“For the prophecy came not in old time by the will of man: but holy men of God spake as they were moved by the Holy Ghost.”
2 Pet. 1:21
“Thus saith the Lord…”
“…the serpent… said unto the woman, Yea, hath God said?”
Order of Contents
. Articles 15+
. Books 18+
. The History of 6+
. Where to Start?
. Articles 18+
. Books 12+
. Latin 1
. History of 6
ed. Schmid, Heinrich – ‘Of the Sacred Scriptures’ 53 pp. being ch. 4 of Doctrinal Theology of the Evangelical Lutheran Church
This work is a standard anthology of quotations from the main orthodox Lutheran theologians of the late-1500’s and 1600’s.
Fuller, Andrew – Letter 6, ‘On the Inspiration of the Holy Scriptures’ in The Complete Works of the Rev. Andrew Fuller (London, 1846), pp. 746-748
Cunningham, William – Chapters 27-32 on Inspiration 1878 68 pp. of Theological Lectures, p. 343-411
Cunningham was one of the great lights of the Free Churhc of Scotland.
Girardeau, John – ‘The Ultimate Source, Rule and Judge of Theology: The Inspiration of the Scriptures’ & ‘The Authority of the Scriptures’ †1898 12 & 8 pp. being two chapters in Discussions of Theological Questions Buy 534 pages, see the Buy link for the table of contents.
Girardeau was a lesser known, though important, Southern presbyterian.
Haldane, Robert – ‘The Inspiration of the Holy Scriptures’ & ‘Extracts on the Verbal Inspiration of the Scriptures from the Works of Eminent Christian Writers’ 1830 78 & 9 pp. being ch. 3 and the Appendix of The Books of the Old and New Testaments Proved to be Canonical, and their Verbal Inspiration Maintained and Established; with an Account of the Introduction and Character of the Apocrypha
“Haldane reacts to German rationalism with verbal inspiration;” – Joel Beeke, Reader’s Guide
‘The Scriptures are the Word of God’ in The Way of Life (Philadelphia: American Sunday School Union, 1841), pp. 9-40
‘Ground of Faith in the Scriptures’, a review of an essay by James H. Thornwell entitled, “Review of the Arguments of Romanists from the Infallibility of the Church and Testimony of the Fathers in behalf of the Apocrypha, discussed and refuted.” It was first published in the Princeton Review, 1845, and subsequently in Essays & Reviews, 1857, p. 185-200
Hodge was a northern presbyterian and professor at Old Princeton.
Hodge, A.A. – Lecture 4, ‘The Holy Scriptures–The Canon & Inspiration’ in Popular Lectures (Philadelphia: 1887), pp. 68-93
A.A. Hodge was the son of Charles Hodge and followed his father as a professor of systematic theology at Princeton.
Martin was one of the great lights of the Free Church of Scotland, known for his works on the Atonement and The Shadow of Calvary. In the two works here linked, he takes aim at liberal professor in the Free Church of Scotland, Marcus Dods.
The Inspiration of the Bible on Jn. 17:17
Inspiration on 2 Tim. 3:16
Urquhart, John – ‘The Scripture Doctrine of Inspiration’ 1895 84 pp. being Book 1, chs. 1-6 of The Inspiration and Accuracy of the Holy Scriptures 590 pp.
Inaugural Address: ‘Is the Church Doctrine of the Plenary Inspiration of the New Testament Endangered by the Assured Results of Modern Biblical Criticism?’ in Discourses Occasioned by the Inauguration of Benj. B. Warfield, D.D. to the chair of New Testament Exegesis and Literature, in Western Theological Seminary: delivered on the evening of Tuesday, April 20th, 1880 (Pittsburgh, 1880), p. 17 ff.
See an introduction to this address at This Day in Presbyterian History: April 20th.
‘The Inspiration of the Bible’ a lecture, from Bibliotheca Sacra, v. 51, 1894, pp. 614-640
‘The Real Problem of Inspiration’ The Presbyterian and Reformed Review, v. iv, 1893, pp. 177-221
“‘It Says:’ ‘Scripture Says:’ ‘God Says'” The Presbyterian and Reformed Review, vol. 10, issue 39, 1899, July, pp. 472-510 Also in Works, 1.283-332 & The Inspiration & Authority of the Bible, 299-348
‘God-Inspired Scripture’ in The Presbyterian and Reformed Review, vol. 11 (Jan., 1900), p. 89 ff.
”Scripture,’ ‘The Scriptures,’ in the New Testament’ in The Princeton Theological Review, vol. 8, issue 4, 1910, p. 560 ff.
‘The Church Doctrine of Inspiration’ in The Inspiration & Authority of the Bible, pp. 105-128
‘Inspiration & Criticism’ in Works, 1.395-425 Also in The Inspiration & Authority of the Bible, pp. 419-42
Works, vol. 1
‘The Idea of Revelation and Theories of Revelation’, pp. 37-48
‘The Inspiration of the Bible’, pp. 51-75
”Scripture,’ ‘The Scriptures,’ in the New Testament’, pp. 115-65, also in condensed form in The Inspiration & Authority of the Bible, pp. 229-41, under the title ‘The Terms ‘Scripture’ and ‘Scriptures’ as Employed in the New Testament’
‘The Oracles of God’, pp. 335-91, also in The Inspiration & Authority of the Bible, pp. 169-226
Selected Shorter Writings, ed. Meeter
‘Christianity & Revelation’, pp. 23-30
‘Inspiration’, pp. 31-33
vol. 2, Part V, pp. 537-638, including:
‘The Authority and Inspiration of the Scriptures’
‘The Divine and Human in the Bible’
‘The New Testament Use of the Septuagint, and Inspiration’
‘The Westminster Doctrine of Holy Scripture’ also found in Works, 6.155-257
‘The Westminster Doctrine of Inspiration;
‘The Inerrancy of the Original Autographs’
‘The Westminster Confession and the Origianl Autographs’
‘The Rights of Criticism and of the Church’
‘A Review of Three Books on Inspiration’
‘Inspiration’ 1915 28 paragraphs from The International Standard Bible Encyclopaedia, ed. James Orr, vol. 3, pp. 1473-1483, this is also in Selected Short Writings: Benjamin B. Warfield, vol. 2, ed. Meeter, pp. 614 ff.
Warfield has some of the best writings on Inspiration and was a great defender of the Inerrancy of the Original Autographs of the Scriptures.
Be aware, though, that, in his adoption of the ‘critical texts’ of Scripture (dug up in the mid-1800’s) and the philosophy behind them, Warfield did quietly drop the doctrine of the special, providential preservation of the Scriptures through the New Testament era *in all ages* (as WCF 1.8 states: “and by his singular care and providence kept pure in all ages, are therefore authentical”). Warfield, unfortunately has been greatly influential in this regard towards those who have come after him. For a correction of this, see The Ecclesiastical Text.
Macleod, John – The Inspiration of the Scriptures from The Evangelical Quarterly (1935) A professor in the Free Church of Scotland
‘Inspiration & Inerrancy’ in Collected Writings, 4.22-29 Excerpt
‘The Inspiration of the Scripture’ 33 pp. in Collected Writings, vol. 3, pp. 30-57
Clark, Gordon H. – ‘Inspiration and Language’ 1961 39 pp. being ch. 3 of Religion, Reason and Revelation, p. 111 ff. Buy
de Witt, J.R. – ‘The Divine Spiration of Scripture: Challenging Evangelical Perspectives by A.T.B. McGowan – A Review by Dr. J.R. de Witt’ 2008 39 paragrpahs at Banner of Truth
“The gauntlet thrown down by McGowan’s treatise differs little from the challenges with which evangelical Christianity has been confronted over the centuries.”
Turretin, Francis – The Doctrine of Scripture Buy trans. John Beardslee III (Grand Rapids: Baker, 1981) from Turretin’s Institutes
Alexander, Archibald – Evidences of the Authenticity, Inspiration, Canonical Authority of the Holy Scriptures (d. 1851; 1906) 326 pp. This is a later expanded edition that includes A Brief Outline of the Evidences of the Christian Religion, 1825, and parts of The Canon of the Old and New Testaments Ascertained, 1833.
Alexander was the first professor of Old Princeton Seminary.
“Alexander’s work presents numerous ‘evidences’ but lacks his customary depth of thought;” – Joel Beeke
Carson, Alexander – The Theories of Inspiration of the Rev. Daniel Wilson, Rev. Dr. Pye Smith, and the Rev. Dr. Dick Proved to be Erroneous; with Remarks on the Christian Observer & Eclectic Review 1830 227 pp.
Carson was an Irish presbyterian turned baptist who was known for his work on Providence.
Janeway, Jacob – The Internal Evidence of the Holy Bible, or, The Bible Proved from its own pages to be a Divine Revelation 1845 300 pp. with a two page Introduction by Samuel Miller
Janeway was an Old School Presbyterian.
Bannerman, James – Inspiration: The Infallible Truth and Divine Authority of the Holy Scriptures 1845 588 pages
Bannerman was another one of the great lights of the Free Church of Scotland.
“Bannerman excels on the history of the doctrine of inspiration.” – Joel Beeke
“It is Written”: or the Scriptures the Word of God 1856 194 pp.
Theopneustia. The Bible: Its Divine Origin and Inspiration Deduced from Internal Evidence and the Testimonies of Nature, History and Science Buy 1867, 422 pages, it is also here on HTML
Gaussen was a Swiss-Reformed pastor. This is the best and fullest book on the inspiration of the Bible, being Gaussen’s most well known work.
“Theopneustia” is the Greek word in 2 Tim. 3:16 for “inspired”, or more literally, “God-breathed”. One highlight among many is Gaussen responding to the objection against inspiration that the NT writers often misquote the OT. Gaussen lists and superbly analyzes the dozen or so ways in which the NT writers reference the OT (literally, in paraphrase, summarizing, interpreting, applying, giving the spirit of, combining the teachings of, etc.).
“Gaussen’s treatise is the nineteenth-century classic;” – Joel Beeke
“A classic defense of the conservative view and authority of the Scriptures.” – Cyril J. Barber
This is one of the best, short, yet in-depth, pieces that one can read on the subject. This is on the required reading list for those in training for the ministry in the American presbytery of the Free Church of Scotland (Continuing).
Warfield, B.B. – The Divine Origin of the Bible (Philadelphia: Presbyterian Board of Publication, 1882) 47 pp.
Warfield, B.B. – The Inspiration and Authority of the Bible Buy (d. 1921; 1958) 442 pp.
Warfield has some of the best writings on Inspiration and was a great defender of the Inerrancy of the Original Autographs of the Scriptures. Be aware, though, that, in his adoption of the ‘critical texts’ of Scripture (dug up in the mid-1800’s) and the philosophy behind them, Warfield did quietly drop the doctrine of the special, providential preservation of the Scriptures through the New Testament era *in all ages* (as WCF 1.8 states: “and by his singular care and providence kept pure in all ages, are therefore authentical”). Warfield, unfortunately has been greatly influenctial in this regard towards those who have come after him. For a correction of this, see The Majority Text.
“The twentieth-century classic… which contains the bulk of articles (many of which have never been surpassed exegetically or theologically) in ‘Revelation and Inspiration’ (New York: Oxford, 1927), as well as a superior 65-page introduction by Cornelious Van Til. Warfield is essential reading for understanding the ‘old Princeton’ position on divine inspiration.” – Joel Beeke
“A work which deserves a place on every pastor’s desk.” – Cyril J. Barber
Engelder, Theodore – Scripture Cannot be Broken 1945 500 pp. Buy Concordia
“Other helpful volumes on the popular level include: Theodore Engelder, Scripture Cannot be Broken… a vigorous defense of verbal-plenary inspiration;” – Joel Beeke
Young, E.J. – Thy Word is Truth: Some Thoughts on the Biblical Doctrine of Inspiration Buy 1957 274 pp.
“Edward J. Young… does a marvelous job of combining doctrinal accuracy with popular readability. He also effectively addresses inerrancy, individual ‘problem texts’, and modern views of Scripture.” – Joel Beeke
“A forthright defense of the Bible as the infallible and inerrant Word of God.” – Cyril J. Barber
Harris, Robert Laird – Inspiration & Canonicity of the Bible Buy 1957
Harris was an Old Testament scholar and minister in the Bible Presbyterian Church and the P.C.A.
“On a somewhat higher level, R. Laird Harris, Inspiration and Canonicity of the Bible… is a basic, reliable work on canonization that covers most of the major issues. Harris lucidly argues that inspiration is the core principle of canonicity.” – Joel Beeke
“A masterly approach to the subject of bibliology.” – Cyril J. Barber
Wenham, John William – Our Lord’s View of the Old Testament Buy 1961
Custer, Stewart – Does Inspiration Demand Inerrancy? Buy (Nutley, N.J.: Craig Press, 1968)
“A study of the Biblical doctrine of inspiration in the light of inerrancy. A clear, informative statement.” – Cyril J. Barber
“…aims for personal edification more than doctrinal depth;” – Joel Beeke
Edwards, Brian – Nothing but the Truth: the Inspiration, Authority and History of the Bible Explained Buy 1978
“…which excels for those unfamiliat with doctrinal terms and recent debate;” – Joel Beeke
Packer, J.I. – God has Spoken Buy 1979
“…which stresses the joy of Bible study and examines what Scripture says about itself. Packer’s work includes the 1978 Chicago Statement on Biblical Inerrancy.” – Joel Beeke
Clark, Gordon – God’s Hammer: the Bible and its Critics Buy 1982
The History of the Doctrine of Inspiration
Murray, John – ‘Calvin’s Doctrine of Scripture’ 18 pp. in Collected Writings, vol. 3, pp. 158-175
Packer, J.I. – Calvin’s View of Scripture in God’s Inerrant Word: a Symposium on the Trustworthiness of Scripture, ed. John W. Montgomery
‘The Westminster Doctrine of Holy Scripture’ 106 pp. being ch. 3 of vol. 6 of Works Buy
II. ‘The Doctrine of Inspiration of the Westminster Divines’ in Presbyterian Quarterly, vol. 8, no. 27, 1894, Jan., p. 19 ff. & as ch. 4 of vol. 6 of Works Buy 76 pp.
On Lutheranism – 1600’s
Preus, Robert – The Inspiration of Scripture: a Study of the Theology of the 17th Century Lutheran Dogmaticians Buy 1957
“…is an able monograph on the theology of seventeenth-century Lutheran dogmaticians.” – Joel Beeke
On Warfield – Early 1900’s
Lloyd, Marc – ‘What the Bible Says, God Says: B.B. Warfield’s Doctrine of Scripture’ 28 pp.
The Authority of the Bible
Where to Start?
Lloyd-Jones, Martyn – Authority Buy 1966 96 pp.
“Where should you begin? Read a persuasive, little book by D. Martyn Lloyd Jones titled Authority… which is a clarion call to return to the authority of Christ, the Word, and the Holy Spirit.” – Joel Beeke
Crampton, Gary – The Bible: God’s Word Buy 1989 170 pp.
Calvin, John – ‘Of the Power of the Church in Articles of Faith’ 17 pp. being Book 4, ch. 8 of The Institutes of the Christian Religion
In this masterful treatment, the reformer proves from Scripture that the Church derives all of her authority from the Word, is under it, that the Word is sufficient, and that the Church regulated in doctrine, worship and government by the Word. One of the best chapters in Calvin’s Institutes.
Whitaker, William – 3rd Question – ‘Of the Authority of Scripture’ in A Disputation on Holy Scripture, Against the Papists, Especially Bellarmine & Stapleton (1588; Cambridge: Parker Society, 1849)
Willet, Andrew – 4th Question – The Authority of the Scriptures in the First Controversy, the Holy Scriptures in Synopsis Papismi (London, 1592)
Walaeus, Antonius – Disputation 2 – ‘On the Necessity & Authority of Scripture’ in Synopsis of a Purer Theology Buy (1625; Brill, 2015), vol. 1
Leigh, Edward – Ch. 2 – ‘Of the Divine Authority of the Scriptures’ in A System or Body of Divinity (London, 1654), First Book, ‘Of the Scriptures’
Binning, Hugh – Lecture 3, ‘The Authority & Utility of the Scriptures’ on 2 Tim. 3:16 in The Common Principles of the Christian Religion in The Works of the Rev. Hugh Binning ed. Leishman 3rd ed. (Edinburgh: 1851), pp. 12-16
ed. Schmid, Heinrich – ‘Authority of the Scriptures’ 13 pp. being ch. 4, section 8 of Doctrinal Theology of the Evangelical Lutheran Church
This work is a standard anthology of translated quotations from the main orthodox Lutheran theologians of the late-1500’s and 1600’s.
Jacombe, Samuel – ‘The Divine Authority of the Scriptures’ in Puritan Sermons vol. 5
Owen, John – ‘The Testimony of the Church is not the Only, nor the Chief Reason of our Believing the Scripture to be the Word of God’ in Puritan Sermons, 5.606-648 & in Works, 8.495-543
Institutes of Elenctic Theology, vol. 1 (P&R, 1992), 2nd Topic
Question 20 – ‘The Supreme Judge of Controversies & the Interpreter of the Scriptures’, pp. 154-162
Question 21 – ‘The Authority of the Fathers’, pp. 162-168
Howe, John – The Divine Authority of the Scriptures, 5 Lectures on 2 Tim. 3:16 53 pp.
Boston, Thomas – ‘The Divine Authority of the Scriptures’ on 2 Tim. 3:16 in An Illustration of the Doctrines of the Christian Religion in Works, vol. 1, pp. 19-37
Davies, Samuel – ‘The Divine Authority & Sufficiency of the Christian Religion’ in Sermons, vol. 1 (Philadelphia: Presbyterian Board of Publication, 1864), pp. 71-108
Payson, Edward – Sermon 49, ‘The Oracles of God’ in Works, 3.11-33
Chapters 21-26 on the Authority of Scripture 1878 73 pp. in Theological Lectures, p. 269-342
Cunningham was one of the great lights of the Free Church of Scotland.
III. ‘What are the Scriptures’ on Jn. 5:39 in Sermons from 1828-1860 (rep. Still Waters Revival, n.d.), pp. 42-57
‘The Infallibility of Scripture’ in Collected Writings, vol. 1, pp. 9-15 Buy
This is on the required reading list for those in training for the ministry in the American presbytery of the Free Church of Scotland (Continuing).
Ferguson, Sinclair – ‘The Authority, Sufficiency, Finality of Scripture’
Whitaker, William – A Disputation on Holy Scripture, Against the Papists, especially Bellarmine and Stapleton †1595 742 pp.
Whittaker was an English Puritan.
Tilenus, Daniel – Positions lately held by the L. Du Perron, Bishop of Eureux, against the Sufficiency and Perfection of the Scriptures maintaining the necessity and authority of unwritten traditions. Very learnedly answered and confuted… with a defence of the sufficiency and perfection of the Holy Scriptures ToC (London, 1606)
Tilenus (1563-1633) was a German-French Protestant theologian. Initially Reformed, he became a prominent and influential Arminian teaching at the Academy of Sedan. He was an open critic of the Synod of Dort of 1618-9.
Ford, Thomas – Logos Autopistos, or, Scriptures’ Self-Evidence to prove its Existence, Authority, Certainty in itself, and Sufficiency (in its kind) to ascertain others that it is inspired of God to be the only rule of faith: published as a plea for Protestants in the defense of their Profession (London, 1667)
Ford was a Westminster divine.
Of the Divine Original, Authority, Self-Evidencing Light and Power of the Scriptures; with an answer to that inquiry, how we may know the Scriptures to be the Word of God. Also a vindication of the purity and integrity of the Hebrew and Greek Texts of the Old and New Testament; in some considerations on the prolegomena and appendix to the late ‘Biblia Polyglotta.’ Whereunto are subjoined some exercitations about the nature and perfection of the Scripture, the right of interpretation, internal light, revelation, etc. in Works, 16.281-421
Book 6, pt. 1, The Reason of Faith; or, an answer unto that inquiry, ‘Wherefore we believe the Scripture to be the Word of God;’ with the causes and nature of that faith wherewith we do so: wherein the grounds whereon the Holy Scripture is believed to be the Word of God with faith divine and supernatural are declared and vindicated in Pneumatologia: or, A Discourse concerning the Holy Spirit, Continued in Works, vol. 4, pp. 1-115
Edwards, John – A Discourse Concerning the Authority, Style, and Perfection of the Books of the Old and New-Testament with a Continued illustration of several difficult texts of scripture throughout the whole work (London, 1693) Table of contents
Edwards (1637-1716) was a reformed Anglican.
De Moor, Bernard – Didactico-Elenctic Theology, ch. 2, Concerning the Principium of Theology, or Holy Scripture Buy
ed. Stonehouse, Ned & Paul Woolley – The Infallible Word: a Symposium by the Members of the Faculty of Westminster Theological Seminary Buy 1946
“The two most helpful books on biblical authority are The Infallible Word… the symposium contains an excellent series of Reformed essays dealing with the general character of biblical authority and canonicity. It concludes by stressing the relevancy and distinctive characteristics of these doctrines as well as the importance of preaching them.” – Joel Beeke
“A carefully reasoned series of essays dealing with the general character of Biblical authority, containing a chapter on the canonicity of the Scriptures, and concluding with an emphasis upon their relevancy, place in preaching, and distinctive characteristics of the Word of God. By members of the faculty of Westminster Theological Seminary.” – Cyril J. Barber
Ramm, Bernard – The Pattern of Religious Authority Buy 1957 117 pp.
“The two most helpful books on biblical authority are… Bernard Ramm, The Pattern of Religious Authority… Ramm addresses issues on authority that confront the conservative evangelical. He distinguishes between the ‘grounds of accepting an authority’ and ‘the right of authority’, and claims that reason, intuition, or inclination are modes of perceiving or receiving an authority but do not constitute the right of the authority received. He argues that the believer’s doctrine of authority is threefold: the authority of the Scriptures, of the Holy Spirit, and of Christ. This threefold delineation is contrasted with Roman Catholocism, modernism, and neo-orthodoxy.” – Joel Beeke
Lightner, Robert Paul – The Savior and the Scriptures Buy (Philadelphia: P&R, 1966)
“Presents Christ’s view of the Scriptures and stresses His absolute reliance upon the irrevocability of the Word.” – Cyril J. Barber
ed. Boice, James – The Foundation of Biblical Authority Buy 1978 with articles by John Gerstner, James Packer, Francis Schaeffer, R.C. Sproul and others.
“Helpful articles… the first major publication of the International Council on Biblical Inerrancy (ICBI), founded in 1977.” – Joel Beeke
Ridderbos, Herman – Studies in Scripture and its Authority 1978 120 pp.
Henry, Carl – God, Revelation and Authority, vol. 4 Buy 1979
“…contains a massive technical treatment of Biblical authority.” – Joel Beeke
Owen, John – Exercitations for the Sacred Scriptures Against the Fanatics in Works, 16.424-476
The History of the Doctrine of Biblical Authority
Warfield, B.B. – ‘Augustine’s Doctrine of Knowledge and Authority’ in The Princeton Theological Review, vol. 5, issue 3, July, pp. 353-397 The authority spoken of is specifically Augustine’s trust in Christian revelation, which, of course, can hardly be separated from Scripture.
On the Reformation
‘Calvin and the Authority of Scripture’ in Collected Writings, 4:158-75
‘Holy Scripture’ in Collected Writings, 3:256-62 Excerpt
‘Calvin’s Doctrine of Scripture’ being one of three lectures given under the auspices of the Reformed Fellowship, Inc. in Grand Rapids, Michigan on May 21, 22, 26, 1959 in connection with the commemoration of the 450th anniversary of the birth of John Calvin
Davies, Rupert Eric – The Problem of Authority in the Continental Reformers: a Study in Luther, Zwingli, and Calvin Buy 1946
Murray, John – Calvin on Scripture & Divine Sovereignty Buy
Fortsman, Henry Jackson – Calvin’s Doctrine of Biblical Authority 1962 Stanford University Press
“…includes a helpful epilogue on ‘Calvin, Calvinism, and the Contemporary Situation’ as well as an excellent bibliography.” – Joel Beeke
In Reformed Theology
John ‘Rabbi’ Duncan
“True, they [the Biblical writers] were the pen-men of the Holy Spirit, but then they were pen-men.”
“It is a grand evidence of the inspiration of the apostles that the theology of the post-apostolic Fathers is so puerile.”
“God speaks. He speaks in his Word to all to whom it comes.”
“Believe not any man on his own mere word. Sacredly reserve your faith for the Word of the living God.”
“All scripture is given by inspiration of God, and is profitable for doctrine, for reproof, for correction, for instruction in righteousness…”
2 Tim. 3:16