On the Pronunciation of the Tetragrammaton יהוה

“And God said unto Moses, ‘I Am That I Am.'”

Ex. 3:14



Order of Contents

Articles  4
Books  6





Gomarus, Francis – ‘Five Reasons ‘Jehovah’ is Correct’  in Johannes Hornbeek, Institutes of Theology Harmonized from the Best Authors  trans. Charles Johnson  Latin, ch. 3, ‘Of God’, pp. 57-59



De Moor, Bernardinus – Continuous Commentary, ch. 4

5. Eheyeh [I am that I am]
6. Jehovah
6. Use of Jehovah among the Patriarchs
6. יְהוָֹה  Jehovah, Pronounceable
6. The Plausibility of Pronouncing יְהוָֹה as ‘Jehovah’
6. Defense of the Masoretic Pointing and Pronunciation of יְהוָֹה  Jehovah
6. Vriemoet’s Mediating Position concerning the Pointing of יְהוָֹה  Jehovah
6. Jewish Traditions concerning the Writing of the Divine Name
7. Significance of the Name Jehovah
7. Name Jehovah Proper to God Alone
8. Jewish Misuse of the Divine Name
8. Gentile Misuse of the Divine Name



Harris, R. Laird – ch. 21, ‘The Pronunciation of the Tetragram’  in The Law & the Prophets: Old Testament Studies Prepared in Honor of Oswald Thompson Allis  (Presbyterian & Reformed, 1974), pp. 215-24

Harris shows that the modern Yahweh is founded on a peculiar interpretation of Ex. 3:14, which is wrong (pp. 218-19).

“Yet we may argue that from evidence so far available, Yahweh is incorrect and Jahoweh just might be the true pronunciation.” – p. 224

Ross, Thomas – Appendix I, ‘The Vocalization of the Tetragrammaton’, pp. 46-54  in Evidences for the Inspiration of the Hebrew Vowel Points  (n.d.)





Lee, Francis Nigel – ‘JeHoVaH, YaHWeh and the Lord-Jesus: A Study in the History of Doctrine anent God’s Name JHVH’  (n.d.)  being 80 webpages

Lee was a reformed minister, holding numerous doctorates.



Lundquist, Lynn – The Tetragrammaton & the Christian Greek Scriptures: a Comprehensive Study of the Divine Name…  (Word Resources, 2000)  230 pp.  ToC

Lundquist is a Jehovah’s Witness, which heretical sect has held as one of their tenets that the divine name is to be pronounced, ‘Jehovah’.

Furuli, Rolf J. – The Tetragram – It’s History, It’s Use in the New Testament, & It’s Pronunciation  Abstract  Buy  (n.d.)

Furuli has been a lecturer in Semetic languages, translator, and has written numerous books in the field.

Wilkinson, Robert J. – Tetragrammaton: Western Christians & the Hebrew Name of God: From the Beginnings to the Seventeenth Century  Pre  (Brill, 2015)  ToC

Machiela, Daniel – The Divine Name in Early Judaism: Use & Non-Use in Aramaic, Hebrew & Greek  PhD diss.  (MacMaster Univ., 2017)


In Greek: a Dissertation

Vasileiadis, Pavlos – The Sacred Tetragrammaton & its Reception in the Medieval Literature: A Study on the Translation of the Hebrew Theonymy with Special Emphasis on Two Bible Translations  PhD diss.  (Artistotle Univesity of Thessaloniki, 2017)

Abstract: “…focuses in two Greek Bible translations dated from the late Medieval period and early Renaissance periods, which only recently have been studied in more detail. The former is the Graecus Venetus (late 14th cent., GrVen) and the latter is the Constantinople Polyglott Pentateuch (1547, CPP). The subject is covered in six chapters. In chapter one is presented an introductory presentation of the subject and of the aim of the research within its historical, theological-philosophical and bibliographic frame.

In the second chapter are presented a review of the current scholarship of the research on this subject, as well as details on the meaning and semantics attached to the Tetragrammaton in the Near East background. Special treatment is provided for the Hebrew and Aramaic etymologies and they are presented in comparison with the Septuagintal (LXX) renderings and also other Bible translations in Greek. In this point is included a review of all the various ways that has been rendered the Tetragrammaton in the Bible manuscripts in Greek. In chapter three an inquiry is attempted in the possible ways that the Tetragrammaton might be related with the theonymic phrase of Exodus 3:14. Linguistic details and major hermeneutical approaches on this issue come to light. Then, an analysis is made of the correspondence between the Hebrew/Aramaic verbs hwh/hyh and the Greek είμαι/γίνομαι.

In chapter four are presented in table form the various renderings of Exodus 3:14 in all the available Bible translations in Greek. Of prime interest are the renderings found in GrVen and CPP and their special features are studied regarding the rendering of the Tetragrammaton and Exodus 3:14. Alternative renderings of the terms are examined based on the special features of these versions. Manuscript images previously unpublished are presented, especially as regards the GrVen. Then, a synthesis of all the evidence and the derived conclusions is attempted.

In the fifth chapter is traced across the Bible text of the available Greek translations of the rendering of the verb hyh in the form that is found in Exodus 3:14 and some additional conclusions are drawn. In chapter six the final conclusions are registered in an easy-to-read form. Bibliography is following.”




Related Pages

On the History & Possible Inerrancy of the Hebrew Vowel-Points

Hebrew Dictionaries & Parsing Guides of the Bible & Rabbinic Literature

Biblical & Rabbinic Hebrew Grammars & Readers

Old Testament Background, Survey, Authenticity & Introduction

Textual Criticism

OT Textual Criticism

The Masoretic Text, Notes & Guides & Background to It

Inspiration and Authority of the Bible

The Inerrancy of the Bible

The Canon

Commentaries on Exodus