.1605-1680) was a French reformed theologian who became a professor of history at Oxford (1648-1660).



Werenfels, Samuel – Miscellanies, pt. 1, Containing Dissertations on Erudite Word-Fighters, to which, on account of like material, is added a Dissertation on Theological Controversies which ought to be Sacredly Drawn on…  (d. 1740), pp. 446-576  There is no table of contents, and the volume cuts off in the midst of the 10th dissertation on word-fighters.

Here is a full volume of the 10 dissertations on word-fighters, with a table of contents.  The work has been translated into English, linked above.



On the Polemical Theologian


Witsius, Herman – The Moderate [Modestus] Theologian, Delineated in an Inaugural Oration, as the Public Professor of Theology in the Academy in Leiden…  (Leiden)

von Mosheim, Johann L. – Dissertations on the Non-Contentious Theologian, or of the Office of the Theologian around Controversies  (Helmstadt, 1726)  134 pp.  ToC

Mosheim (1693-1755) was a German, Lutheran, church historian, particularly known for his Institutes of Ecclesiastical History.  Mosheim, while being more orthodox and conservative than most in his time, yet had a trans-denominational irenic tone and viewpoint characteristic of the beginnings of the enlightenment.






Le Vassor, Michel – A Treatise on How to Examine the Differences of Religion, Dedicated to the King of Great Britain  (Amsterdam, 1697)  605 pp.  ToC

Le Vassor (1648-1718) was a French Romanist, Oratorian priest and author, who became a Protestant in exile in England.  He is known for his theological, historical and political works.  This work has been seen as a defense of the Church of England.




Malcom, Howard – ‘Polemic Theology’  in Theological Index…  (Boston, 1868)

Contains older references in multiple languages, including the main Lutheran works of polemical theology and a few Romanist ones.




“Now while Paul waited for them at Athens, his spirit was stirred in him when he saw the city wholly given to idolatry.  Therefore disputed he in the synagogue with the Jews, and with the devout persons, and in the market daily with them that met with him.”

Acts 17:16-17




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