Dictionaries & Encyclopedias: Biblical, Theological, Church History & Religious

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They just don’t make encyclopedias like they used to..  The large and multi-volume dictionaries and encyclopedias at the end of the 1800’s and early-1900’s are some of the most scholarly and in-depth that have ever been printed, especially in the field of history, and cover topics too specific, detailed and lengthy for modern abridgments.

More and more contemporary works of scholarship are also becoming available on the internet through online loan.

** – Take Special Notice of

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Order of Contents

Dictionaries
.     Bible
.     Theological
      Exegetical
      Church History & Biography
.     Special

Encyclopedias
.      General
.      Bible, Theological
       Church History & Biography
       Religious


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Bible Dictionaries

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Small Bible Dictionaries

1700’s

Oliver, Peter – The Scripture Lexicon, or a Dictionary…  1797  350 pp.

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1800’s

Harris, Thaddeus Mason – A Dictionary of the Natural History of the Bible, or…  1833  390 pp.

Gurney, William – The Diamond Pocket Dictionary of the Holy Bible, containing…  Selected and Arranged from Calmet, Brown, Newton, Hurd, etc.  1836  480 pp.

Barr, John – Complete Index and Concise Dictionary of the Holy Bible  1837  180 pp.

Engles, William Morrison – Bible Dictionary for the Use of Bible Classes, Schools and Families  1851  470 pp.  Presbyterian Board of Publication  Engles

Malcom, Howard – Malcom’s New Dictionary: A Dictionary of the Most Important Names, Objects and Terms Found in the Holy Scriptures, Intended Principally for Sunday Schools and Bible Classes and as an Aid to Family Instruction  1853  340 pp.

Emmons, S.B. – A Bible Dictionary  1854  220 pp.

Green, Samuel – A Biblical and Theological Dictionary, Designed as an Illustrative Commentary on the Sacred Scriptures  1867  435 pp.  Massachusetts Sabbath School Society

ed. Rice, Edwin W. – People’s Dictionary of the Bible  1893  230 pp.  American Sunday School Union

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1900’s

McKenzie, John L. – Dictionary of the Bible  1965  220 pp.  Dedicated to the Jesuits

The Pocket Bible Dictionary, with Comprehensive Bible Helps ed. Philip Schaff, further condensed by Jubilee Publishers  1996  262 pp.

Browning, W.R.F. – A Dictionary of the Bible  1996  458 pp.  Oxford

Miller & Miller – Harper’s Encyclopedia of Bible Life  1996  458 pp.

Nelson’s Compact Bible Dictionary  ed. R. Youngblood, F.F. Bruce, R.K. Harrison  2004

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Medium-Sized Bible Dictionaries

1800’s

Mansford, John Griffith – A Scripture Gazetteer: or Geographical and Historical Dictionary of Places and People Mentioned in the Bible, with…  1829  545 pp.

**  Alexander, Archibald – A Pocket Dictionary of the Holy Bible  1831  566 pp.  The first professor at old Princeton Seminary.

**  Brown of Haddington, John – A Dictionary of the Holy Bible  1839  560 pp.  Scottish Secessionist minister and profesor

American Sunday School Union – The Union Bible Dictionary  1842  650 pp.

Covel, Jr., James – A Concise Dictionary of the Holy Bible  1843  540 pp.

**  Kitto, John – Cyclopaedia of Biblical Literature, Abridged  by J. Taylor  1849  820 pp.  For the unabridged, two volume work, see under multi-volume.

Farrar, John – A Biblical and Theological Dictionary: Illustrative of the Old and New Testaments  1857  648 pp.  Wesleyan

Bastow, James Austin – A Bible Dictionary, being a Comprehensive Digest of the History and Antiquities of the Hebrews and Neighboring Nations…  1859  745 pp.

ed. Brown, William – A Dictionary of the Bible  1866  590 pp.  This is John Brown of Haddington’s dictionary revised by his son

Nicholson, William – The Bible Explainer, or a Dictionary  1870  870 pp.

**  Eadie, John – A Biblical Cyclopaedia, or Dictionary of Eastern Antiquities, Geography, Natural History, Sacred Annals and Biography, Theology and Biblical Literature  1870  710 pp.  Eadie was a conservative, orthodox professor and theologian of the Scottish United Presbyterian Chuch

Smith, William

**  A Dictionary of the Bible, Comprising its Antiquities, Biography, Geography and Natural History  1880  820 pp.  The most well-known and standard, older Bible dictionary

A Smaller Dictionary of the Bible  1872  700 pp.

**  Shepherd, Thomas – The Westminster Bible Dictionary  1880  560 pp.  Philadelphia Board of Publications

Rand, W.W. – Dictionary of the Holy Bible for General Use in the Study of the Scriptures  1886  790 pp.  American Tract Society

Easton, M.G. – Illustrated Bible Dictionary  and Treasury of Biblical History, Biography, Geography, Doctrine and Literature  1893  760 pp.

**  Davis, John D. – A Dictionary of the Bible  1898  840 pp.  Davis was an old Princeton Seminary professor.  This work remained popular through the first half of the 1900’s, though later editions were somewhat liberalized by revisers.

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1900’s

Thein, John – Ecclesiastical Dictionary, containing in Concise Form, Information upon Ecclesiastical, Biblical, Archaeological and Historical Subjects  1900  770 pp.

**  Fausset, Andrew R. – Bible Cyclopaedia: Critical and Expository  1911  770 pp.  Fausset was an evangelical, Irish Anglican clergyman, known for his co-authorship of the Jamieson-Fausset-Brown Commentary

The Universal Bible Dictionary  ed. F.N. Peloubet  1912  830 pp.  based on Wm. Smith’s One Vol. work

The Universal Bible Dictionary  ed. A.R. Buckland  1914  520 pp.

Bryant, T. Alton – The New Compact Bible Dictionary  1967  514 pp.

Dow, James L. – World’s Handy Dictionary of the Bible  1974  646 pp.

ed. Alexander, Pat – Eerdmans’ Family Encyclopedia of the Bible  1978

**  Douglas, J.D. – New Bible Dictionary  2nd ed.  1982

ed. Lockyer, Herbert & F.F. Bruce – Nelson’s Illustrated Bible Dictionary  1986

The Lion Encyclopedia of the Bible  ed. Alexander, Drane, Field & Millard  1986

Williams, Derek – New Concise Bible Dictionary  1989  666 pp.

Young, G. Douglas – Young’s Compact Bible Dictionary  1989  582 pp.  Tyndale House

Douglas, J.D. & Merrill C. Tenney – NIV Compact Dictionary of the Bible  1989  514 pp.

Nelson’s Quick Reference Bible Dictionary  1993  776 pp.

Nelson’s Illustrated Encyclopedia of Bible Facts  ed. Packer, Tenney, White  1995

Strong, James – The New Strong’s Complete Dictionary of Bible Words  1996  746 pp.

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2000’s

Dockrey & Godwin – The Student Bible Dictionary  2000  514 pp.

Tischler, Nancy – All Things in the Bible: an Encyclopedia of the Biblical World  2006  770 pp.

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Large One-Volume Bible Dictionaries

1800’s

Watson, Richard – A Biblical and Theological Dictionary: Explanatory of the History, Manners and Customs of the Jews and Neighboring Nations… an Exposition of the Principal Doctrines of Christianity and Notices of Jewish Sects and Heresies  1832  1,090 pp.  Watson was a prominent Arminian theologian.

Robinson, John – A Theological, Biblical & Ecclesiastical Dictionary  1835  1,110 pp.

**  Taylor, Charles – Calmet’s Dictionary of the Holy Bible  5th ed.  1835  980 pp.  One of the standard, older productions

Edwards, B.B. – Encyclopedia of Religious Knowledge , or Dictionary of the Bible, Theology, Religious Biography, All Religions, Ecclesiastical History and Missions… an Impartial Account of the Principal Christian Denominations…  1837  1,344

A Comprehensive Dictionary of the Bible  ed. Samuel Barnum  1869  1,240 pp.

**  Abbott, Lyman – A Dictionary of Religious Knowledge for Popular and Professional Use: comprising full Information on Biblical, Theological, and Ecclesiastical Subjects  1875  1,090 pp.

**  ed. Robinson, Edward – The Comprehensive Critical and Explanatory Bible Encyclopaedia, Comprising its Antiquities, Biography, Geography and Natural History…  1881  1,080 pp.

ed. Schaff, Philip – A Dictionary of the Bible, including Biography, Natural History, Geography, Topography, Archaeology and Literature  1887  990 pp.  American Sunday School Union

Sanford, Elias – A Concise Cyclopedia of Religious Knowledge: Biblical, Biographical, Geographical, Historical, Practical and Theological  1890  1,000 pp.

Morrish, George – A New and Concise Bible Dictionary  1897  1,738 pp.

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1900’s

ed. Piercy, William – The Illustrated Bible Dictionary  1908  1,090 pp.

**  ed. Jacobus, Nourse, Zenos – A Standard Bible Dictionary  1909  1,008 pp.  Melancthon Jacobus was an Old Princeton Seminary professor

**  Murray’s Illustrated Bible Dictionary  ed. William Piercy  1909  1,100 pp.

**  Ewing, W. & J.E.H. Thomson – The Temple Dictionary of the Bible  1910  1,100 pp.

**  Hastings, James – Dictionary of the Bible  Extra Volume  1924  1,028 pp.

Tenney, Merrill – The Zondervan Pictorial Bible Dictionary  1963  968 pp.

Martin, William C. – The Layman’s Bible Encyclopedia  1964  1,036 pp.

Achtemeier, Paul J. – Harper’s Bible Dictionary  1985  1,178

Gentz, William H. – The Dictionary of Bible and Religion  1986  1,178  Abingdon is liberal

ed. Allen C. Myers – The Eerdmans Bible Dictionary  1987  1,126 pp.

The Revell Bible Dictionary  1990  1,178 pp.

Easton, M.G. – Easton’s Bible Dictionary  1996  1,260 pp.  A dictionary of Bible terms, from the Illustrated Bible Dictionary, 3rd ed.  1897

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Multi-Volume Bible Dictionaries

1800’s

Wood, James – A Dictionary of the Holy Bible, containing…, vol. 1 (A-I), 2 (J-Z)  1804/13

**  ed. Smith, William & J.M. Fuller – A Dictionary of the Bible, Comprising its Antiquities, Biography, Geography and Natural History. vol. 1.1 (A-Ely), 1.2 (Elz-J), 2 (K-Red Heifer), 3 (Red Sea-Z)  1863/93  The most standard, older, full, Bible dictionary

ed. Fairbairn, Patrick – The Imperial Bible Dictionary, Historical, Biographical, Geographical and Doctrinal, including the…, vol. 1 (A-J), 2 (K-Z)  1866  Fairbairn was a professor in the Free Church of Scotland

**  Dr. William Smith’s Dictionary of the Bible, Comprising its Antiquities, Biography, Geography and Natural History, vol. 1 (A-Genn), 2 (Genn-Mark), 3 (Marr-Reg), 4 (Reg-Z)  ed. H.B. Hackett & Ezra Abbot  1871

**  ed. Kitto, John – Cyclopedia of Biblical Literature, vol. 1 (A-H), 2 (I-Z)  1880

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1900’s

ed. Hastings, Selbie, Davidson, Driver, Swete – A Dictionary of the Bible Dealing with its Language, Literature and Contents, including the Biblical Theology, vol. 1 (A-Fea), 2 (Fei-Kins), 3 (Kir-Plei), 4 (Pler)  1908  Liberal


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Theological Dictionaries

1800’s

Robinson, John – A Theological, Biblical & Ecclesiastical Dictionary  1835  1,110 pp.

Buck, Charles – A Theological Dictionary containing… a Comprehensive View of Every Article in the System of Divinity, an Impartial Account of all the Principal Denominations… together with… Ecclesiastical History  1838  500 pp.  New American edition revised by George Bush

Eden, Robert – The Churchman’s Theological Dictionary  1845  2nd ed.  420 pp.

Farrar, John – A Biblical and Theological Dictionary: Illustrative of the Old and New Testaments  1857  648 pp.  Wesleyan (Arminian)

Blunt, John Henry – Dictionary of Doctrinal and Historical Theology  1872  840 pp.

Benton, Angelo A. – The Church Cyclopedia, a Dictionary of Church Doctrine, History, Organization and Ritual 1886  760 pp.  associated with the Protestant Episcopal Church

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1900’s

Muller, Richard – Dictionary of Latin and Greek Theological Terms: Drawn Principally from Protestant Scholastic Theology  Buy  1985  338 pp.  Baker

ed. Elwell, Walter – Evangelical Dictionary of Theology  1984

ed. Wright, David F., Sinclair B. Ferguson, J. I. Packer – New Dictionary of Theology  Buy  1988  757 pp.  IVP  

McKim, Donald K. – Westminster Dictionary of Theological Terms  1996  500 pp.  Liberal

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2000’s

Davie, Martin, Tim Grass, Stephen R. Holmes, et al. – New Dictionary of Theology: Historical and Systematic  Pre  Buy  2016  IVP  2nd edition

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Roman Catholic

Roberti, Francesco – Dictionary of Moral Theology  1962  1,418 pp.  Newman Press

Bouyer, Louis – Dictionary of Theology  1965  514 pp.


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Exegetical-Theological Dictionaries of Significant Biblical Words

Old Testament Exegetical & Theological Dictionaries

New Testament Exegetical & Theological Dictionaries


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Church History Dictionaries & Biography

For biographical articles on figures from Great Britain, see the  **  Dictionary of National Biography.

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1800’s

Crabb, George – Universal Historical Dictionary, or Explanation of the Names of Persons and Places in the Departments of Biblical, Political and Ecclesiastical History, Mythology, Heraldry, Biography…, vol. 1 (A-F), 2 (G-Z)  1833  Enlarged edition

Robinson, John – A Theological, Biblical & Ecclesiastical Dictionary 1835  1,110 pp.

Buck, Charles – A Theological Dictionary… together with… Ecclesiastical History  1838  500 pp.

Staunton, William – An Ecclesiastical Dictionary  1861  700 pp.

**  Eadie, John – The Ecclesiastical Cyclopaedia, or Dictionary  1862  680 pp.

Eadie was the stalwart, Biblical commentator and scholar of the Scottish United Presbyterian Church.

Blunt, John Henry – Dictionary of Sects, Heresies, Ecclesiastical Parties and School of Religious Thought  1874  660 pp.

Benton, A.A. – The Church Cyclopedia, a Dictionary of Church Doctrine, History, Organization and Ritual 1886  760 pp.  associated with the Protestant Episcopal Church

Benham, William – The Dictionary of Religion, an Encyclopaedia of Christian and other Religious Doctrines, Denominations, Sects, Heresies, Ecclesiastical Terms, History, Biography, etc., etc.  1887  1,170 pp.

Whitehead, Benjamin – Church Law, being a Concise Dictionary of Statutes, Canons, Regulations and Decided Cases affecting the Clergy and Laity  1892  345 pp.

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1900’s

Thein, John – An Ecclesiastical Dictionary  1900  760 pp.

ed. Wright, Charles & Charles Neil – A Protestant Dictionary, containing Articles on the History, Doctrines and Practices of the Christian Church  1904  880 pp.

Bumpus, John S. – A Dictionary of Ecclesiastical Terms, being a History and Explanation of Certain Terms used in Architecture, Ecclesiology, Liturgiology, Music, Ritual, Cathedral, Constitution, etc.  1910  330 pp.

**  Douglas, J.D. – The New International Dictionary of the Christian Church  1978  1,096 pp.

ed. Livingstone, Elizabeth – The Concise Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church  1977  This is an abridgement of the 2nd edition of The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church below.  Contains over 5000 entries on all aspects of the Christian Church.

**  ed. Cross, F.L. – The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church  Buy  1958/1974/1988/2004  1,834 pp.  Also here and here

“In a class by itself as a single-volume work of historical reference.  Packed with accurate information, it has selective but exact bibliographies.” – Owen Chadwick

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Roman Catholic

McGovern, James – Catholic Pocket Dictionary and Cyclopedia, containing a brief Explanation of the Doctrines, Discipline, Rites, Ceremonies and Councils of Holy Catholic Church, including an abridged account of the Religious Orders  1906  320 pp.

Hook, Walter Farquhar – Church Dictionary  1880  13th ed.  790 pp.  Roman Catholic leaning

**  Addis & Arnold – A Catholic Dictionary: Containing some Account of the Doctrine, Discipline, Rites, Ceremonies, Councils and Religious Orders of the Catholic Church 1893  980 pp.

This work is rather full and has a lot of things not found in other dictionaries.

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Specific Periods & Subjects in Church History

Early-Medieval Church

**  ed. Smith, W. & Wace, H. – A Dictionary of Christian Biography, Literature, Sects, and Doctrines  1877-1887  up to AD 814

This is a better edition than the later, 1911, abridged, 2 vol. edition of Wace & Piercy, as it covers a more extensive time frame up till Charlemagne (instead of only up to AD 600) and has longer, more detailed articles.

“The works of Smith and Wace is very useful, relatively complete, and generally reliable.” – Otto Bardenhewer

**  Smith, William & Cheetham, Samuel – A Dictionary of Christian Antiquities… from the time of the Apostles to the age of Charlemagne, vol. 1 (A-J), 2 (K-Z)  1908

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Reformation

ed. Steimer, Bruno – Dictionary of the Reformation  Buy  2004  384 pp.  Encyclopedia of Theology and Church

Mullett, Michael – Historical Dictionary of the Reformation and Counter-Reformation  Buy  2010  594 pp.  Historical Dictionaries of Religions, Philosophies, and Movements

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Scottish Encyclopedias & Biography

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The American Church

Miller, William James – The American Church Dictionary and Cyclopedia  1901  295 pp.

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Missions

Bliss, Edwin – The Encyclopaedia of Missions: Descriptive, Historical, Biographical, Statistical, vol. 1 (A-L), 2 (M-Z)  1891

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Denominations

Lutheran

Bodensieck, Julius – The Encyclopedia of the Lutheran Church, vol. 1, 2, 3  1965

ed. Fuerbringer, Engelder, Kretzmann – The Concordia Cyclopedia: a Handbook of Religious Information, with Special Reference to the History, Doctrine, Work and Usages of the Lutheran Church  1927  850 pp.

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Church of England

Moore, Thomas – Dictionary of the English Church, Ancient and Modern  1870  490 pp.

Cutts, Edward – A Dictionary of the Church of England  1887  680 pp.

ed. Ollard, S.L. – A Dictionary of English Church History  1912  690 pp.

Lowndes, Frederic – Bishops of the Day: a Biographical Dictionary of the Archbishops and Bishops of the Church of England, and of all Churches in Communion therewith throughout the World  1897  310 pp.

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Presbyterian

ed. Nevin, Alfred – Encyclopaedia of the Presbyterian Church in the United States of America  1884  1,300 pp.

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Baptist

Haynes, Thomas Wilson – Haynes’ Baptist Cyclopaedia, or Dictionary of Baptist Biography, Bibliography, Antiquities, History, Chronology, Theology, Polity and Literature  1848  335 pp.

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Methodist

Anderson, Joseph – Methodist Dictionary: a Brief Work on Methodist Terminology  1909  88 pp.

Wright, Richard – Centennial Encyclopaedia of the African Methodist Episcopal Church  1916  400 pp.

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Special Dictionaries

KJV Dictionary

**  ed. Toorn, Becking, Horst – Dictionary of Deities and Demons in the Bible  1999  1,000 pp.  Brill

Lass, Kiremidjian, Goldstein – The Dictionary of Classical, Biblical and Literary Allusions  1988  294 pp.

Archer, Gleason – Encyclopaedia of Bible Difficulties  1982  480 pp.  Laid by the order of the books of the Bible

Proper Names

Jackson, J.B. – A Dictionary of the Proper Names of the Old and New Testament Scriptures…  1909  110 pp.

Potts, Cyrus – Dictionary of Bible Proper Names: Every Proper Name in the Old and New Testaments… Definitions given in English  1922  280 pp.

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Topical Concordances

Torrey’s Topical Textbook

Nave’s Topical Bible Concordance

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Cross-Reference Bibles

Treasury of Scripture Knowledge

Inglis, James – The Bible-Text Cyclopedia  1880  530 pp.


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General Encyclopedias

The Nuttall Encyclopedia  ed. Peter Austin Nuttall (d. 1869)

Consists of entries that are generally very short.  The encyclopedia has a strong editorial voice.  The work concerns itself mostly with people and places.

**  Encyclopedia Britannica 11th Edition  29 vols.  1911

This was the best, longest and most in-depth Encyclopedia Britannica ever printed.  When published in 1911, this encyclopedia contained over 40 million words in nearly 40,000 articles written by 1,500 authors respected in their fields. For this reason it represented the sum of human knowledge at the beginning of the 20th century.


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Bible & Theological Encyclopedias

1800’s

**  McClintock & Strong – Cyclopedia of Biblical, Theological, and Ecclesiastical Literature  12 vols.  1867-1887  Conservative

ed. Schaff, Philip – A Religious Encyclopaedia, or Dictionary of Biblical, Historical, Doctrinal and Practical Theology, vol. 1 (A-D), 2 (E-L), 3 (M-R), 4 (S-Z & Bios of Living Divines)  1891

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1900’s

Cheyne, T.K. & J. Sutherland Black – Encyclopedia Biblica, vol. 1 (A-D), 2 (E-K), 3 (L-P), 4 (Q-Z)  1899-1903  Liberal

ed. Fallows, Samuel – The Popular and Critical Bible Encyclopaedia and Scriptural Dictionary, vol. 1 (A-E), 2 (F-Ord), 3 (Ord-Z)  1922  Liberal

**  International Standard Bible Encyclopedia ed. James Orr, etc. 1915/1939  Conservative/Evangelical

Buttrick, George – The Interpreter’s Dictionary of the Bible: an Illustrated Encyclopedia, vol. 1 (A-D), 2 (E-J), 3 (K-Q), 4 (R-Z)  Supplementary Volume  1962  Abingdon is liberal


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Church History Encyclopedias & Biography

Most of the encyclopedias above under Bible, and below under Religious, contain much of the same scope of material.

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Trollope, Thomas Anthony – An Encyclopaedia Ecclesiastica: or a Complete History of the Church, containing a Full and Compendious Explanation of All Ecclesiastical Rites and Ceremonies, vol. 1 (A-F)  1834

**  McClintock & Strong – Cyclopedia of Biblical, Theological, and Ecclesiastical Literature  12 vols.  1867-1887

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Special Time-Period Encyclopedias

Early-Medieval Church

Encyclopedia of Early Christianity  Buy  1990  1,252 pp.  ed. Everett Ferguson

**  Encyclopedia of the Early Church, 2 vols.  Buy  1992  Oxford

Fitzgerald, Allen – Augustine Through the Ages: an Encyclopedia  Buy  1999  951 pp.

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Reformation

**  Oxford Encyclopedia of the Reformation, 4 vols.  Buy  1996

ed. Bietenholz, Peter & Thomas Deutscher – Contemporaries of Erasmus: A Biographical Register of the Renaissance and Reformation, 3 vols.  Buy  1985-7

ed. Lamport, Mark – Encyclopedia of Martin Luther and the Reformation  Buy 2017  1,000 pp.


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Religious Encyclopedias

General

The Protestant Theological and Ecclesiastical Encyclopedia, being a Condensed Translation of Herzog’s Real Encyclopedia, with Additions from Other Sources, vol. 1 (A-C), 2 (Con-Jos), 3  1858

**  The New Schaff-Herzog Encyclopedia of Religious Knowledge  12 vols.  1908-1914

**  ed. Hastings, James – Encyclopaedia of Religion and Ethics, vol. 1 (A-Art), 2 (Arthur-Bunyan), 3 (Burial-Confessions), 4 (Confirmation-Drama), 5 (Dravidians-Fichte), 6 (Fiction-Hyksos), 7 (Hymns-Liberty), 8 (Life & Death-Mulla), 9(Mundas-Phrygians), 10 (Picts-Sacraments), 11 (Sacrifice-Sudra), 12(Suffering-Zwingli)  1908-1927

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Specific Religions

The Catholic Encyclopedia  1907-1912

The 1914 Catholic Encyclopedia was the most comprehensive resource on Catholic teaching, history, and information ever gathered in all of human history. Originally printed in fifteen hardcopy volumes, it covered science, literature, history, doctrine, saints, government, art and much more in the 11,000+ entries.

Jewish Encyclopedia  1901-1906

The 1901 Jewish Encyclopedia, prepared by more than four hundred scholars and specalists, was a descriptive record of the history, religion, literature and customs of the Jewish people from the earliest times to the present day.

Islam

ed. Hughes, Thomas Patrick – Encyclopedia of Islam  1913

ed. Meri, J. – Medieval Islamic Civilization: an Encyclopedia, vol. 1, A-K, 2, L-Z  Preview  2006

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Related Pages

The Bible

Bible Background

Bible Chronology

Biblical Theology

Bible Commentaries

Church History

Historical Theology