All of the Writings of the Scottish Covenanters

Subsection

All of the Bible Commentaries of the Scottish Covenanters

 

 

Order of Contents

Why Read the Scottish Covenanters?
About this Collection

Alphabetical Order
Chronological Order

 

 

 

Rev. Travis Fentiman
Free Church of Scotland (Continuing)

 

Why read the Scottish Covenanters?

Because it is in fire that gold glows the brightest and most purely, and God, in his infinite wisdom, graced the Scottish covenanters with some of the hottest fires that Church history has ever seen.  It is when the fire is stoked seven times hotter than ever that one like unto the Son of God has been known to appear with his beloved people in their midst (Dan. 3:19,24-25).  Immanuel has  promised to be with us in the valley of the shadow of death, and it is there, in the midst of enemies, that He prepares a table for us and causes our cup to run over (Ps. 23:4-5).  As Samuel Rutherford said, it is in the bottom cellar of affliction in God’s House where God keeps his choicest wine.  Come, taste and drink these old, fragrant wines at no cost (Isa. 55:1-2):    

The covenanters were first and foremost ambassadors of Christ (2 Cor. 5:20) calling, in Christ’s name, dying sinners to eternal life in the Savior.  To see Christ and his grace freely opened up to poor, penny-less sinners, see  ‘Gospel Presentations are the Strongest Invitations’ and ‘The Best Wares at the Lowest Rates’ in James Durham’s The Unsearchable Riches of Christ  Buy  pp. 43-79 & 136-160 (excerpts).  Hear Christ’s voice in the young, bright burning star of the Scottish Church, Hugh Binning, in his sermon on Mt. 11:28, ‘Come unto Me…’  Buy  Durham said of this one who died at 26 years, ‘There is no speaking after Mr. Binning.’  

Andrew Gray, another ‘spark from heaven’, preached on Christ calling out to strangers, ‘Behold Me, Behold Me!’  Buy  from Isa. 65:1.  In two sermons on Heb. 2:3, Gray holds out The Great Salvation Offered and Tendered First by Christ Himself.  It is God that speaks to us in Prov. 23:26, ‘My son, give Me thine heart.’  Gray opens this text up in his communion sermon, ‘The Duty of Giving the Heart to Christ’ in Loving Christ and Fleeing Temptation  Buy  pp. 597-613.  Durham said of the young Gray, ‘he could make men’s hair stand on end.’  Gray died in his 23rd year.

After the Great Ejection of 1662, when Christ was kicked out of the churches in Scotland, 400 of the most godly ministers went with Him outside the camp.  It is there to the fields we must go to find Him (Song 6:1-2).  Gabriel Semple powerfully exhorts us in the fugitive worship meetings to ‘Seek ye the Lord while He may be found.’ (Isa. 55:6)  PoD  For proof that the Gospel promise is true, that no tribulation, peril or any power on this earth can separate us from the love of Christ (Rom. 8:35-39), go with James Fraser of Brea into the dungeons of the Bass Rock and Blackness Castle, and there you will find him Trusting God and Hungering and Thirsting and Spiritually Feasting upon Christ

As James Renwick (†1688), the last of the field preachers to be executed, testified on the scaffold, the covenanters were the ‘most in the main things.’ (Mt. 23:23)  As Christ is ‘all in all’, He was the substance of all that they lived and died for.  Writing from exile in Holland, John Brown of Wamphray expounds on how to practically make use of Christ: the Way, the Truth and the Life  Buy.  Take some time and slowly go through and digest Robert Rollock’s 700 pages of lectures expositing the Scripture-history of Christ’s Suffering, Death, Resurrection and Ascension  Buy.  Peer into the pastoral heart of the one that authored these pages in the sonnets that James Melville composed upon Rollock’s death.  

The Lord our Rock (2 Sam. 23:3; Ps. 18:46) has been smitten friends (Zech. 13:7Num. 20:11; 1 Cor. 10:4) and Refreshing Streams are Flowing from the Fullness of Jesus Christ (Rev. 22:1,17).  Drink with William Coleville to your heart’s content, and you will never thirst again.  

For a lifetime of sobering meditation and wonder, descend into the valley of the shadow of death with Durham on the Atonement, in his 52 sermons on Isa. 53, entitled, Christ Crucified, vols. 12  Buy.  You will see the Face of God marred more than any man (Isa. 52:14).  And why?  While you will find no depth to his love, you will find your name, Believer, written on his heart (Eph. 1:4).  Pour your soul out in a drink offering by Meditating on the Death of Christ with William Guild and you will find riches few know of, even ‘the fellowship of his sufferings.’ (Phil. 3:10)  Yea, let us be able to say with the psalmist, ‘I remember Thee upon my bed, and meditate on Thee in the night watches.’ (Ps. 63:6

Make sure of your legal right (or ‘interest’ in the old sense of the word) to Christ and Heaven following Him.  Examine yourself (2 Cor. 13:5) by trying your faith upon Scripture to see if it is saving in William Guthrie’s The Christian’s Great Interest  Buy.  Fear not: while puritans such as Thomas Hooker in New England thundered against hardened hypocrites (rightly, as the town churches were filled with them), Guthrie handles the reader gently and winsomely in ‘a most homely and plain style’, not crushing the bruised reed but building up even the smallest babe in Christ to know how to attain an assurance of salvation, even ‘Heaven on earth’.  Thomas Chalmers, one of the fathers of the later Free Church of Scotland, who wrote an Introductory Essay to the work, said that ‘while it guides, it purifies,’ and that it ‘is the best book I ever read’.  Be not fooled, though the book is sweetly simple, John Owen said of Guthrie and his work, ‘That author I take to have been one of the greatest divines that ever wrote… I have written several folios [there are 23 volumes in Owen’s Works], but there is more divinity in it than in them all.’  

Discern the testimony of the Holy Spirit crying ‘Abba’ in your heart to your adoptive Father in Heaven with John Forbes’ Letter on assurance from Rom. 8:14-16.  Make sure that Jesus Christ is in you by way of Gray’s three sermons.  But most of all, finding yourself, genuine Believer, to be a favorite of the King of Heaven and his beloved (Song 6:3), relish in Christ’s love for you in Guthrie’s heart-warming sermon  Buy  on Gal. 2:20 ‘Who loved me, and gave Himself for me…’.

The Christian’s life is found and kept alive in communion with God: ‘for ye are dead, and your life is hid with Christ in God.’ (Col.3:3)  Let the seraphic Letters  Buy  of Samuel Rutherford inflame your soul.  Held ‘to be the nearest thing to inspiration which can be found in all the writings of mere men’ by Charles Spurgeon, Richard Baxter said that ‘such a book of letters the world never saw the like.’  

The thing lacking in most sermons today is worship.  Make your home in communion with the Living Christ in Rutherford’s Communion Sermons  Buy  and hear preaching like you have never heard before.  Find out why the Bride is irresistibly attracted to, and enraptured with the King’s love (Song 1:2-4) in Gray’s sermon: ‘The Intercourse of Divine Love between Christ and his Church’  Buy.  Spiritually seek for Christ with Gray in his three sermons on Job 23:3 ‘Oh! that I knew where I might find Him!’ and God’s immutable promise is that we will find Him (Mt. 7:7) whom our soul loves (Song 3:4).

Next akin to these Christ saturated letters and sermons is Margaret Durham’s ‘Epistle Dedicatory’ to her husband’s Commentary on the Song of Solomon  Buy.  Her letter (not in the online editions) is much more spiritually full and edifying, savoring of a rich, experiential acquaintance with the deep truths of Christ’s Word, than even the preface to the reader to the same work by the justly renowned scholar, John Owen.  These excerpts will take you into the soul-ravishing embraces of your heavenly husband where you will find that his kisses are better than the choicest wine (Song 1:2).

Prayer is the air that the Christian breathes, and thus the apostle tells us, ‘Pray without ceasing.’ (1 Thess. 5:17).  Knox teaches us what true prayer is (27 pp.); Gray gives us directions for prayer and how to diligently keep our heart in it  Buy  (9 sermons).  How did the covenanters endure the greatest trials with such long-suffering, patience and hope?  Join John Brown of Wamphray on his knees in his prayer closet for 310 pages  Buy.  Why is prayer so lovely before God?  a fragrant perfume to Him?  William Guild opens up this sacrifice of sweet smelling incense so that we would love conversing with Him as much as He does with us (143 pp.).  Thy Beloved calls Christian!  ‘O my Dove!… let me hear thy voice; for sweet is thy voice!’ (Song 2:14)

The true Christian, as Christ (Ps. 40:8), delights to do the will of God (Ps. 119:35).  His commandments are a lamp shedding light for our path (Ps. 119:105).  The ever-savory Robert Leighton gives us some summary Rules and Instructions for a Holy Life  Buy  from God’s Word.  Durham gives a practical manual of Christian living in expounding the Ten Commandments at length in The Law Unsealed  Buy.  Here is a digest of how to ‘fear God and keep his commandments: for this is the whole duty of man.’ (Eccl. 12:13)  

It is in the light of God’s holy Law that we come to see, with James Fraser of Brea, the evil of sin and the power thereof.  We find ourselves to be ‘a people laden with iniquity’ (Isa. 1:4).  The confession of sin is the vomit of the soul; purge yourself with acknowledging the causes of God’s Wrath against us: the most searching and thorough confession of sin ever expunged from a national church over its land.  It will break your heart.  For ministers: see your mirror and make humble acknowledgement of the sins of your ministry.  Let the purification of excoriating your soul-decay produce the deep-seated cleansing that brings life.  John Welch’s (†1622) eight convicting and renewing sermons on repentance  PoD  will help us turn to the Lord again.  ‘Thou hast destroyed thyself; but in Me is thine help.’ (Hosea 13:9)  

If our eye is on loving God with all our heart, and our neighbor as ourself, we will fulfill the whole Law (Rom. 13:10).  The classic treatise throughout the centuries on Christian Love  Buy, to help us do that, is by the covenanter Hugh Binning.  While this short book will greatly soften our rough edges and endear our fellow brothers and sisters to us (a reward in itself), what is not always known is that this priceless and tender-hearted gem was written by one of the most doctrinally strict and uncompromising Christians ever to walk this earth, even of the Protestor variety in the mid-1600’s Resolutions controversy.  May this be an example to us, and may we find, as did Binning, where truth and mercy kiss (Ps. 85:10).

In their doctrine, the covenanters had a back-bone of steel.  Imprisoned during ‘the Killing Times’ in the 1680’s, William Wishart later became the Principal of Edinburgh University and published his Discourses of God, vols. 1, 2  PoD, being 120 sermons on the being and attributes of God, something akin by genre to Charnock’s work on the same subject.  Binning preached on the first third of a systematic theology’s topics in 25 sermons in his The Common Principals of the Christian Religion, taking the reader up through the Trinity, the Decrees of God, Creation, Providence, the Covenant of Works and Original Sin.  

On Predestination, forget Norman Geisler and read John Knox’s God’s Eternal Predestination  Buy  (460 pp., in old English).  The pure scriptural light will chase away all vague, shadowy doubts and wonderings.  With all reverence and thankfulness to the ministry of R.C Sproul, contemporary authors do not write on predestination with the practical relevance, experiential fervor and soul-soaring relish that you will find in Rutherford’s Influences of the Life of Grace (only just made available online in 2015).  It is not a book of doctrine, though it contains more than most doctrinal books; it is a tactical-guide for thriving in the means of grace upon God’s absolute promises.  God calls us to lay our faith upon no other pillow than that of Omnipotence Himself.  Rest upon the Lord, oh Christian! and be strengthened.  

Continue through the wilderness of this world, from well to well and strength to strength (Ps. 84:5-7), to Rutherford’s Covenant of Life Opened  Buy, the best book on the older (and better) Covenant Theology that there is (though the treatise’s organization leaves a bit to be desired).  You won’t find in any other systematic theology or modern academic press seraphic strains of devotion leaving you breathless.  To delve further into the heart of the covenants, even Christ’s over-redeeming bankrupt sinners and drawing them out of sin and the grave by invincible power, set your mark on Christ Dying and Drawing Sinners to Himself  Buy.  If one has to tread over spans of polemical combat in these works, marvel not: Not only has the truth often been best hammered out upon the anvil of controversy, but these missiles of truth were not launched from easy-chairs, but under religious persecutions from principalities in high places with a price upon one’s head, for the sake of the existence and continuance of the truth of God in the world and for the good of the souls of perishing men.

The theology of the covenants came to a fullness (which hasn’t been superseded since) in the covenanter, Patrick Gillespie’s (brother of George) Ark of the Testament Opened… A Treatise of the Covenant of Grace (1661) and his Ark of the Covenant Opened, or a Treatise on the Covenant of Redemption (1677), being condensations of all the major theologians that came before him on nearly every point related to the divine compact binding our everlasting persons to Christ.  If you are not sure what the difference is between the Covenant of Redemption that the Father made with the Son in eternity to redeem his lovingly-chosen people to Himself, and the Covenant of Grace between God the Trinity and us by faith through Christ the Mediator in time whereby we receive all the blessings that Christ has purchased, be sure to start with James Durham and David Dickson’s The Sum of Saving Knowledge, Heads 2-4.

One of the inestimable blessings received by those who lay hold of Christ offered in the Covenant of Grace is Justification: sinners receiving the Righteousness of Christ for our own, gratis.  The covenanters, though reputed to be the off-scouring of the earth (1 Cor. 4:13) by those who seek honor from men (John 5:44), were reputed by God to be ‘in Christ Jesus, who is made unto us wisdom, and righteousness, and sanctification, and redemption.’ (1 Cor. 1:30)  While Papists and Arminians were defending the righteousness of their own muddied faith and good-works to save them, John Forbes and John Brown of Wamphray were defending Christ’s spotless and pure (Heb. 7:26) righteousness alone to be sufficient to save sinners with no good works at all, destitute of any legal-righteousness in their faith.  In a day of a New Perspective on Paul, read here of the Old Perspective.

When the subtle error reared its ugly head that Christ only provides half-righteousness and half the Law’s requirements to the believer, only the passive righteousness of suffering under the punishment of our curse, then it is time, with Brown, to set forth the whole of Christ’s life and righteousness, even the active righteousness of Christ in obedience to every jot and tittle of the positive commands of the Law, given to Law-ommitting believers in order to fill up the full measure of God’s glory (Lev. 26:14; Rom. 3:23; Jer. 33:6).  

With time new errors soon crept in.  In response to the Scylla of Antinomianism roaring that God’s precious Law is of no use for the believer (‘anti’, against; ‘nomos’, the Law), the Charybdis of Neonomianism sought to whirl people down into obeying a new, lowered and easier form of the Law in order to contribute a few mites to our salvation (‘neo’, new).  Give no heed to such fables! (1 Tim. 4:7) but deeply consider and lay up in your heart what is perhaps the most profound, brief setting forth of the Biblical doctrine of Justification that Church History has bequeathed to us: Robert Trail’s letter to a friend of 24 pages: A Vindication of the Protestant Doctrine of Justification  Buy.

While the benefits and liberties of being declared righteous before God as servants is great, yet there is a large difference between the upright servant that stands aside waiting to do the Master’s command, and being adopted into God’s family whereby we are legally secured as sons and daughters into the embraces and intimacy of our Father in Heaven.  Climb into your Father’s lap with your older brother Binning’s five sermons on Rom. 8:14-15 and learn from of the Holy Spirit to cry, ‘Abba, Daddy!’ 

What is God’s will for your life?  ‘For ye know what commandments we gave you by the Lord Jesus.  For this is the will of God, even your sanctification.’ (1 Thess. 4:2-3)  Being sanctified, or, growing in holiness in conformity to the image of Jesus, is not a formulaic process.  Rather, walk with Binning in the spirit while resisting the flesh through Rom. 8:4-13 in 20 sermons from The Sinner’s Sanctuary.  Binning exhorts us from Christ’s words to ‘seek first the Kingdom of God’ (Mt. 6:33) in five sermons.  Gray instructs us with tactical training for spiritual warfare in eight sermons, shows us how to resist temptation in four sermons in Loving Christ and Fleeing Temptation  Buy  pp. 338-421, and directs us how to keep our heart in 3 sermons, for out of it are the springing waters of our life.  

Scripture says, ‘All of you be subject one to another, and be clothed with humility: for God resists the proud, and gives grace to the humble.’ (1 Pet. 5:5)  Cultivate spiritual beauty before the Lord: put on ‘Humility: the Christian’s Best Ornament’ with Gray (Loving Christ  Buy  pp. 253-265) and be humbled by this touching sermon of William Guthrie’s on sympathy for others.  

Everyone who is made alive by the Spirit of God loves God’s Word (Ps. 119:140); it is the textbook of sanctification: ‘Sanctify them through thy truth: thy Word is truth.’ (Jn. 17:17)  Meditate on God’s Word day and night (Ps. 1:2) with All of the Bible Commentaries of the Scottish Covenanters.  Charles Surgeon gave many of these commentaries his highest rating, and a number of them have earned a spot in Banner of Truth’s justly prized Geneva Commentary Series.  Wet your taste by reading 7 Reasons to Study the Bible with the Covenanters.  

What would it have been like to walk on the road to Emmaus (Lk. 24:13-27) and have had Christ opened up to you from  Moses and all of the prophets?  William Guild shows us the Types of Christ in the Old Testament and gives us a Harmony of the Prophecies of the Messiah for all those who have ‘waited for the consolation of Israel’ (Lk. 2:25-32), even ‘God manifested in the flesh’ (1 Tim. 3:16).

How will one ever find time to read all of these books?  God has given us a simple solution to that: one day in every seven is to be devoted to Him.  ‘Remember the Sabbath Day to keep it holy.’ (Ex. 20:4)  Thomas Young, the Scot-born Westminster divine who lived and ministered in England, demonstrates that the moral (Ex. 20:4), creation ordinance (Gen. 2:3) of the Sabbath was changed to the first day of the week, The Lord’s Day (Rev. 1:10), not by the Roman Church, but by Jesus Christ and the apostles. (Ps. 118:22-24; Mt. 12:828:1-6; Jn. 20:19; Acts 20:7)  The second half of the book shows us how to sanctify the Lord’s Day unto God with spiritual worship so that we would ‘call the sabbath a delight’ and receive all that which God promises to those who do so. (Isa. 58:13-14)

Putting the Lord’s things first (Mt. 6:33), the Covenanters devoted the chief portion of their strength to building and beautifying with purity the House of God on earth: the Church.  Sometimes it is wondered how the Scottish Covenanters compare to the English puritans.  The answer is that while they both had a passion for God-infused living, feasting on and preaching of the deep spiritual things of the Lord, the Scots were even better on the doctrine of the Church, the Church of Scotland during the mid-1600’s being a model of classical Presbyterianism according to the Word of God. 

James Wood, an esteemed colleague of Samuel Rutherford, was, according to the later Free Church of Scotland professor, James Walker, ‘among our ablest men’, and wrote perhaps the best Scottish discussion of Church authority in his treatise against Independency, A Little Stone Pretended to be Out of the Mountain [Dan. 2:35], Tried (412 pp.).  

The Scriptural model of the outward form of the visible Church is that she has a universal fellowship and is ruled ministerially by elders (in the Greek, presbyters).  The root court of authority, having the full power of the spiritual Keys that Christ has given to her, is the regional presbytery.  This is argued at length from Scripture by Rutherford in his section, Independent Churches do not have the Authority for Greater Excommunication (57 pp.), from his Due Right of Presbyteries (470 pp.), which also argues at length every other Church question that one could think of as well, plus a few more.

For a much more concise outlining of classical presbyterianism, in its major characteristics, see George Gillespie’s 111 Propositions Concerning the Ministry and Government of the Church, the leading heads of which were adopted by the Church of Scotland.  For an even briefer, historical description of what the Church of Scotland was like in her simple, Biblical ordinances during the days of this high-water mark of Biblical presbyterianism, see the section of Rutherford, A Defense of the Government of the Church of Scotland (1642, 21 pp.), and Alexander Henderson’s, The Government and Order of the Church of Scotland (1641, 92 pp.).

The Scottish Church did more than any other in practically instituting, defining and theologically defending the office of the Ruling Elder from Scripture.  James Guthrie, martyred on the gallows in 1661, summarized Scripture’s teaching in his treatise, Ruling Elders and Deacons  PoD  (89 pp.).  The young Gillespie, with the whole field of scholarship at his command, takes up perhaps the most detailed defense of the office that has ever been written:  An Assertion of… the Points of Ruling Elders and of the Authority of Presbyteries and Synods  Buy  (1641, 282 pp.).

The Scots, along with virtually the whole of the Reformation and Puritan Churches (excepting the Church of England), held to a 4 office view of Church government, that of: (1) ministers, (2) teachers, (3) ruling elders and (4) deacons.  This view is usually looked upon as an idiosyncratic, historical oddity.  To see that the Reformation, Puritan and Covenanter viewpoint is what the Bible teaches, and is right, first read Sherman Isbell’s short article demonstrating that ministers hold a separate office from ruling elders: Order in the Offices: a Review.  Then, to see that the office of Teacher is distinct from the office of minister, see Travis Fentiman’s Introduction to the Biblical Office of Teacher.

If the Messiah and the true Church can be historically discerned by the marks given in Scripture, then so can the Anti-Christ and the apostate Church by the same principles, and it is very necessary that we do so.  While there is much doubt about this today, there was none in the Reformed theology of yesteryear.  To see the doctrine of the Westminster Confession of Faith, ch. 25.6 proven to the settling of your conscience, read the covenanter, William Guild’s Antichrist:… The Popes of Rome proven to be that Man of Sin… fore-prophesied in Scripture.  Though there are many such treatises in the writings of the covenanters, for a further work on that Great Whore of Revelation, see Guild’s The Novelty of Popery… Proven by Romanists Out of Themselves.

While people today are making up their own ways to worship God, the Covenanters were being killed for seeking to preserve the purity and simplicity of worship that Christ has instituted, and that alone.  Thus, David Calderwood, in loving and sanctifying the Lord’s Day, argues from Scripture against adding man-made holy-days, such as the Christ-Mass, Easter, etc. to God’s divinely prescribed worship, in ‘Reasons Against Festival Days’  Buy  (1619, 25 pp.).  

Regarding singing divine praise, Robert MacWard, the protege of Rutherford, argues that (1) singing is a distinct element from prayer with different Biblical regulations, and (2) that inspiration is a requirement for sung praise (contra man-made hymns and praise songs), in The True Non-Conformist, Dialogue 5, pp. 272-280, reflecting John Calvin’s quoting of Augustine: ‘No one is able to sing things worthy of God unless he has received them from Him.’  

Since historical revisionism is rife today with people claiming that the Reformation Scottish Church sang hymns in its public worship, see the renowned Scottish historian, David Hay Fleming’s ‘Hymnology of the Scottish Reformation’ part 1, part 2, part 3,part 4  Buy  (1886) which overwhelmingly and exhaustively demonstrates that the Church of Scotland was exclusive psalm-singing in its public worship and constitution from the Reformation through the end of the 1600’s.  Needless to say, this piece has never refuted, nor likely ever will be.  For the fullest exposition and defense of the Biblical teaching of Exclusive Psalmody, see Michael Bushell’s The Songs of Zion  Buy.

(More is forthcoming, Lord willing)

 

 

 

About this Collection

This is intended to be a reasonably comprehensive collection of all of the writings of the Scottish covenanters (in all languages, both online and not online), including 290+ persons with 225+ of them having writings in English online.  The symbol: * designates a major writer; there are 30 of them.

A covenanter is one who believes and practices social covenanting: banding with our fellow countrymen under the oath and assistance of God in order to better seek first God’s Kingdom (Mt. 6:33), this morally required duty under appropriate circumstances being exampled and blessed of God in Scripture (Josh. 24:25; 2 Kings 11:17; Isa. 44:5Jer. 50:5; 2 Chron. 15:15).  The Scottish Christians exampled this practice since shortly before their Reformation in 1560 and through the puritan era more than any other group in history.  

If you have not yet fallen in love with the Scottish Church of better days, read the best short book on Scottish Church history there is: G.N.M. Collins, The Heritage of our Fathers  Buy  It reads like an adventure story and you probably won’t be able to sleep until you finish it.  The best longer and more detailed account of Scottish Church history, including all of its fascinating anecdotal stories, is Thomas M’Crie’s, The Story of the Scottish Church  Buy  James Walker gives an overview of the principal writers and theology of the Scottish covenanters during the puritan era in The Theology and Theologians of Scotland  Buy 

For the one more advanced in the good old paths of our Scottish fathers, try the densely packed, but rewarding lectures filled with gems, of the master of Scottish history and theology: John MacLeod, Scottish Theology in Relation to Church History  Buy  For a (very) detailed account of the many covenants of the Scottish covenanters, peruse David H. Fleming’s, The Story of the Scottish Covenants in Outline  Buy  (1904, 84 pp.).

The collection on this page encompasses a broader definition of ‘covenanter’ than what the term more normally, historically designates, namely: every good and godly Scot of the ‘hotter sort’ since the 1500’s through A.D. 1700.  Included are: some of the early protestant proto-reformers before the Reformation (including a few court jesters), some of the good bishops and moderates (not all of them were bad), a number of the godly ‘ladies of the covenant’, and many martyrs, along with every covenanter you can think of, plus quite a few more.  As you become enthralled in the works above, check back to this page for all of the writings they reference, and many others.

The bulk of this collection stems from every relevant person (and their works) listed in the Dictionary of Scottish Church History and Theology  Buy.  But to make sure we didn’t miss anyone, we also combed through:

The Cloud of Witnesses  Buy
Sermons in the Time of Persecution  Buy
John Howie, Scots Worthies  Buy
Robert Lippe, Selections from Wodrow’s Biographical Collections
ed. Michael Shields, Faithful Contendings Displayed  PoD
ed. W. Tweedie, Scottish Puritans, vols. 1, 2  Buy
Robert Wodrow, Lives of the Reformers… of the Church of Scotland, vol. 1, 2
plus many other works.

To make the cut, the covenanter had to hand down more than a paragraph of their own writing to us; anything less is not included, nor is purely historical information where there is no attendant testimony in their own words.  Sometimes duplicate editions of a given work can be found elsewhere on the internet if you are so desirous; we have striven for readability (which usually means preferring the newer edition).

Background info on many of the covenanters on this page can be found online at the Dictionary of National Biography (1900) or in the works above.  But you should really save your pennies, buy the Dictionary of Scottish Church History and Theology  Buy  and flip around in it like a little kid in a candy store. 

Please enjoy all of the writings of the Scottish covenanters!

 

 

 

The Scottish Covenanters

Alphabetical order

 

Alesius, Alexander  1500-65  Latin  Reformer, theologian
Alison, Archibald  †1680                    Both. Bridge, Airsmoss, martyr w/Malcom
Alison, Isabel  †1681  IA                      A lady, hearer of Cargill
Anne, Lady  1630-1716                        Duchess of Hamilton
Arbuthnot, Alexander  1538-83        Minister, principal, 2nd BofD, friend: Melville

Balcanquhal, Walter  1548-1617        Presbyterian minister
.                                                                 Joint Attestation, Avowing that the Discipline…
.                                                                 The Honor of Christian Churches
.                                                                 The Collegiat Suffrage of the Divines of…
Balknaves, Henry  1502-70  IA         Early reformer, 1st BofD, Justification
Baillie, Robert * 1599-1662  TC         Westminster, wrote Letters, Resolutioner
Balfour, John, Klinloch  n.d.            Murderer of Archbish. James Sharp, army officer
Bannantyne, Adam fl. 1595-1630     Minister Falkirk, Bishop Aberdeen

Binning, Hugh * 1627-53                    Preacher, Protestor, Christian Love
Black, David  1550-1603                      Presbyterian minister, Bass Rock
Blackadder, Adam  1659-96               Son of John, Blackness Castle, Darian Colony
Blackadder, John  1615-86                  Covenanting Field Preacher
.                                                                  Diary and Letters
.                                                                  Vision of the Last Judgment: a Poem
Blackburn, Peter  fl. 1580-97             Bishop of Aberdeen
Blair, Robert  1593-1666  TC               Minister, St. Andrews, moderator 1646
Boig, James  †1681                                Student of theology, martyr with W. Smith
Borthwick, John  †1569                       Early protestant reformer
Boyd, James  †1581                               Protestant, tulchan Archbishop, 2nd BoD
Boyd, Lady  †1646                                Married to cousin of Robert
Boyd, Robert * 1578-1627  Latin        Son of James, principal, professor, minister
.                                                                  Remains
Boyd, William                                        Informatory Vindication, joined CofS 1690
Boyd, Zachary  1585-1653  EEBO       Minister, poet, took National Covenant
Brodie, Alexander  1617-80               Covenanting statesman, Lord of Session, Diary
Brown, John, Wamphray * 1610-79 EEBO  Exiled minister, theologian, apologist
Brown, John, Priesthill  1627-81       Ministry to children, murdered by Claverhouse
Bruce, Michael  fl. 1680’s                    Field preacher
Bruce, Robert * 1554-1631                    Minister, leading churchman, Lord’s Supper
Brysson, George  b. 1649, fl. 1666-78  Merchant in Edinburgh
Buchanan, George * 1506-82  EEBO  Humanist writer, political theorist

Calderwood, David * 1575-1650  EEBO Church historian and apologist for Presbyt.
Cameron, John  1579-1625  IA             Innovative reformed theologian
Cameron, Michael fl. 1680’s               Brother of Richard

Cameron, Richard  1648-80  TC         Leader of the Cameronians
Campbell, Archibald  1530-73            Chancellor of Scotland, moderate
Campbell, Archibald  1607-61            Covenanter leader, Marquis of Argyle
Campbell, George  1635-1701              Professor of Divinity, Univ. of Edinburgh
Campbell, John  †1652                          Earl of Loudon, covenanter

Cant, Andrew  1590-1663                      Covenanter minister in Aberdeen
Cargill, Donald  1627-81  TC IA            Cameronian field preacher
Carmichael, James  1543-1628             Minister and presbyterian reformer
Carstairs, John  †1686                           Minister
.                                                                    Letters
Carstairs, Mrs.  fl. 1680’s                     Wife of John
Carstares, William  1649-1715             CofS minister, advisor to William of Orange
.                                                                   Letters
Carswell, John  †1572                             Translator: Book of Common Order to Gaelic
Carswell, John  fl. 1560-1580                Superintendent of Argyle
Clark, Andrew  †1684                             A smith, 19 years old, martyr
Cochran, John  †1683                              Shoemaker, martyr
Cochran, William  †1682                        Martyr, suffered with Robertson

Colville, William  †1675                          Principal of Edinburgh Univ.
Craig, John  1512-1600  EEBO  IA          Scottish reformer
Crawford, Matthew  1640-1700            CofS minister prominent in the 1690’s
Cunningham, Alexander  †1547           Earl, prominent early Scottish reformer
Cunningham, David  †1600                    Bishop, contributor to 2nd Book of Discipline
Robert Cunningham †1637                     Minister, friend of Blair and Livingstone
Cuthill, William  †1681                            Martyr
Davidson, John  1520-c.1574?               Principal Glasgow
Davidson, John  1549-1604 IA IA IA IA  Of Prestonpans, presbyterian minister
Dick, John  †1684                                     Student of divinity, Bothwell, martyr
Dickson, David * 1583-1663 TS TC       Eminent preacher, educator, federal theologian
Dickson, John  †1700  SW                      Field preacher, Bass Rock, joined CofS 1690
Douglas, John  1494-1574                       Contributor to 1st Book of Discipline
Douglas, Robert  1594-1674                   Leader in CofS in 1640’s-50’s, Resolutioner
Dunbar, Lillias                                       Wife of Alexander Cambell
Duncan, Andrew  1560-1626              Schoolmaster and committed presbyterian
.                                                                  Rudimenta Pietatis, Torrance, School of Faith Buy

Duncan, Mark  1570-1640  French    Professor at French Academy at Saumur
Dunlop, William  1649-1700                Presbyterian principal of Glasgow Univ.
Durham, James * 1622-1658                 Covenanter minister and author
.                                                                    The Unsearchable Riches of Christ  Buy  excerpts
Durham, Margaret                                  Wife of James Durham
.                                                                   ‘Epistle Dedicatory’, Durham, Song of Sol. Buy
.                                                                     excerpts
Durie, John  1537-1600 IA                     Presb. minister, contributor to 2nd Book of Disc.
Erskine, Henry  1624-1696                    Minister, father of Ralph & Ebeneezer
Erskine, John, of Dun  1509-1590 IA  Protestant Reformer
Farrie, David  †1681                                Heard Blackadder & Welsh, martyr w/Forman
Ferguson, James 1621-67                    Minister and biblical commentator
Fergusson, David  1525-98 IA              Reformation minister
Ferme, Charles  1566-1617                    Presbyterian, influenced Calderwood
Fleming, Robert  1630-94  EEBO         Minister and theologian
Finlay, John  †1682                                   Drumclog, Friend of Robertson, martyr
Forbes, John  1568-1634  EEBO             Presbyterian writer
Forbes, Patrick  †1635                             Minister Keith, Bishop Aberdeen
Forman, Patrick  †1681                           Heard Cargill, martyr with Garnock
Forrester, Thomas  1635-1706  EEBO  Presbyterian minister and controversialist
Fraser, James, of Brea  1638-98           Persecuted covenanter, origin of New Light
Galloway, Patrick  1551-1626                 Presbyterian minister and royal chaplain
Garnock, Robert  †1681                          A smith, martyr
Gau, John  †1553                                       Early Scottish Lutheran, The Right Way
Gillespie, George * 1613-48                   Eminent divine, Commissioner to Westminster 
Gillespie, Patrick * 1617-75  TC            Leading Protester, Principal, bro of George
.                                                                    Western Remonstrance, 1650
Gladstanes, George  fl. 1596-1612       First protestant bishop of St. Andrews
Goodall, Mrs.  fl. 1677-90                     Memoir
Goodman, Christopher  1519-1603     Major Reformation figure, friend of Knox
Gordon, Alexander  1516-75                  Reforming bishop, helped John Wycliff
Gordon, Alexander  1587-1654             Earlstoun, Pioneer of Protestantism: Galloway
Gordon, Alexander  1650-1726            Son of William, Bass & Blackness Castle
Gordon, John  1599-1634                        Viscount Kenmure, friend of Rutherford
Gordon, William  1614-79                      Of Earlstoun, son of Alex. 1654, Drumclog
Gouger, William  †1681                           Bothwell, martyr w/Miller & Sangster
Graham, James  †1684                            Martyr w/G. Jackson
Gray, Robert  †1682                                  Englishman, martyr
Grey, Andrew * 1633-56  EEBO TC      Popular preacher, Protestor
Guild, William * 1586-1657  EEBO      Principal, prolific writer
Guilline, Andrew  †1683                        Weaver, witness to Sharp’s death
Guthrie, James  1612-61  EEBO TC      Covenanting minister, Protester, cousin: William
.                                                                    Discovery of the Dangers that Threaten Religion
Guthrie, John  †1688                               Minister, Breach of Covenant
Guthrie, William * 1620-65 IA EEBO TC Minister, Protester
Hackston, David  †1680                          Drumclog, Bothwell Bridge, martyr
Haliburton, George  1616-65                  Chaplain to Covenanting army
Hall, Henry  †1680                                    Queensferry Paper, martyr
Hamilton, Janet  c. 1687-95                    Wife of Alexander Gordon of Earlstoun
Hamilton, Patrick  1504-28 TC              First martyr of Scottish Reformation
Hamilton, Robert                                      Of Preston
Harkness, Thomas  †1684                       30 years old, martyr
Harvie, Marion  †1681  IA                         A lady, hearer of Cameronians
Hay, Andrew  †1593                                   Contributed to 2nd Book of Discipline
Hay, Laurence  †1681                                Fife, martyr w/Pittilloch & Philip
Hay, George  1530-88                                Minister at Reformation
Henderson, Alexander * 1583-1646 TC Minister & commissioner to Westminster
Hepburn, John  1649-1723                      Leader of the sect of Hebronites
Hog, James  fl. 1660-89                           Of Carnock, minister in Edinburgh, Letters
Hog, Thomas  1628-92                             Influential Highland covenanter
Howie, James  †1691                                 Of Fenwick
Howie, Robert  1568-1646  Latin           Reformed theologian at Aberdeen
.                                                                       J.K. Cameron, Letters of.. Robert Howie
Hume, Alexander  1560-1609  IA          Minister at Logie, Admonition, poet
Hume, Grisell  1665                                   Lady Baillie of Jerviswood, poem
Hutcheson, George * 1615-74  EEBO     Divine, biblical commentator, Resolutioner
Jackson, George  †1684                             Bothwell, indicted w/Graham, T. Wood, etc.
Jameson, William  fl. 1689-1720 EEBO  Presbyterian historian, controversialist, blind

Johnsone, John  fl.c. 1530                        Protestant writer
Johnston, Archibald  1611-63                 Politician, Westminster, Protester
Johnston, John  1565-1611 Latin            Latin poet, letters w/Beza, friend: Melville
.                                                                      J.K. Cameron, Letters of John Johnston Buy
Keith, George  15553-1623                        Rich politician, student of Beza
Ker, Robert  †1680            
                         At Lanark, Dumbarton Castle           
Kid, John  †1679  EEBO                            Field preacher, martyr w/King 

King, John  †1679  IA EEBO                     Chaplain, rescued at Drumclog w/Kid

Kirk, Robert  1644-92                               Gaelic scholar, eiscopalian
Kirkton, James  1628-99                          Minister, scholar, History
Kirkwood, James  1650-1709                  Advocate of Gaelic literacy, episcopalian
Knox, Andrew  1559-1633                        Bishop, son of John, student of Melville
Knox, John 1514-72                                 Scottish reformer
Lauchlane, Margaret                                Martyr by drowning with M. Wilson
Lauder, Alexander  1668-1719               Presbyterian apologist
Lawson, James  1538-84                          Presbyterian minister, successor to Knox
Lawson, James  †1684                              Martyr with A. Wood
Leighton, Alexander  1568-1649 EEBO  Persecuted presbyterian
Leighton, Robert * 1611-84                     Archbishop, pious episcopalian conformist
Lindsay, David  1490-1555                      Court poet, dramatist, reformist in religion
Lindsay, David  1531-1613                        Reformation minister
Lindsay, David  1565-1627                       Son, minister at Leith
Lindsay, Henrietta  1657-                        Lady Campbell of Auchinbreck
Lindsay, Robert  1532-1580                      Scotland’s first vernacular prose historian
Lining, Thomas                                          Last 3 Cameronian ministers, joined CoS 1690
.                                                                       Various Letters
Little, Clement  1527-80                           Reformed advocate, elder, lawyer, scholar
Livingstone, John  1603-72 IA                Popular preacher, revival, Protester
Lockhart, Robert  fl. 1545-60                  Supporter of reform, religious middleman
Lockhart, William  1621-76                      Soldier and diplomat
Logie, Gavin  †1539                                     Reforming principal of St. Andrews
MacAlpine, John  †1557                             Early protestant
Macbean, Angus  1656-89                         Presbyterian minister of Inverness
Macdowell, John  f. 1530-55                     Early protestant
MacWard, Robert * †1681  TC  Dutch     Minister, protege of Rutherford, Protester
.                                                                         Letter, Letters
Main, John  †1684                                       Martyr w/Johnston, Richmond, Stewart, etc.
Maitland, John  1545-95                            Protestant judge and chancellor
Maitland, John  1616-82                            Secretary of State, Helped draft S.L.&C.
Maitland, William  1528-73                      Protestant Secretary of State
Makemie, Francis  1658-1708  EEBO     Scotch-Irish, founder: American Presbyter.
Malcom, John  †1634  Latin                      Minister, defender of Presbyterianism
Malcom, John  †1680                               Bothwell Bridge, martyr w/Alison
Marshall, Edward  †1685                         Husband with 7 children, martyr
Martin, George  †1684                             Notary, schoolmaster, martyr
M’Clelland, John  †1650                         Minister, bro-in-law: Livingstone

McKail, Hugh  1640-66                           Covenanting preacher, author of Naphtali
McKillican, John  1630-89                    Minister, Protester, field preacher
.                                                                   Diary: Beaton, Some Noted Ministers Buy p. 20-22
Meldrum, George  1634-1709               Prominent minister in post-1690 CofS
Melville, Andrew  1545-1622                Academic, presbyterian leader, uncle of James
Melville, Elizabeth                                 Lady Culross, poetry
.                                                                   Cook, Rutherford’s Friends Buy p. 115
Melville, James  fl. 1525-35                   Franciscan, became a Lutheran sympathizer
Melville, James  1556-1614  EEBO       Minister, nephew of Andrew, wrote Diary
Menzies, John  1624-84                         Vacillating professor of Divinity
Methven, Paul  †1606                             Protestant preacher at Reformation
M’Ewen, Samuel  †1684                        17 years old, martyr
Miller, Christopher  †1681                     Bothwell, martyr w/Gouger & Sangster
Miller, Robert  †1685                              Stoneworker, martyr with R. Pollock
Milne, Walter  1476-1558                       Last pre-Reformation martyr in Scotland
Mitchell, James  1621-43                        Minister, taught by Dickson, Baillie              

Mitchell, James  †1678                           With J. Fraser in Bass Rock, martyr
Moncrieff, Alexander  †1688               Minister, Protestor
.                                                                    Western Remonstrance, 1650
Napier, John  1550-1617  EEBO            Mathematician, invented logarithms, Revelation
Nevay, John  1606-72                             Minister, banished
.                                                                   32 Sermons on Christ’s Temptation
.                                                                    Paraphrase on Song of Solomon, Latin
Nicol, James  †1684                                Merchant, Bothwell, martyr
Nisbet, Alexander * 1623-69               Minister and Bible commentator
Nisbet, James  †1684                            Ayrshire, related to J. Richmond
Nisbet, James  1667-1728                      Survivor, diary: Our Covenant Heritage Buy
Nisbet, John, younger †1683               Bothwell, martyr
Nisbet, John, Hardhill 1627-85            Soldier, martyr, Our Covenant Heritage Buy
Nisbet, Murdoch  †1545                         Reformed Lollard, translated: N.T.
Paton, John  †1684                                  Captain, Bothwell
Peden, Alexander  1626-86 TC IA       Legendary covenanting field preacher
Petrie, Alexander  1594-1662 EEBO   Covenanting divine
Pittilloch, Andrew  †1681                       Fife, martyr w/Laurence & Philip
Pollock, Robert  †1685                             Shoemaker, martyr
Pont, Robert  1524-1606 IA  Latin        Reformer and minister
Potter, John  †1680                                  Hearer of Cargill, martyr w/Stewart & Skene
Pringle, Walter
  c. 1685                          Of Greenknow
Ramsey, Andrew  1574-1659                  Divine, preached at National Cov., 1638
Renwick, James  1662-88 EEBO TC     Last field preacher killed
Richardson, Robert  1491-1572              Early protestant
.                                                                     Commentary on the Rule of St. Augustine Buy
Richmond, John  †1684                           Martyr w/ Main, Johnston, Stewart, Winning
Riddell, Archibald                                     Cameronian field preacher
Robertson, James  †1682                         Heard Cargill & Cameron, martyr
Robertson, Thomas  †1684                     Martyr
Rollock, Robert * 1555-99                        Principal, Covenant theologian, commentator
Rough, John  †1557                                    Dominican friar, protestant martyr
Row, John (I)  1525-80                              Reformer and minister, 1st & 2nd Books of Disc.
Row, John (II)  1568-1646                        Covenanting minister, historian
Row, John (III)  1598-1672  Latin           Principal, Hebraicist
Row, William  n.d.                                    Minister c. 1600, son of John (1)
Russel, James  c. 1679                             Murderer of Archbishop Sharp
Rule, Gilbert * 1629-1701  EEBO          Minister, principal, leader in post-1690 Church
Rutherford, John  1520-77                      Protestant minister, philosopher, humanist
.                                                                     Commentariorum de Arte Disserendi
Rutherford, Samuel * 1600-61              Theologian, polemicist, Westminster, Protester
Sangster, Robert  †1681                           Bothwell, martyr w/Gouger & Miller
Scot, John  1585-1670                               Lawyer, statesman and covenanter
Scot, William  1558-1642  EEBO            Presbyterian writer, against innovations
Scougal, Henry  1650-78                         Bishop, professor of divinity, infl. Whitefield
Scrimgeour, John  fl. 1590-1620            Minister, resisted Articles of Perth  
                      
Semple, Gabriel                                         Minister at Kilpatrick, field preacher
Semple, John  †1684  IA                           Of Craigthorn, martyr with J. Watt
Sharp, John  1572-1647                             Professor of divinity, Edinburgh, theologian
.                                                                       Tractatus de Justificatione, 1609
.                                                                       Tractatus de Misero Hominis, 1610
.                                                                       Cursus Theologicua, 1618
.                                                                       Symphonia Prophetarum et Apostolorum, 1625
Sharp, Patrick  †1615                                 Principal and professor of divinity, Glasgow
.                                                                       Doctrinae Christianae Brevis Explictio, 1599
Shields, Alexander * 1660-1700 IA EEBO TC Cameronian apologist, joined CofS 1690
Shields, Michael  fl. 1680’s                    Clerk of United Societies, bro of Alexander
Simson, Alexander  1570-1639              Minister
Simson, Archibald * 1564-1628 IA EEBO Minister, poet, brother of Patrick
Simson, Patrick  1556-1618 TC              Presbyterian minister, grandpa of Patrick
Simson, Patrick  1628-1715                     Minister, reared by Gillespie, leader post-1690
.                                                                      Spiritual Songs, or Holy Poems. A Garden of
Simson, William  1580-1625                   Early presbyterian Hebraicist, bro to Archibald
.                                                                       Accentibus Hebraicis Breves et Perspicuae, 1617
Skene, James  †1680                                  Hearer of Cargill, Cameron, martyr w/Potter
Smeaton, Thomas  1536-83  Latin         Principal of Glasgow Univ.
Smith, James  †1683                                  Martyr
Smith, Walter  †1681  IA                           Follower of Cargill, martyr
Spalding, John  1631-1699                       Minister, leader post-1690
Spang, William  1607-64  Latin             Scots minister in Holland, letters: Baillie
Spottiswoode, John  1510-85                  Superintendent, 1st Book of Discipline
Spottiswoode, John  1565-1639              Initially presb., Archbishop Glasgow, historian
Stevenson, John  †1728                          Of Carrick, land-laborer, Comforting Cordial
Stewart, Archibald  †1680                     Airsmoss, martyr w/Potter & Skene
Stewart, Archibald  †1684                     20 yrs old, martyr w/Main, Johnston, etc.
Stewart, James  1531-70                         Protestant civil leader, advisor to Queen
Stewart, James  1635-1713                      Covenanter lawyer, apologist, Naphtali
Stewart, Mrs.  †1675                                Lady of Coltness
Stewart, Robert  1521-86                        Bishop, conformed to Reformation
Stewart, Robert  1550-1633                   Reader and pious epsicopalian minister

Stodart, Thomas  †1685                         A common country man, martyr
Straiton, David  †1534                            Protestant martyr
Strang, John  1584-1654  Latin            Principal Glasgow, moderate
.                                                                   De Voluntate et Actionibus Dei circa Peccatum
.                                                                   De Interpretatione et Perfectione Scripturae
Stuart, James  †1570                               Leading reformer, Earl of Moray
Stuart, James  †1681                                Young man, martyr
Symson, Andrew  1638-1712                 Minister, printer, editor
Tacket, Arthur  †1684                            Tailor, Bothwell, martyr
Thomson, William  †1681                     Servant, tried with Cargill, martyr
Ure, James  fl. 1679                                 Captain, Narrative of Bothwell Bridge
Veitch, Mrs.  1638-1712  IA                   Wife of minister William Veitch
Veitch, William  1640-1720    
             Minister, remarkable deliverances
Walker, Patrick  1666-1745                   Covenanter historian, joined post-1690 CofS
Wallace, Adam  †1550                            Protestant martyr
Wallace, James  fl. 1666                        Colonel, Narrative of Pentland
Watt, John  †1684                                    Kilbride, martyr w/Semple
Webster, James * 1659-1720                  Covenanter, joined CofS 1690, Marrow
.                                                                     Sacramental Sermons and Discourses Buy
.                                                                     Discourse, Government of the Church
Buy
.                                                                     An Essay on [against] Toleration
Buy
.                                                                     Lawful Prejudice Against the [1707] Union
Buy
.                                                                     Vindication of the National Covenant Buy
.                                                                     Covenants of Redemption and Grace Displayed
.                                                                     Two Great Promises… Covenant of Grace
Buy
Wedderburn, James  1495-1553            Protestant sympathizer, dramatist
Wedderburn, John  1508-56                 Protestant sympathizer, poet, Ballads
Weems, David  fl. 1587-1609                Minister
Welch, Josias  †1634                               Son of J. Welch, grandson of Knox, minister
Welsh, John  1570-1622  EEBO             Reformed minister Ayr, son-in-law of Knox
.                                                                    Letters
Welsh, John  1624-81  IA                        Grandson, Covenanting field preacher
.                                                                    Sermons on 2 Cor. 5:10 & 2 Cor. 5:11
Welwood, Andrew                                 Son of James, Glimpse of Glory
Welwood, James  fl. 1665                     Father of John and Andrew
Welwood, John  1649-79  IA                 Minister, son of James
Weemes, John * 1579-1636                    Minister, Hebrew scholar
.                                                                     Works
, 4 vols., 1636
Wharry, John  †1683                                Bothwell, martyr
Willock, John  fl. 1555-                            Minister Edinburgh, superintendent
Wilson, John  †1683                                 Captain at Bothwell
Wilson, Margaret  †1685                         Covenanter martyr by drowning
Winram, John  1492-1582                       Turned protestant, 1st BoD, superintendent
Wishart, George  1513-1546                    Protestant reformer, martyr
Wishart, William  1660-1729                 Covenanter, CofS minister, Discourses of God
.                                                                      Sermons
Wodrow, James  1637-1707                     Professor of Divinity, father of Robert
Wodrow, Robert * 1679-1734                  Church historian, minister, antiquary
Wood, Alexander  †1684                         Martyr with J. Lawson
Wood, James * 1609-64  EEBO              Professor, principal, Resolutioner
Wood, Thomas  fl. 1560-92                     1st Scot. metrical psalter: St. Andrew’s Psalter
.                                                                      See also U. of Edin.’s Wode Psalter
Young, Thomas  1587-1655                      In England, Westminster divine, Smectymnuus

Various, Poems of Fighting Faith  Buy    Poems of the Covenanters from the 1600’s

 

 

The Scottish Covenanters

Chronological by death

Hamilton, Patrick  1504-28 TC             First martyr of Scottish Reformation
Johnsone, John  fl.c. 1530                      Protestant writer
Straiton, David  †1534                            Protestant martyr
Melville, James  fl. 1525-35                     Franciscan, became a Lutheran sympathizer
Logie, Gavin  †1539                                  Reforming principal of St. Andrews
Nisbet, Murdoch  †1545                          Reformed Lollard, translated: N.T.
Wishart, George  1513-1546                    Protestant reformer, martyr
Cunningham, Alexander  †1547          Earl, prominent early Scottish reformer
Wallace, Adam  †1550                             Protestant martyr
Gau, John  †1553                                       Early Scottish Lutheran
Wedderburn, James  1495-1553             Protestant sympathizer, dramatist
Lindsay, David  1490-1555                      Court poet, dramatist, reformist in religion
Macdowell, John  fl. 1530-55                   Early protestant
Willock, John  fl. 1555-                             Minister Edinburgh, superintendent
Wedderburn, John  1508-56                   Protestant sympathizer, poet, Ballads
MacAlpine, John  †1557                          Early protestant

Rough, John  †1557                                   Dominican friar, protestant martyr
Milne, Walter  1476-1558                        Last pre-Reformation martyr in Scotland
Lockhart, Robert  fl. 1545-60                 Supporter of reform, religious middleman
Alesius, Alexander  1500-65  Latin    Reformer, theologian
Borthwick, John  †1569                         Early protestant reformer
Balknaves, Henry  1502-70  IA             Early reformer, 1st BofD, Justification
Stewart, James  1531-70                         Protestant civil leader, advisor to Queen
Stuart, James  †1570                               Leading reformer, Earl of Moray
Richardson, Robert  1491-1572             Early protestant
.                                                                    Commentary on the Rule of St. Augustine Buy
Knox, John 1514-72                               Scottish reformer
Carswell, John  †1572                              Translator: Book of Common Order to Gaelic
Maitland, William  1528-73                    Protestant Secretary of State
Campbell, Archibald  1530-73              Chancellor of Scotland, moderate
Douglas, John  1494-1574                       Contributor to 1st Book of Discipline
Gordon, Alexander  1516-75                  Reforming bishop, helped John Wycliff
Rutherford, John  1520-77                      Protestant minister, philosopher, humanist
.                                                                     Commentariorum de Arte Disserendi
Row, John (I)  1525-80                              Reformer and minister, 1st & 2nd Books of Disc.
Little, Clement  1527-80                           Reformed advocate, elder, lawyer, scholar
Lindsay, Robert  1532-1580                     Scotland’s first vernacular prose historian
Carswell, John  fl. 1560-1580                 Superintendent of Argyle
Davidson, John  1520-?  IA                     Principal Glasgow
Boyd, James  †1581                                  Protestant, tulchan Archbishop, 2nd BoD
Winram, John  1492-1582                       Turned protestant, 1st BoD, superintendent
Buchanan, George * 1506-82  EEBO    Humanist writer, political theorist
Smeaton, Thomas  1536-83  Latin         Principal of Glasgow Univ.
Arbuthnot, Alexander  1538-83            Minister, principal, 2nd BofD, friend: Melville
Lawson, James  1538-84                          Presbyterian minister, successor to Knox
Spottiswoode, John  1510-85                  Superintendent, 1st Book of Discipline
Stewart, Robert  1521-86                         Bishop, conformed to Reformation
Hay, George  1530-88                                Minister at Reformation
Erskine, John, of Dun  1509-1590 IA   Protestant Reformer
Wood, Thomas  fl. 1560-92                     1st Scot. metrical psalter: St. Andrew’s Psalter
.                                                                      See also U. of Edin.’s Wode Psalter
Hay, Andrew  †1593                                   Contributed to 2nd Book of Discipline
Maitland, John  1545-95                           Protestant judge and chancellor
Blackburn, Peter  fl. 1580-97                 Bishop of Aberdeen
Fergusson, David  1525-98 IA                Reformation minister
Rollock, Robert * 1555-99                        Principal, Covenant theologian, commentator
Craig, John  1512-1600  EEBO  IA          Scottish reformer
Cunningham, David  †1600                   Bishop, contributor to 2nd Book of Discipline
Durie, John  1537-1600 IA                       Presb. minister, contributor to 2nd Book of Disc.
Row, William  c. 1600                              Minister, son of John (1)
Goodman, Christopher  1519-1603      Major Reformation figure, friend of Knox
Black, David  1550-1603                         Presbyterian minister, Bass Rock
Davidson, John  1549-1604  IA              Of Prestonpans, presbyterian minister
Methven, Paul  †1606                             Protestant preacher at Reformation

Pont, Robert  1524-1606 IA  Latin        Reformer and minister
Hume, Alexander  1560-1609  IA         Minister at Logie, Admonition, poet
Weems, David  fl. 1587-1609                  Minister

Johnston, John  1565-1611 Latin            Latin poet, letters w/Beza, friend: Melville
.                                                                      J.K. Cameron, Letters of John Johnston Buy
Gladstanes, George  fl. 1596-1612         First protestant bishop of St. Andrews
Lindsay, David  1531-1613                       Reformation minister
Melville, James  1556-1614  EEBO        Minister, nephew of Andrew, wrote Diary
Sharp, Patrick  †1615                               Principal and professor of divinity, Glasgow

.                                                                     Doctrinae Christianae Brevis Explictio, 1599
Balcanquhal, Walter  1548-1617          Presbyterian minister
.                                                                   Joint Attestation, Avowing that the Discipline…
.                                                                   The Honor of Christian Churches
.                                                                   The Collegiat Suffrage of the Divines of…
Napier, John  1550-1617  EEBO            Mathematician, invented logarithms, Revelation
Ferme, Charles  1566-1617                    Presbyterian, influenced Calderwood
Simson, Patrick  1556-1618 TC             Presbyterian minister, grandpa of Patrick
Scrimgeour, John  fl. 1590-1620          Minister, resisted Articles of Perth
Melville, Andrew  1545-1622                Academic, presbyterian leader, uncle of James
Welsh, John  1570-1622  EEBO             Reformed minister Ayr, son-in-law of Knox
.                                                                    Letters
Keith, George  1553-1623                        Rich politician, student of Beza
Cameron, John  1579-1625  IA               Innovative reformed theologian
Simson, William  1580-1625                  Early presbyterian Hebraicist, bro to Archibald

.                                                                     Accentibus Hebraicis Breves et Perspicuae, 1617
Galloway, Patrick  1551-1626                 Presbyterian minister and royal chaplain
Duncan, Andrew  1560-1626                Schoolmaster and committed presbyterian
.                                                                    Rudimenta Pietatis, Torrance, School of Faith Buy
Lindsay, David  1565-1627                      Son, minister at Leith
Boyd, Robert * 1578-1627  Latin          Son of James, principal, professor, minister
.                                                                    Remains
Carmichael, James  1543-1628             Minister and presbyterian reformer
Simson, Archibald * 1564-1628 IA EEBO Minister, poet, brother of Patrick
Bannantyne, Adam fl. 1595-1630        Minister Falkirk, Bishop Aberdeen
Bruce, Robert * 1554-1631                      Minister, leading churchman, Lord’s Supper
Stewart, Robert  1550-1633                    Reader and pious epsicopalian minister
Knox, Andrew  1559-1633                       Bishop, son of John, student of Melville

Forbes, John  1568-1634  EEBO             Presbyterian writer
Gordon, John  1599-1634                        Viscount Kenmure, friend of Rutherford
Malcom, John  †1634  Latin                   Minister, defender of Presbyterianism
Welch, Josias  †1634                               Son of J. Welch, grandson of Knox, minister
Forbes, Patrick  †1635                             Minister Keith, Bishop Aberdeen
Weemes, John * 1579-1636                    Minister, Hebrew scholar
.                                                                    Works
, 4 vols., 1636

Cunningham, Robert  †1637                  Minister, friend of Blair and Livingstone
Melville, Elizabeth  fl. 1603-37              Lady Culross, poetry, friend of Rutherford
.                                                                     Cook, Rutherford’s Friends Buy p. 115
Spottiswoode, John  1565-1639              Initially presb., Archbishop Glasgow, historian
Simson, Alexander  1570-1639              Minister
Duncan, Mark  1570-1640  French       Professor at French Academy at Saumur
Scot, William  1558-1642  EEBO            Presbyterian writer, against innovations
Mitchell, James  1621-43                          Minister, taught by Dickson, Baillie
Boyd, Lady  †1646                                    Married to cousin of Robert
Howie, Robert  1568-1646  Latin           Reformed theologian at Aberdeen
.                                                                       J.K. Cameron, Letters of.. Robert Howie Buy
Row, John (II)  1568-1646                         Covenanting minister, historian
Henderson, Alexander * 1583-1646 TC Minister & commissioner to Westminster
Sharp, John  1572-1647                              Professor of divinity, Edinburgh, theologian

.                                                                       Tractatus de Justificatione, 1609
.                                                                       Tractatus de Misero Hominis, 1610
.                                                                       Cursus Theologicua, 1618
.                                                                       Symphonia Prophetarum et Apostolorum, 1625
Gillespie, George * 1613-48                     Eminent divine, Commissioner to Westminster
Leighton, Alexander  1568-1649 EEBO  Persecuted presbyterian
Calderwood, David * 1575-1650  EEBO Church historian and apologist for Presbyt.
M’Clelland, John  †1650                         Minister, bro-in-law: Livingstone
Campbell, John  †1652                           Earl of Loudon, covenanter
Boyd, Zachary  1585-1653  EEBO         Minister, poet, took National Covenant
Binning, Hugh * 1627-53                       Preacher, Protestor, Christian Love
Strang, John  1584-1654  Latin            Principal Glasgow, moderate
.                                                                   De Voluntate et Actionibus Dei circa Peccatum
.                                                                   De Interpretatione et Perfectione Scripturae
Gordon, Alexander  1587-1654             Earlstoun, Pioneer of Protestantism: Galloway
Young, Thomas  1587-1655                    In England, Westminster divine, Smectymnuus
Grey, Andrew * 1633-56  EEBO TC      Popular preacher, Protestor
Guild, William * 1586-1657  EEBO      Principal, prolific writer
Durham, James * 1622-1658                 Covenanter minister and author
.                                                                    The Unsearchable Riches of Christ  Buy  excerpts
Durham, Margaret  fl. 1650’s               Wife of James Durham
.                                                                    ‘Epistle Dedicatory’, Durham, Song of Sol. Buy
.                                                                     excerpts
Ramsey, Andrew  1574-1659                  Divine, preached at National Cov., 1638
Rutherford, Samuel * 1600-61              Theologian, polemicist, Westminster, Protester
Campbell, Archibald  1607-61              Covenanter leader, Marquis of Argyle
Guthrie, James  1612-61  EEBO TC       Covenanting minister, Protester, cousin: William
.                                                                    Discovery of the Dangers that Threaten Religion 
Petrie, Alexander  1594-1662 EEBO    Covenanting divine
Baillie, Robert * 1599-1662  TC             Westminster, wrote Letters, Resolutioner
Dickson, David * 1583-1663 TS TC       Eminent preacher, educator, federal theologian

Cant, Andrew  1590-1663                        Covenanter minister in Aberdeen
Johnston, Archibald  1611-63                 Politician, Westminster, Protester
Spang, William  1607-64  Latin             Scots minister in Holland, letters: Baillie
Wood, James * 1609-64  EEBO              Professor, principal, Resolutioner
Haliburton, George  1616-65                  Chaplain to Covenanting army
Guthrie, William * 1620-65 IA EEBO TC Minister, Protester
Hume, Grisell  fl. 1665                              Lady Baillie of Jerviswood, poem
Welwood, James  fl. 1665                        Father of John and Andrew
Blair, Robert  1593-1666  TC                   Minister, St. Andrews, moderator 1646
McKail, Hugh  1640-66                           Covenanting preacher, author of Naphtali
Wallace, James  fl. 1666                         Colonel, Narrative of Pentland
Scot, John  1585-1670                               Lawyer, statesman and covenanter
Row, John (III)  1598-1672  Latin          Principal, Hebraicist
Livingstone, John  1603-72 IA               Popular preacher, revival, Protester
Nevay, John  1606-72                               Minister, banished
.                                                                    32 Sermons on Christ’s Temptation
.                                                                    Paraphrase on Song of Solomon, Latin

Douglas, Robert  1594-1674                   Leader in CofS in 1640’s-50’s, Resolutioner
Colville, William  †1675                          Principal of Edinburgh Univ.
Ferguson, James 1621-67                     Minister and biblical commentator
Nisbet, Alexander * 1623-69                 Minister and Bible commentator
Hutcheson, George * 1615-74  EEBO    Divine, biblical commentator, Resolutioner
Gillespie, Patrick * 1617-75  TC             Leading Protester, Principal, bro of George
.                                                                    Western Remonstrance, 1650
Stewart, Mrs.  †1675                                Lady of Coltness
Lockhart, William  1621-76                    Soldier and diplomat
Scougal, Henry  1650-78                         Bishop, professor of divinity, infl. Whitefield
Mitchell, James  †1678                            With J. Fraser in Bass Rock, martyr
Brysson, George  b. 1649, fl. 1666-78  Merchant in Edinburgh
Brown, John, Wamphray * 1610-79 EEBO  Exiled minister, theologian, apologist
Gordon, William  1614-79                       Of Earlstoun, son of Alex. 1654, Drumclog

Welwood, John  1649-79  IA                   Minister, son of James
Kid, John  †1679                                        Field preacher, martyr w/King 
King, John   †1679                                     Chaplain, rescued at Drumclog w/Kid

Ure, James  fl. 1679                                  Captain, Narrative of Bothwell Bridge
Russel, James  c. 1679                             Murderer of Archbishop Sharp
Balfour, John, Klinloch  fl. 1679          Murderer of Archbish. James Sharp, army officer
Brodie, Alexander  1617-80                  Covenanting statesman, Lord of Session, Diary

Cameron, Richard
 1648-80  TC          Leader of the Cameronians
Alison, Archibald  †1680                      Both. Bridge, Airsmoss, martyr w/Malcom
Hackston, David  †1680                         Drumclog, Bothwell Bridge, martyr
Hall, Henry  †1680                                   Queensferry Paper, martyr
Ker, Robert  †1680                                    At Lanark, Dumbarton Castle
Malcom, John  †1680                               Bothwell Bridge, martyr w/Alison

Potter, John  †1680                                  Hearer of Cargill, martyr w/Stewart & Skene
Skene, James  †1680                                Hearer of Cargill, Cameron, martyr w/Potter
Stewart, Archibald  †1680                     Airsmoss, martyr w/Potter & Skene
Cameron, Michael fl. 1680’s                 Brother of Richard
Semple, Gabriel  fl. 1680’s                    Minister at Kilpatrick, field preacher
Hamilton, Robert  fl. 1680’s                 Of Preston
Welsh, John  1624-81  IA                        Grandson, Covenanting field preacher
.                                                                    Sermons on 2 Cor. 5:10 & 2 Cor. 5:11

Brown, John, Priesthill  1627-81         Ministry to children, murdered by Claverhouse
Cargill, Donald  1627-81  TC IA            Cameronian field preacher
Alison, Isabel
 †1681  IA                        A lady, hearer of Cargill
Boig, James  †1681                                  Student of theology, martyr with W. Smith
Cuthill, William  †1681                           Martyr
Farrie, David  †1681                                Heard Blackadder & Welsh, martyr w/Forman
Forman, Patrick  †1681                           Heard Cargill, martyr with Garnock
Garnock, Robert  †1681                          A smith, martyr
Gouger, William  †1681                           Bothwell, martyr w/Miller & Sangster
Harvie, Marion  †1681  IA                        A lady, hearer of Cameronians
Hay, Laurence  †1681                                Fife, martyr w/Pittilloch & Philip
MacWard, Robert * †1681  TC  Dutch   Minister, protege of Rutherford, Protester
.                                                                      Letter, Letters
Miller, Christopher  †1681                      Bothwell, martyr w/Gouger & Sangster
Pittilloch, Andrew  †1681                       Fife, martyr w/Laurence & Philip
Sangster, Robert  †1681                           Bothwell, martyr w/Gouger & Miller
Smith, Walter  †1681  IA                           Follower of Cargill, martyr
Stuart, James  †1681                                 Young man, martyr
Thomson, William  †1681                       Servant, tried with Cargill, martyr
Maitland, John  1616-82                           Secretary of State, Helped draft S.L.&C.
Cochran, William  †1682                         Martyr, suffered with Robertson
Finlay, John  †1682                                   Drumclog, Friend of Robertson, martyr
Gray, Robert  †1682                                  Englishman, martyr
Robertson, James  †1682                         Heard Cargill & Cameron, martyr
Cochran, John  †1683                              Shoemaker, martyr
Guilline, Andrew  †1683                         Weaver, witness to Sharp’s death
Nisbet, John, younger †1683                 Bothwell, martyr
Smith, James  †1683                                 Martyr
Wharry, John  †1683                                Bothwell, martyr
Wilson, John  †1683                                 Captain at Bothwell
Leighton, Robert * 1611-84                    Archbishop, pious episcopalian conformist
Menzies, John  1624-84                          Vacillating professor of Divinity
Clark, Andrew  †1684                             A smith, 19 years old, martyr
Dick, John  †1684                                     Student of divinity, Bothwell, martyr
Graham, James  †1684                            Martyr w/G. Jackson
Harkness, Thomas  †1684                      30 years old, martyr
Jackson, George  †1684                            Bothwell, indicted w/Graham, T. Wood, etc.
Lawson, James  †1684                              Martyr with A. Wood
Main, John  †1684                                     Martyr w/Johnston, Richmond, Stewart, etc.
Martin, George  †1684                             Notary, schoolmaster, martyr
M’Ewen, Samuel  †1684                        17 years old, martyr
Nicol, James  †1684                                Merchant, Bothwell, martyr
Nisbet, James  †1684                              Ayrshire, related to J. Richmond
Paton, John  †1684                                  Captain, Bothwell
Richmond, John  †1684                          Martyr w/ Main, Johnston, Stewart, Winning
Robertson, Thomas  †1684                    Martyr
Wood, Alexander  †1684                        Martyr with J. Lawson
Nisbet, John, Hardhill 1627-85             Soldier, martyr, Our Covenant Heritage Buy
Lauchlane, Margaret  †1685                  Martyr by drowning with M. Wilson
Marshall, Edward  †1685                       Husband with 7 children, martyr
Miller, Robert  †1685                              Stoneworker, martyr with R. Pollock
Pringle, Walter  c. 1685                          Of Greenknow
Pollock, Robert  †1685                            Shoemaker, martyr
Stodart, Thomas  †1685                         A common country man, martyr
Wilson, Margaret  †1685                       Covenanter martyr by drowning
Blackadder, John  1615-86                    Covenanting Field Preacher
.                                                                   Diary and Letters
.                                                                   Vision of the Last Judgment: a Poem
Peden, Alexander  1626-86 TC IA       Legendary covenanting field preacher
Carstairs, John  †1686                            Minister
.                                                                    Letters
Renwick, James  1662-88 EEBO TC     Last field preacher killed
Guthrie, John  †1688                              Minister, Breach of Covenant
Moncrieff, Alexander  †1688               Minister, Protestor
.                                                                   Western Remonstrance, 1650
McKillican, John  1630-89                     Minister, Protester, field preacher
.                                                                   Diary: Beaton, Some Noted Ministers
Buy p. 20-22
Macbean, Angus  1656-89                     Presbyterian minister of Inverness

Hog, James  fl. 1660-89                          Of Carnock, minister in Edinburgh, Letters
Lindsay, Henrietta  1657-                       Lady Campbell of Auchinbreck
Bruce, Michael  fl. 1680’s                     Field preacher
Carstairs, Mrs.  fl. 1680’s                      Wife of John
Dunbar, Lillias fl. 1680’s                      Wife of Alexander Campbell
Riddell, Archibald  fl. 1680’s               Cameronian field preacher
Shields, Michael  fl. 1680’s                   Clerk of United Societies, bro of Alexander
Welwood, Andrew  fl. 1680’s               Son of James, Glimpse of Glory 
Goodall, Mrs.  fl. 1677-90                       Memoir
Howie, James  †1691                               Of Fenwick
Hog, Thomas  1628-92                            Influential Highland covenanter
Kirk, Robert  1644-92                              Gaelic scholar, eiscopalian
Fleming, Robert  1630-94  EEBO         Minister and theologian
Hamilton, Janet  c. 1687-95                   Wife of Alexander Gordon of Earlstoun
Erskine, Henry  1624-96                        Minister, father of Ralph & Ebeneezer
Blackadder, Adam  1659-96                 Son of John, Blackness Castle, Darian Colony
Fraser, James, of Brea  1638-98           Persecuted covenanter, origin of New Light
Kirkton, James  1628-99                        Minister, scholar, History
Spalding, John  1631-99                         Minister, leader post-1690
Lining, Thomas fl. 1680’s-90’s            Last 3 Cameronian ministers, joined CoS 1690
.                                                                     Various Letters
Boyd, William  fl. 1680’s-90’s              Informatory Vindication, joined CofS 1690
Crawford, Matthew  1640-1700            CofS minister prominent in the 1690’s
Dunlop, William  1649-1700                 Presbyterian principal of Glasgow Univ.
Shields, Alexander * 1660-1700 IA EEBO TC Cameronian apologist, joined CofS 1690
Dickson, John  †1700  SW                      Field preacher, Bass Rock, joined CofS 1690
Rule, Gilbert * 1629-1701  EEBO           Minister, principal, leader in post-1690 Church
Campbell, George  1635-1701                Professor of Divinity, Univ. of Edinburgh
Forrester, Thomas  1635-1706  EEBO  Presbyterian minister and controversialist
Wodrow, James  1637-1707                     Professor of Divinity, father of Robert
Makemie, Francis  1658-1708  EEBO    Scotch-Irish, founder: American Presbyter.
Meldrum, George  1634-1709                 Prominent minister in post-1690 CofS
Kirkwood, James  1650-1709                  Advocate of Gaelic literacy, episcopalian
Symson, Andrew  1638-1712                  Minister, printer, editor
Veitch, Mrs.  1638-1712  IA                     Wife of minister William Veitch
Stewart, James  1635-1713                      Covenanter lawyer, apologist, Naphtali
Simson, Patrick  1628-1715                    Minister, reared by Gillespie, leader post-1690

.                                                                     Spiritual Songs, or Holy Poems. A Garden of…
Carstares, William  1649-1715               CofS minister, advisor to William of Orange
.                                                                     Letters
Anne, Lady  1630-1716                            Duchess of Hamilton
Lauder, Alexander  1668-1719              Presbyterian apologist
Veitch, William  1640-1720                   Minister, remarkable deliverances
Webster, James * 1659-1720                  Covenanter, joined CofS 1690, Marrow
.                                                                     Sacramental Sermons and Discourses Buy
.                                                                     Discourse, Government of the Church
Buy
.                                                                     An Essay on [against] Toleration
Buy
.                                                                     Lawful Prejudice Against the [1707] Union
Buy
.                                                                     Vindication of the National Covenant Buy
.                                                                     Covenants of Redemption and Grace Displayed
.                                                                     Two Great Promises… Covenant of Grace
Buy
Jameson, William  fl. 1689-1720 EEBO  Presbyterian historian, controversialist, blind
Hepburn, John  1649-1723                      Leader of the sect of Hebronites
Gordon, Alexander  1650-1726             Son of William, Bass & Blackness Castle
Nisbet, James  1667-1728                        Survivor, diary: Our Covenant Heritage Buy
Stevenson, John  †1728                          Of Carrick, land-laborer, Comforting Cordial
Wishart, William  1660-1729                 Covenanter, CofS minister, Discourses of God
.                                                                      Sermons
Wodrow, Robert * 1679-1734                  Church historian, minister, antiquary
Walker, Patrick  1666-1745                     Covenanter historian, joined post-1690 CofS

Various, Poems of Fighting Faith Buy    Poems of the Covenanters from the 1600’s

 

 

 

 

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