The Order of Salvation

The Ordo Salutis:

The Covenant of Redemption
God’s Decrees of Election & Reprobation
The Outward Call
The Effectual Call
Regeneration
Conversion
.      
Faith
.      
Repentance
Spiritual Union to Christ
Covenant of Grace
Justification
Adoption
Sanctification
.      Definitive
.      
Progressive
Perseverance to the End
Glorification

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The Covenant of Redemption

The Covenant of Redemption

Rutherford, Samuel – Pt. 2, Ch. 7, pp. 302-307  of The Covenant of Life Opened  (Edinburgh, 1655)

“The Covenant of Redemption is two ways considered: 1. As transacted in time between Jehovah and Christ, in his actual discharge of his office of King, Priest and Prophet; 2. As it is an eternal transaction and compact between Jehovah and the second Person the Son of God, who gave personal consent that He should be the Undertaker, and no other.

And these three acts are considerable in the Persons in this latter consideration: 1. designation of one; 2. decree and destination; 3. delectation in the work.”

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On Election & Reprobation

On the Order of the Decrees

Supralapsarianism & Infralapsarianism

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The Outward Call & Offer of the Gospel

Rutherford, Samuel

ed. Johnson & Fentiman, Rutherford’s Examination of Arminianism: The Tables of Contents with Excerpts from Every Chapter  (1639-1643; RBO, 2019)

Ch. 9

Section 6, ‘Whether all are directly obligated in the same way and by the same principle [jure] to believe in Christ announced by the gospel? We deny with a distinction against the Remonstrants.’, pp. 89-90

Section 17, ‘Whether each and every truly reprobate person must believe Christ to have died for them?  We deny against the Remonstrants.’, pp. 92-93

Section 18, ‘Whether it may be required from reprobates by [divine] law that they believe in Christ? We affirm against [what] the Remonstrants [say of our position].’, pp. 94-95

A Survey of the Spiritual Antichrist, Pt. 1

Ch. 5, ‘The Internal & External Word Differenced’, pp. 20-23

Ball, John – Pt. 2, ch.4, pp. 326-332 & 347 (top)  of A Treatise of the Covenant of Grace  (London, 1645)

The Common Operations of the Holy Spirit

Westminster Larger Catechism

“Q. 63. What are the special privileges of the visible church?

A. The visible church hath the privilege of being under God’s special care and government;[y] of being protected and preserved in all ages, notwithstanding the opposition of all enemies;[x] and of enjoying the communion of saints, the ordinary means of salvation,[a] and offers of grace by Christ to all the members of it in the ministry of the gospel, testifying, that whosoever believes in him shall be saved,[b] and excluding none that will come unto him.[c]”

[y] Isa. 4:5,61 Tim. 4:10.
[z] Ps. 115Isa. 31:4,5Zech. 12:2-4,8,9.
[a] Acts 2:39,42.
[b] Ps. 147:19,20Rom. 9:4Eph. 4:11,12Mark 16:15,16.
[c] John 6:37.

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The Effectual Call

That before Effectual Calling the Elect are under Legal Wrath in their Sins, though there is a special way of Providence with them

Witsius, Herman – Ch. 5, Sections 1-4, pp. 59-63 & 66  of Conciliatory or Irenical Animadversions on the Controversies Agitated in Britain: under the Unhappy names of Antinomians and Neonomians  (Glasgow, 1807)

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Rutherford, Samuel

A Survey of the Spiritual Antichrist, Pt. 1

Ch. 6, ‘How the Word Converts’

Ch. 27, ‘How Ordinances and the Letter of the Word are Instruments of Conveying of Christ and his Grace to us, and neither adored of us, nor useless to us’

On the Effectual Call

Ball, John – Pt. 2, ch.4, ‘How Christ doth Bring his People into Covenant’  of A Treatise of the Covenant of Grace  (London, 1645)  See especially pp. 332-347

Witsius, Herman – Ch. 5, Sections 5-7, pp. 63-64  of Conciliatory or Irenical Animadversions on the Controversies Agitated in Britain: under the Unhappy names of Antinomians and Neonomians  (Glasgow, 1807)

Note that the Effectual Call, according to WCF 10.1, includes:

The outward call by the Word
The inward call by the Spirit
.      A spiritual enlightening of the mind
.      The giving of a new heart & renewing of the will
.      Determining them to that which is good
.      Effectually Drawing them to Jesus  (Spiritual Union to Christ)

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Regeneration

That Regeneration is by God’s Work Alone

John 1:13

“Which were born, not of blood, nor of the will of the flesh, nor of the will of man, but of God.”

Halyburton, Thomas – ‘An Inquiry into the Nature of God’s Act of Justification’  in The works of the Rev. Thomas Halyburton…  (London : Thomas Tegg, 1835), pp. 559-567

Amongst other helpful things, Halyburton argues the traditional reformed paradigm that regeneration is antecedent to justification, and not the other way around.

Phillips, Rick – ‘Thank God that Christians are not Totally Depraved’  2012  11 paragraphs

Fentiman, Travis – II. The Doctrine of Adoption: A. Adoption is distinct from Regeneration & B. Adoption is Distinct from Justification, pp. 4-10  of John L. Girardeau’s Doctrine of Adoption: a Systematic and Biblical Defense  (2014)

That Regeneration was Often Defined as a Part of the Effectual Call in the Older Theology

WCF, ch. 10.1

“I. All those whom God hath predestinated unto life, and those only, he is pleased, in his appointed and accepted time, effectually to call,[a] by his word and Spirit,[b] out of that state of sin and death in which they are by nature, to grace and salvation by Jesus Christ;[c] enlightening their minds spiritually and savingly to understand the things of God;[d] taking away their heart of stone, and giving unto them an heart of flesh;[e] renewing their wills, and, by his almighty power determining them to that which is good;[f] and effectually drawing them to Jesus Christ;[g] yet so as they come most freely, being made willing by his grace.[h]

[a] Rom. 8:30Rom. 11:7Eph. 1:10,11.
[b] 2 Thess. 2:13,142 Cor. 3:3,6.
[c] Rom. 8:2Eph. 2:1-52 Tim. 1:9,10.
[d] Acts 26:181 Cor. 2:10,12Eph. 1:17,18.
[e] Ezek. 36:26.
[f] Ezek. 11:19Phil. 2:13Deut. 30:6Ezek. 36:27.
[g] Eph. 1:19John 6:44,45.
[h] Cant. 1:4Ps. 110:3John 6:37Rom. 6:16-18.”

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Repentance

On Repentance in Relation to Faith and Justification

Ball, John – 2nd Pt., Ch. 5, p. 349  of A Treatise of the Covenant of Grace  (London, 1645)

“…the doubt touching the precedency of faith and repentance may be easily determined.  For if faith be taken largely or generally for a belief of the promise, if we repent and receive it, then faith is before repentance: for there can be no turning without hope of pardon, nor coming home by hearty sorrow, without some expectation of mercy [see WCF 15.2 & WSC 87].  Thus the exhortations run, ‘Turn unto the Lord, for He is merciful and gracious.’  ‘Repent, for the Kingdom of God is at hand.’

But if faith be taken more strictly, for that faith or belief whereby we receive, embrace, or rest upon the promise of God in Christ Jesus for pardon and forgiveness, then repentance goes before pardon: for no remission is promised to be enjoyed but upon condition of repentance…

If repentance be necessary to Justification, of necessity it must go before justifying faith; because faith and justification are immediately coupled together.  It is impossible to come unto Christ without repentance…  Coming unto Christ is a lively motion of the soul, wherein arising from sin, it draws nigh or approaches unto Christ, that in Him it might be satisfied.  The motion is one, but the points are two.  For in drawing nigh unto Christ, the soul arises from sin: which may be called repentance.”

Witsius, Herman – Ch. 11, ‘Whether Repentance Precedes the Remission of Sins?’ [Yes]  in Conciliatory or Irenical Animadversions on the Controversies Agitated in Britain: under the Unhappy names of Antinomians and Neonomians  (Glasgow, 1807), pp. 119-121

Witsius speaks of repentance as a ‘disposing condition’ of justification and the remission of sins.  That is, it is a non-meritorious, disposition that is an antecedent condition for Justification to take place (it being Scripturally required that for the remission of sins, one must repent). 

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Faith

That Faith is the Instrumental Condition of the Covenant & for Justification

Romans 5:1

“Therefore being justified by faith, we have peace with God through our Lord Jesus Christ:”

Galatians 2:16

“Knowing that a man is not justified by the works of the law, but by the faith of Jesus Christ, even we have believed in Jesus Christ, that we might be justified by the faith of Christ…”

Rutherford, Samuel

Ch. 3, section 12, ‘Whether or not faith may at once be a required condition in a formal way and the thing which is promised and indeclinably brought about in us by God?  We affirm against the Remonstrants.’  in ed. Johnson & Fentiman, Rutherford’s Examination of Arminianism: The Tables of Contents with Excerpts from Every Chapter  (1639-1643; RBO, 2019), pp. 72-73

A Survey of the Spiritual Antichrist  (1648), Pt. 2

Ch. 4, ‘How we Teach a Desire of Grace to be Grace’

Ch. 38, ‘The Gospel is Conditional’, pp. 39-40

Ch. 61, ‘How Faith Justifies, and the Antinomian Error discovered in this Point’

Ball, John – Pt. 2, Ch. 5, ‘How Christians Answer to the Call of Christ, and so Come to Have Fellowship with Him’, pp. 347-349  of A Treatise of the Covenant of Grace  (London, 1645)

Westminster Larger Catechism

Q. 32. How is the grace of God manifested in the second covenant?

A. The grace of God is manifested in the second covenant, in that he freely provideth and offereth to sinners a Mediator,[t] and life and salvation by him;[v] and requiring faith as the condition to interest them in him,[w] promiseth and giveth his Holy Spirit[x] to all his elect, to work in them that faith,[y] with all other saving graces;[z] and to enable them unto all holy obedience,[a] as the evidence of the truth of their faith[b] and thankfulness to God,[c] and as the way which he hath appointed them to salvation.[d]

[t] Gen. 3:15Isa. 42:6John 6:27.
[v] 1 John 5:11,12.
[w] John 3:16John 1:12.
[x] Prov. 1:23.
[y] 2 Cor. 4:13.
[z] Gal. 5:22,23.
[a] Ezek. 36:27.
[b] James 2:18,22.
[c] 2 Cor. 5:14,15.
[d] Eph. 2:18.

Flavel, John – ‘III. Of the Conditionality of the New Covenant’  being pp. 348-356 of Vindiciae Legis et Foederis, or a Reply to Mr. Philip Carey’s Solemn Call in Works, vol. 6

Witsius, Herman – Ch. 14, ‘Concerning the Covenant of Grace’, Second Part  in Conciliatory or Irenical Animadversions on the Controversies Agitated in Britain: under the Unhappy names of Antinomians and Neonomians  (Glasgow, 1807), pp. 145-151

McGraw, Ryan – Puritan Reformed Journal, 2013, no. 2, reviewing Michael Horton’s Systematic Theology

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Rutherford, Samuel – Pt. 2, Ch. 67, ‘Of Legal and Evangelical Conversion’  in A Survey of Spiritual Antichrist, Pt. 2

That Faith in Justification does not Include Repentance or Works, from Justification Page

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Spiritual Union to Christ

In what way a Spiritual Union to Christ is before and After Faith

Witsius, Herman – Ch. 6, ‘Whether the Elect are United to Christ before Faith…’, Sections 1-4, pp. 67-69  of Conciliatory or Irenical Animadversions on the Controversies Agitated in Britain: under the Unhappy names of Antinomians and Neonomians  (Glasgow, 1807)

Westminster Larger Catechism

Q. 66. What is that union which the elect have with Christ?

A. The union which the elect have with Christ is the work of God’s grace,[f] whereby they are spiritually and mystically, yet really and inseparably, joined to Christ as their head and husband;[g] which is done in their effectual calling.[h]

[f] Eph. 1:22Eph. 2:6-8.
[g] 1 Cor. 6:17John 10:28Eph. 5:23,30.
[h] 1 Pet. 5:101 Cor. 1:9.

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That Christ comes Spiritually into our Hearts upon our Faith in Him

Samuel Rutherford

Survey of Spiritual Antichrist, Pt. 2, ch. 61, ‘How Faith Justifies…’, p. 108

“Objection 1 [of Saltmarsh, an Antinomian]:  ‘Christ is not ours by any act of our own, but by an infinite act of God’s imputing his righteousness.  Therefore, Christ is not ours by faith.’

[Rutherford’s] Answer:  Christ is not ours, by any act of our own, as by a ransom, a meritorious and principal cause. [This is] True, therefore [Saltmarsh concludes], [Christ is] not [ours] by faith, as a condition knowing, apprehending, feeling, applying, receiving, [and] opening the everlasting doors, that the King of glory may enter in.  It’s false [Saltmarsh’s inference].

So bread is ours only by an omnipotent act of Him that causeth the earth to bring forth, as by the first principal and effectual cause: Therefore [Saltmarsh would conclude], bread is not our’s in a civil way, by plowing, sowing, earing, and in a spiritual way, by laying hold by faith on the Covenant, in which the world, the things of this life, are made ours (1 Cor. 3:21); this is a lax and vain consequence.”

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That Spiritual Union to Christ is the Fount of Justification, Adoption, Sanctification & Glorification

Westminster Larger Catechism [See also the ordering of the following questions]

Q. 69. What is the communion in grace which the members of the invisible church have with Christ?

A. The communion in grace which the members of the invisible church have with Christ, is their partaking of the virtue of his mediation, in their justification,[t] adoption,[v] sanctification, and whatever else, in this life, manifests their union with him.[w]

[t] Rom. 8:30.
[v] Eph. 1:5.
[w] 1 Cor. 1:30.

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Covenant of Grace

Entrance into the Covenant

Consequent Conditions of the Covenant

Rutherford, Samuel

A Survey of the Spiritual Antichrist, Pt. 2

Ch. 65, ‘The Gospel is a rare Covenant of Grace’

That the Covenant has more bonds than simply procuring the rewards of the Gospel-promise.

Ch. 66, ‘Antinomian Errors Touching the Covenant of Grace’

The Antinomian view was that only the eternal Covenant between the Father and the Son, with us represented in it, was a covenant, and that we are not parties to a Covenant of Grace in time.

This section argues that entrance into the Covenant of Grace in time involves not simply believing Christ, but becoming God’s people, and that God’s Gospel-administration in time is in fact a Covenant, and that we are parties to it.

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Justification

Whether the Elect are Justified at the Cross?

Rutherford, Samuel – The Trial and Triumph of Faith  (1645)

Sermon 18, ‘Christ’s Satisfaction Performed on the Cross for Sin is not Formally Justification, but Only Causatively, Fundamentally, or Meritoriously’, pp. 210-213

Witsius, Herman – Ch. 10, sections 1-3, pp. 108-110  in Conciliatory or Irenical Animadversions on the Controversies Agitated in Britain: under the Unhappy names of Antinomians and Neonomians  (Glasgow, 1807)

Girardeau, John – pp. 101-107 of ‘The Federal Theology: its Import and its Regulative Influence’  1884  7 pp.  in Memorial Volume of the Semi-Centennial of the Theological Seminary at Columbia, South Carolina

That Infants of Believers are not Justified at Baptism

That by Faith we Spiritually Receive Christ, and hence his Righteousness, and upon this are Justified

Witsius, Herman

Conciliatory or Irenical Animadversions on the Controversies Agitated in Britain: under the Unhappy names of Antinomians and Neonomians  (Glasgow, 1807)

Ch. 5, Sections 8-9, pp. 64-66

Ch. 10, Sections 4-13, pp. 111-118

Halyburton, Thomas – ‘An Inquiry into the Nature of God’s Act of Justification’  in The works of the Rev. Thomas Halyburton…  (London : Thomas Tegg, 1835), pp. 559-567

Amongst other helpful things, Halyburton argues the traditional reformed paradigm that regeneration is antecedent to justification, and not the other way around.

Fentiman, Travis – II. The Doctrine of Adoption: A. Adoption is distinct from Regeneration & B. Adoption is Distinct from Justification, pp. 4-10  of John L. Girardeau’s Doctrine of Adoption: a Systematic and Biblical Defense  (2014)

That Faith is Antecedent to, and an Instrumental Condition of, Justification

Westminster Larger Catechism

Q. 73. How doth faith justify a sinner in the sight of God?

A. Faith justifies a sinner in the sight of God, not because of those other graces which do always accompany it, or of good works that are the fruits of it,[q] nor as if the grace of faith, or any act thereof; were imputed to him for his justification;[r] but only as it is an instrument by which he receiveth and applieth Christ and his righteousness.[s]

[q] Gal. 3:11Rom. 3:28.
[r] Rom. 4:5 compared with Rom. 10:10.
[s] John 1:12Phil. 3:9Gal. 2:16.

See also Questions 70-72 and note carefully the precise language of Justification being dependent upon the presence of faith.

Rutherford, Samuel – Ch. 62, ‘The Antinomians’ way and Method of a sinners coming to Christ, confuted’  in A Survey of the Spiritual Antichrist, Pt. 2

Get Flavel and his friend on Faith a condition

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Get Trail on Justification

The Continuation of Justification, Owen

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Eternal Justification

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Why the Justified must Daily Pray for the Forgiveness of Sins

Rutherford, Samuel

Survey of the Spiritual Antichrist, Pt. 2

Ch. 59, ‘How Justification is one indivisible act, not successive, as Sanctification, and yet God daily pardons sins’

Ch. 60, ‘How sins are remitted before they be committed, how not, and the Antinomian error in this point’

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Justification & the Final Judgment

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Adoption

That Adoption Derives from Spiritual Union to Christ, which comes by Faith

John 1:12

“But as many as received Him, to them gave He power to become the sons of God, even to them that believe on his name;”

Rutherford, Samuel – Ch. 62, ‘The Antinomians’ way and Method of a sinners coming to Christ, confuted’  in A Survey of the Spiritual Antichrist, Pt. 2

McGraw, Ryan – Puritan Reformed Journal, 2013, no. 2, reviewing Michael Horton’s Systematic Theology

Fentiman, Travis – II. The Doctrine of Adoption: A. Adoption is distinct from Regeneration & B. Adoption is Distinct from Justification, pp. 4-10  of John L. Girardeau’s Doctrine of Adoption: a Systematic and Biblical Defense  (2014)

That Adoption is distinct from Sanctification

GPTS volume on Sanctification

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Sanctification

How Sanctification is Distinguished from Justification

Westminster Larger Catechism

Q. 77. Wherein do justification and sanctification differ?

A. Although sanctification be inseparably joined with justification,[s] yet they differ, in that God in justification imputeth the righteousness of Christ;[t] in sanctification his Spirit infuseth grace, and enableth to the exercise thereof;[v] in the former, sin is pardoned;[w] in the other, it is subdued:[x] the one doth equally free all believers from the revenging wrath of God, and that perfectly in this life, that they never fall into condemnation;[y] the other is neither equal in all,[z] nor in this life perfect in any,[a] but growing up to perfection.[b]

[s] 1 Cor. 6:111 Cor. 1:30.
[t] Rom. 4:6,8.
[v] Ezek. 36:27.
[w] Rom. 3:24,25.
[x] Rom. 6:6,14.
[y] Rom. 8:33,34.
[z] 1 John 2:12-14Heb. 5:12-14.
[a] 1 John 1:8,10.
[b] 2 Cor. 7:1Phil. 3:12-14.

Brown of Haddington, John – pp. 449-451 of Book 5, Ch. 4, ‘Of Sanctifiction’  in A Compendious View of Natural and Revealed Religion (Glasgow, 1782)

Phillips, Rick – Seven Assertions Regarding Justification and Sanctification  2015, 9 paragraphs

An excellent, clear and brief Biblical delineation of how Justification is distinguished from Sanctification, and how both flow out of Union to Christ.  Phillips is dead-on. 

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On Definitive Sanctification

Murray, John – Ch. 21, ‘Definitive Sanctification’ & Ch. 22, ‘The Agency in Definitive Sanctification’  in Collected Writings (Banner, 2001), 2.277-293

Cunnington, Ralph, ‘Definitive Sanctification: a Response to John Fesko’  Evangelical Quarterly84.3 (2012), 234–252

Cunnington is a professor at the Union School of Theology.

“This article responds to the criticisms of definitive sanctification raised by John Fesko…  It seeks to demonstrate that 1 Cor 1:2, 30, and 6:1 all describe sanctification as a settled definitive state.  It further contends that, contrary to Fesko, the doctrine of definitive sanctification has good attestation in the historic witness of the Reformed tradition. In the final part, the article addresses Fesko’s claim that it is justification rather than sanctification which frees the believer from the power of sin.” – Abstract

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Rutherford, Samuel – Pt. 2, Ch. 47, ‘That we are not Mere Patients in the Acting of the Spirit of Sanctification’  in A Survey of the Spiritual Antichrist

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The Necessity of Good Works

The Introduction argues, and provides the historic reformed evidence that works are a consequent condition of the Covenant of Grace.

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Perseverance to the End

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Glorification

That Glorification is Dependent on Spiritual Union to Christ

Rom. 8:11

“But if the Spirit of Him that raised up Jesus from the dead dwell in you, He that raised up Christ from the dead shall also quicken your mortal bodies by his Spirit that dwelleth in you.”

McGraw, Ryan – Puritan Reformed Journal, 2013, no. 2, reviewing Michael Horton’s Systematic Theology

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Articles

Owen on Sentential Justification at Judgment Day

Berkhof, Louis – The Order of Salvation  1950  15 paragraphs, from his Systematic Theology

McGraw, Ryan – Puritan Reformed Journal, 2013, no. 2, reviewing Michael Horton’s Systematic Theology

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Books

Rutherford, Samuel – A Survey of the Spiritual Antichrist, Opening the Secrets of Familism and Antinomianism  IA  1648  Part 1 gives the history of Antinomianism, part 2 refutes its distinctive tenets.

Witsius, Herman – Conciliatory or Irenical Animadversions on the Controversies Agitated in Britain: under the Unhappy names of Antinomians and Neonomians  (Glasgow, 1807)

Daniel Williams below was lumped in this controversy with the Neonomians (though how far that label is correct is not entirely clear).  While the Antinomian side clearly had some Antinomian principles in it, yet, Robert Trail got lumped with the Antinomian side for holding to orthodoxy. 

Williams, Daniel – Gospel-Truth Stated and Vindicated: wherein some of Dr. Crisp’s Opinions are considered, and the opposite truths are plainly stated and confirmed 1692  250 pp.

Williams (c.1643–1716) was an English presbyterian and influential dissenter from the Church of England.

“Richard Baxter [who had previously opposed antinomianism, but was a neonomian] died in 1691.  His successor as unofficial leader of those who taught a moderated Calvinism was a Welshman, Daniel Williams…” – Peter Toon

Girardeau, John L. –

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“The offering of the sacrifice is perfected, but the application is not completed.”

John ‘Rabbi’ Duncan

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