Whole Old Testament Commentaries in Latin

With titles translated into English

See also:
Whole Bible Commentaries in Latin

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Subsection

Commentaries on the Whole Pentateuch in Latin

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Order of Contents

About this Collection
Commentaries
       Jewish  1
       Early Church  5
       Medieval Church  2
       Reformed  8
       Lutheran  3
       Protestant  2
       Roman Catholic  2
       Liberal  4

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About this Collection

This collection of 26+ works includes all the major commentaries on the whole Old Testament, or the greater part thereof, through Church history, in Latin, which the webmaster could find through references in secondary literature.  It is very possible that many more could be discovered, though we are confident that the best and most useful whole Old Testament commentaries in Latin are below.

Reduplicating commentaries on this page where they either have been translated into English or are part of whole Bible Commentaries in Latin has generally been avoided.  Needless to say, as these commentaries represent a vast range of views, discernment is needed in perusing them.  If you know of useful commentaries that we have missed, please send them over.

We make no apology for collecting such old commentaries.  While the arrogance of the modern scoffs at such an endeavor, the solid exposition of the Word of God and the spiritual and practical truths derived therefrom are timeless.  Here, especially in the commentaries from the reformed orthodox era, you are able to feed on some of Church history’s most rich and valuable portions.  Much of the information in these tomes you will find nowhere else.

May these commentaries not simply fill your head, but may they also fill your soul.  May the grace of God be with you till Jesus comes again.

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Commentaries

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Jewish

Rashi (Jarchi) – Hebrew Commentary in Latin with Critical Notes and Philological Illustration: Gen-Dt, Josh-Esth, Prov-Song, Isa-Mal, Psalms  (Gothae, 1710-14)

Rashi (1040-1105).  Rashi is also in English at Sefaria.

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Early Church

200’s

Origen – Commentaries & Homilies  in ed. Migne, Patrologia Graeca, vols. 12 & 13  The former links open up the tables of contents to the volumes.

Selections in Genesis  Greek/Latin
Homilies on Genesis  English Preview  G/L
Selections in Exodus  G/L
Hom. on Exodus  Pre  G/L
Selections in Leviticus  G/L
Hom. on Leviticus  Pre  G/L
Selections in Numbers  G/L
Hom. on Numbers  Pre  G/L
Selections in Deuteronomy  G/L
Selections in Joshua  G/L
Hom. on Joshua  Pre  G/L
Selections in Judges  G/L
Hom. on Judges  Pre  G/L
Selections in 1 Samuel  G/L
Hom. on 1 Kings 28  Pre
Fragments of Homilies on Job  G/L
Commentare on the Psalms  G/L
Fragments in Proverbs  G/L
Fragments in the Song  Pre  G/L
Hom. on the Song  Pre  G/L
Excerpts on the Song  Pre  G/L
Hom. on Isaiah  Pre  G/L  L
Hom. on Jeremiah  Pre  G/L  L
Selections in Jeremiah  G/L
Selections in Lamentations  G/L
Hom. on Ezekiel  Pre  G/L  L
Selections in Ezekiel  G/L
Selections in Hosea  G/L

Origen (c. 154 – c. 253) was probably the most influential Bible commentator (by numbers) in Church history, with John Calvin and Matthew Henry coming in second and third.  Unfortunately Origen greatly popularized the allegorical method.

None of Origen’s commentaries are in English on the net; they have to be purchased.  Even though the works are in the Greek series of the fathers, much or most of them are in Latin, or have Latin side-by-side the Greek.  A reason for this is that though the original manuscript was in Greek, Migne only had access in some cases to Latin translations.

Many of the commentaries are only fragments or selections.  A great portion of Origen’s commentaries have been lost.

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400’s

Jerome

Commentaries in ed. Migne, Patrologia Latina, vols. 24, 25, 26

Prefaces to the Biblical Books  in English, Post-Nicene Fathers, vol. 6
Hebrew Questions on Genesis  English Preview  Latin
Job  L
Notes on the Psalms, 1-59 (Pre), 60-96 (Pre), 97-150  L
Ecclesiastes  Pre  L
Isaiah  Pre  L
       Adbrevatio
on Isa. 1:1-5  L
Jeremiah  Pre  L
Lamentations  L
Ezekiel Pre  L
Daniel  Pre  L
Minor Prophets, vol. 1 (Buy) 2 (PreL
       Jonah

Jerome (c. 347-420).  Most of Jerome’s commentaries have now been translated into English, though few are available online.

“His reputation increased more and more over time, and even within his own lifetime he was considered one of the foremost authorities on biblical questions.  Jerome also frequently wrote his commentaries on biblical books at the request of friends.  This accounts for the haphazard sequence in which they appeared…

With respect to their contents, Jerome’s earlier biblical commentaries are worth no special consideration.  It has long been known that he copied the content of commentaries by older interpreters, especially Origen, in wide range…  Jerome says that he constantly read everything available to him in order to pluck as many blossoms as possible…  allegorical interpretation, which Jerome takes over from Origen in wide range in his commentaries…  Jerome’s special merit lies rather in his efforts on the Latin Bible.” – Henning Graf Reventlow, History of Biblical Interpretation, vol. 2

Augustine

in ed. Migne, Patrologia Latina, vol. 34, 36, 37, 38, 39

A View of Sacred Scripture  Latin  (observations on the books of the Bible)
Sermons on Scripture, OT, #1-50  L
Supplemental Sermons on Scripture, OT, #1-58  L
On Genesis  L
Sayings on Genesis-Judges  Buy  L
Questions on Genesis-Judges  Buy  L
Annotations on Job  Buy  L
Commentary on the Psalms 1-79  L  80-150  L  

Augustine (354-430)

“Much more could be said about Augustine’s commentaries, which influenced later Christian interpretation of the Bible in the West in manifold ways.” – Reventlow, History of Biblical Interpretation, vol. 2

Cyril of Alexandria

in ed. Migne, Patrologia Graeca, vol. 69, 70, 71, 72

On the Pentateuch  Buy: 1, 2  Greek/Latin
Fragments on the Songs of Moses  G/L
Fragments on Samuel & Kings  G/L
Exposition on the Psalms  G/L
Fragments on Proverbs  G/L
Fragments on the Song of Songs  G/L
Commentary on Isaiah  Buy: 1, 2, 3, 4  G/L
Fragments on Jeremiah  G/L
Fragments on Baruch  G/L
Fragments on Ezekiel  G/L
Fragments on Daniel  G/L
Commentary on Hosea-Haggai  English Preview: 1,2,3  G/L
Commentary on Zechariah-Malachi   Pre 1,2,3  G/L

Cyril (c. 376-444) was the Patriarch of Alexandria from 412 to 444.

“Cyril produced a biblical exegesis presenting all the marks of a magisterial teaching: solemn diction, a display of vast knowledge and rhetorical skills, a constant affirmation of doctrinal correctness.  Verse by verse, Isaiah, the Psalms…  School procedures determine Cyril’s exposition of well-organized exegetical works in which the author grasps readers by the hand and, with eloquence and erudition, leads them to the spiritual sense…  After Cyril, the exegetical tradition of Alexandria lost its impetus.” – Historical Handbook of Major Biblical Interpreters, p. 8

Theodoret of Cyrus

in ed. Migne, Patrologia Graeca, vol. 80, 81

Questions in Difficult Places in Genesis-Chronicles  English Preview: 1, 2  Greek/Latin
Interpretation of the Psalms  Pre: 1, 2  G/L
Explanation of the Song-Malachi  G/L
        The Song
        Jeremiah, Baruch, Lamentations  Buy
        Ezekiel  Buy
        Daniel  Pre
        Jonah

Theodoret (c. 393 – c. 458/466) was an influential theologian of the school of Antioch, biblical commentator, and Christian bishop of Cyrrhus (423–457).

“…he combined Origen’s exegesis with the historical analysis privileged at Antioch.” – Historical Handbook of Major Biblical Interpreters, p. 15  

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Medieval

Early Era of Scholasticism

Damian, Peter – Collections in the Old Testament  in MPL, pp. 985-1184

Damian (c. 1007-1072/3) was a reforming Benedictine monk and cardinal in the circle of Pope Leo IX (the most historically significant German Pope of the Middle Ages).

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Late Era of Scholasticism

Tostado – Commentaria  in Works, vols. 1-17 at PRDL  See also vols. 26-27 for an Index.  Alonso only comments on Gen-Chron.

Alonso (c.1400-1455) was a Spanish clergyman, scholar, writer and Bishop of Ávila (1454 – 1455).

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Reformed

1500’s

Munster, Sebastian – The Hebrew Bible in a New, Plain Latin Translation: Gen-Kings, Chron-Mal  (Basil, 1534)

Munster (1488-1552) was a German, Hebrew scholar, cartographer and cosmographer. His work, the Cosmographia,1544, was the earliest German description of the world.

This work has the Hebrew and Latin in parallel columns with Munster’s commentary in footnotes.  The Latin was intended to improve the Vulgate and give a translation consistent with Protestant theology.  Munster also published his new Latin translation on the whole Bible, without parallel columns and without his commentary.

“Containing commentaries, chiefly from Rabbincal writers, on the Old Testament, which have been reprinted in the Critici Sacri.” – James Darling

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1600’s

Amama, Sixtinus

A Censure of the Vulgate, the Canonized Version of Trent, on the Five Books of Moses  (Franeker, 1620)

Amama (1593-1629) was a professor of Hebrew in Franeker, Netherlands.  For more on Amama and these works see John Kitto, Cyclopedia of Biblical Literature, p. 131.

This work goes through, in Biblical order, and compares the Hebrew with the Vulgate, showing the errors in the latter (with a good amount of commentary) and critiquing Romanist writers and dogmas in the process.

Against the Barbarous Bible (Franeker, 1656)

This work is in the same method as the one above, but gives a lengthy amount of preliminary material in Book 1 (including a section on: ‘General Error 1: The Greek Interpretation of the Old Testament, which Septuagint translation is ascribed to be ‘Theopneusia’ [God-breathed]’ on pp. 1-6). 

Then the work proceeds through an analysis of the Vulgate’s translations in Genesis-Jeremiah in Books 2-4, pp. 174-756.  There is an index of passages treated on p. 757.  This posthumous edition contains his commentary on Isaiah and Jeremiah, whereas previous editions did not.

A Commentary-Book on the Difficult Places in Joshua, Judges & Samuel  (Franeker, 1618)

Drusius, Joannes – Collections, Verses & Illustrative Notes out of Old Greek Interpreters on the Whole of the Old Testament  (Arnhemiae, 1622)

Drusius (1550-1616) was a Flemish divine, distinguished specially as an Orientalist, Hebraist and exegete.

Buxtorf, Sr., Johann

The Hebrew Bible with the Masora, Targum & the Commentaries of the Rabbis  (Basel, 1618)  Table of contents  This edition is in all Hebrew; this edition has a Latin title and preface.

Buxtorf, Sr. (1564-1629).  This work is composed of the Hebrew Bible with Hebrew commentary in the margins from the Jewish sources.

Tiberias, or the Threefold Masoretic Commentary: Historical, Didactic & Critical  (Basel, 1620)  GB

The main codifiers of the Old Testament text during the Middle Ages were the Jewish Masoretes.  They were based mainly in the cities of Tiberias and Jerusalem in Israel.  This work provides the Masoretic commentary, or apparatus, on the Old Testament and gives background to it.

Cappel, Louis – Commentaries & Critical Notes in the Old Testament  (Amsterdam, 1689)  Table of contents  This contains a full commentary on Isa. 53 and the minor prophets.  Other select passages of the OT are commented on.

Cappel (1585-1658) was a professor of Hebrew and theology.  His uncle, Jacques Cappel, also a professor of Hebrew and theology, has a commentary on the Old Testament in this same volume appended to Louis’s.

Schotanus, Christian – Library of Sacred History of the Old Testament, or Historical Exercises in Sacred Scripture & Josephus, vol. 1 (Gen-Egypt), 2 (Exodus-Maccabees) 1662/4  The table of contents to the first volume is on the title page; here is the table of contents to the second volume.

Schotanus (1603-1671) was a professor of Greek and theology at Franeker, Netherlands.

Alting, Jacob – A Theoretical-Practical Commentary in Select Places in the Old Testament, to which is Appended a Harmony of Old Testament Prophecies Cited in the New Testament  (Amsterdam, 1685)  No books are commented on after Isaiah.

Alting (1618-79) was a Dutch philologist, theologian and a professor of oriental languages and theology at the University of Groningen, Netherlands.

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1700’s

Schultens, Albert

Philological & Critical Animadversions on (1708/09, 1732)

Various Places in the Old Testament  (includes all the books except Job)
Job

Commentary on Proverbs  (Leiden, 1748)

Schultens (1686-1750) was born at Groningen, Netherlands and became a professor of Hebrew and Oriental languages at Franeker and Leiden respectively.

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Lutheran

1600’s

Hackspan, Theodore

Philological-Theological Notes in Various Difficult Places in Scripture (Hage, 1664)

1. Genesis-Job
2. Psalms-Malachi
3. Gospels

Hackspan (1607-1659) was a professor of Hebrew and theology at Altdorf.  We are unsure if a fourth volume on the rest of the New Testament was ever printed.

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1700’s

Dathe, Johann August

Illustrated with Philological & Critical Notes (Orphanotrophei, 1779/85/91):

Pentateuch
Major Prophets
Minor Prophets

Dathe (1731-1791) was a German professor of Oriental languages and Hebrew at the universities of Gottingen and Leipzig. 

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1800’s

Maurer, Franz Joseph Valentin

Grammatical-Critical Commentary on the Old Testament, especially furnished for the use of the University & Academy  (Leipzig, 1835)

1. Historical Books, Isa-Lam
2. Eze-Mal
3. Ps-Prov
4. Job, Eccl-Song

Maurer (1795-1856) was a Protestant theologian of Germany.  In 1820 he received holy orders, but in 1821 joined the Evangelical Church. 

“One of the best for mere historico-grammatical exegesis.” – Howard Malcom

In this work “there is great disproportion in the mode of treatment. All the historical books from Genesis to Esther are comprised in two hundred. and fifty pages, and it is only after Isaiah that the treatment begins to be more ample, and is then really valuable.” – McClintock & Strong

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Protestant

1600’s

Thilo, Johann – The Marrow of the Exegetical, Assertive, Polemic & Homiletic Theology of the Old Testament, or an Epitome of the Criticism, Exegesis & Vindication of the Regal Books…  (Leipzig, 1683)  Also at SLUB.

We have been unable to find any information on Thilo, other than that the cover page says he was a professor of theology and that this work was printed in Germany.  He may have been Lutheran.

“An epitome of [Matthew] Poole’s Synopsis.” – Howard Malcom

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1700’s

Michaelis, Johann Heinrich

Fruitful Philological & Exegetical Annotations on the Holy Books of the Old Testament (Halle, 1745) on:

Psalms & Proverbs (the latter is by Christian ben Michaelis)

Ruth, Esth-Job, Eccl-Song, Lam

Chron-Neh, Dan

Michaelis (1668-1738, see also here) was the chief director of Collegium Orientale Theologicum (established by A.H. Francke, a leading pietest), a practical school of Biblical and Oriental philology, which was then quite unique.  Michaelis was the uncle of the rationalistic and liberalizing Johann David Michaelis (1717-1791).

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Roman Catholic

1600’s

de Maldonado, Juan – Commentaries in Principal Books of the Old Testament of Sacred Scripture  (Paris, 1643)  Includes commentaries on the Ps-Isa, Jer-Dan & Ps. 119  Here is an index to all the Scriptures treated of in the work.

Juan (1535-1583) was a Jesuit.  R. Muller: “Protestant exegetes of the seventeenth century were concerned to respond to Estius, and they often cited [other Roman Catholics] Maldonatus [1535-1583], [Benito] Arias Montanus [1527-1598] and Sixtus Senensis [1520–1569] with approval.” – Historical Handbook of Major Biblical Interpreters, pp. 145-6

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1700’s

Houbigant, Charles Francois – Critical Notes on All the Books of the Old Testament, vol. 1 (Gen-Kings, Apocrypha), 2 (Chron-Minor)  (Frankfurt, 1777)  The Biblical books are in an irregular order.

Houbigant (1686-1783) was a French Oratorian Biblical scholar.

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Liberal

1700’s

Le Clerc, Jean

Commentary with a Perpetual paraphrase, philological commentary and critical dissertations (4 vols.) on (Cotta, 1733)

The Five Books of Moses the Prophet, vol. 1 (Gen), vol. 2 (Ex-Dt)

The Historical Books of the Old Testament (Josh-Esth)

The Prophets from Isaiah to Malachi

Le Clerc (1657-1736) initially was raised in the theological educational system at Geneva, though left and became an Arminian.  He was suspected of Socinianism, promoted critical exegesis of the Bible, and was a radical of his age.

“Not so much a commentary as a series of criticisms.” – Howard Malcom

De Rossi, Giovanni Bernard

Critical Scholia on the Books of the Old Testament, or a Supplement of Various Readings of the Sacred Text  (Parmae, 1798)  The Hebrew order of the canon is followed.

De Rossi (1642-1731) was an Itallian, Christian Hebraicist and was influenced by Benjamin Kennicott.  He devoted himself to three chief lines of investigation—typographical, bibliographical, and text-critical.

Various Readings of the Old Testament, vol. 1 (Gen-Lev), 2 (Num-Kings), 3 (Ruth, Esth, Eccl-Mal), 4 (Chron-Neh, Job-Pro)  (Parmae, 1784)

Wikipedia: “…still the most complete collection of variants of the Hebrew text of the Old Testament.  In order to compile it he visited all the chief libraries of Italy, and through its compilation he obtained the knighthood of St. George at the court of Parma and seductive offers from Pavia, -adrid, and Rome.”

Schulz, Johann Christian Friedrich & George Lauer Bauer – Scholia in the Old Testament in 10 vols.: 1.1 (Gen-Lev), 1.2 (Num-Dt), 2 (Josh-Sam), 3 (Kings-Esth), 4 (Psalms), 5, 6, 7, 8 (Hag-Mal, Isa 1-20), 9 (Isa 21-66), 10 (Jer)  (1797)

Schulz (1739-1805) was a German Enlightenment, Protestant scholar, mathematician and philosopher.  On this work, see Horne, Manual of Biblical Bibliography, p. 246 (including the footnote).

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1800’s

Rosenmuller, Ernst Friedrich Karl

Scholia in the Old Testament, 7 Parts in 16 vols.  (Lipsiae, 1808-1830)  There were also 18 & 23 vol. editions.  There are more volumes of others editions at IA and Hathitrust.

Rosenmuller (1768-1835) was a German Orientalist and Protestant scholar.  He was the oldest son of the rationalist theologian Johann Georg Rosenmüller.  On this work, see Horne, Manual of Biblical Bibliography, p. 246.

“23 volumes of unsurpassed criticism.” – Howard Malcom

Scholia in the Old Testament in a Redacted Compendium in 6 vols.: 1 (Pent), 2 (Isai), 3 (Ps), 4 (Job), 5 (Eze), 6 (Minor)  ed. John Christopher Sigismund Lechner (Lipsiae, 1828)

On this abridgment, see Horne, Manual of Biblical Bibliography, p. 246-7.

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Related Pages

Whole Old Testament Commentaries in English

Old Testament Commentaries

Jewish Commentaries on the Bible

Whole Bible Commentaries in Latin

Whole Bible Commentaries in English

Hebrew Dictionaries

Hebrew Vowel Points

Reformed Systematic Theologies in Latin  Titles are in English

Bible Background, Survey, Authenticity & Introduction

Biblical Theology

Church History

Bible Chronology

Bible Dictionaries

Textual Criticism

Judism