“Be wise now therefore, O ye kings: be instructed, ye judges of the earth. Serve the Lord with fear, and rejoice with trembling. Kiss the Son, lest he be angry”
“His Holy One, to him whom man despiseth… Kings shall see and arise, princes also shall worship…”
“Kings shall be thy [the Church’s] nursing fathers, and their queens thy nursing mothers: they shall bow down to thee with their face toward the earth…”
“He that ruleth over men must be just, ruling in the fear of God.”
2 Sam. 23:3
The Civil Magistrate’s Authority Around Spiritual Things (Circa Sacra)
The Establishment Principle in the American Westminster Standards and Early American States
On Toleration & Liberty of Conscience
Order of Contents
Definition of the Establishment Principle
Where to Start
The Difference Between the 1800’s Establishment Principle & the Reformation
. Doctrine of Circa Sacra
Definition of the Establishment Principle:
Church and State are co-ordinate powers (on an equal level, with separate jurisdictions) under the authority of the Word of God, that the State has the obligation to profess, protect and promote the true religion, civilly uphold all 10 Commandments, and civilly establish (circa sacra, not in sacra) the true religion in the land. The Church, maintaining its existence and government by Divine Right, is to speak the Word of God to the State and keep it in check.
The Establishment Principle is the Biblical and 1646 Confessional view (Ch. 23.3, LC #109, 118, 191), as well as the universal view of the Reformation and Puritan eras.
Where to Start?
M’Crie, Thomas – Brief View of the Evidence for the Exercise of Civil Authority About Religion 1807, from his Statement of the Difference, chapter 7
This is the best article length defense of the Establishment Principle in church history. This article contains all the scriptural evidence and major arguments for the historic reformed view.
Thornwell, James – Relation of the State to Christ, 1861, 8 pages, a paper submitted to the first General Assembly of the Southern Presbyterian Church in Dec., 1861, in order to petition the newly formed Confederate States of America to amend their constitution to include the following:
“Nevertheless we, the people of these Confederate States, distinctly acknowledge our responsibility to God, and the supremacy of His Son, Jesus Christ, as King of Kings and Lord of Lords; and hereby ordain that no law shall be passed by the Congress of these Confederate States inconsistent with the will of God, as revealed in the Holy Scriptures.”
McCurley, Robert – First Things First, 2012, a Free Church of Scotland (Continuing) minister
McCurley expounds the greatest commandment, that we are to love God with all our heart, specifically as it applies to the Civil Magistrate to uphold the First Table of the Law
Beers, Gavin – Part 1 – Main Views on National Religion
Part 4 – Practical Observations
1500’s – 1600’s
See The Civil Magistrate’s Authority Around Spiritual Things (Circa Sacra).
Bruce, Archibald – True Patriotism; or, a Public Spirit for God and Religion Recommended, and the Want of it Reprehended. A Discourse Buy 1785 182 pp.
Chalmers, Thomas – Sermon 37: On Religious Establishments in Sermons and Discourses, vol. 1 Leader in the Free Church of Scotland
Christ’s Kingship over the Nations Maintained and Defended in the Establishment Principle, or the Principle of National Recognition of Religion n.d. 28 pp.
Brown (1806-84) was a leader in the Free Church of Scotland and the brother of David Brown (of the J.F.B. Bible commentary). Brown takes the view characteristic of Reformed Presbyterians.
Buchanan, James – Prefatory Discourse: Containing a General Statement of the Case on Behalf of National Religious Establishments (1835) 85 pp. forming an introduction to Lectures on the Nature, Lawfulness, Duty, and Advantages of Civil Establishments of Religion 1835 678 pp.
While you’re at it read the whole book by various other prominent Scottish ministers. The book also defends the Biblical and historic reformed principle of the State endowing the Church, that is providing for it monetarily out of public funds.
Co-Ordinate Authorities, p. 394, 3 pp. from his Historical Theology, vol. 1
The Relation Between Church and State HTML Buy 1851 a lecture, published afterwards in 1863 in his Discussions on Church Principles, 19 long paragraphs
The Westminster Confession on the Relation Between Church and State HTML 1843 from a pamphlet published in May 1843, immediately before the Disruption of the Church of Scotland, entitled, “Remarks on the Twenty-third Chapter of the Confession of Faith as bearing on existing Controversies”, published later in his Discussions on Church Principles, ch. 8
Many people today charge the original Westminster Confession of 1646 with Erastianism (that the State is over the Church). This is a charge made out of ignorance. The Confession teaches against Erastianism, but does teach the Biblical and historic reformed doctrine of the Establishment Principle. American Presbyterianism, though it denies the Establishment Principle, yet owes its life to it, as the Westminster Assembly was originally called to sit by the Parliament (civil magistrate) of England. Cunningham vindicates the original Confession.
The Nature and Lawfulness of Union Between Church and State HTML 1835 70 pp. from Lectures on the Nature and Lawfulness, Duty and Advantages of Civil Establishments of Religion, a collection of essays by various authors
Isaiah 49:23 says of the Church, “and kings shall be thy nursing fathers, and their queens thy nursing mothers.” In what sense is this truth of scripture to be understood? Find out here.
Stuart, A. Moody – ‘Is the Establishment of Religion Outside of the Confession?: a Speech’ (Edinburgh, 1868) 54 pp.
Stuart was a Free Churchman.
Bannerman, James – The Church of Christ... (Edinburgh: T. & T. Clark, 1868), pt. 1, ch. 8, ‘The Church in its Relation to the State’, pp. 94-97
I. ‘Essential Distinction & Mutual Independence of Church & State’, p. 97
II. ‘Lawfulness of the Connection of Church & State’, p. 106
Subsection, ‘The Non-Identity of Church & State Among the Jews’, p. 119
III. ‘Duty of the Connection of Church & State’, p. 124
IV. ‘Necessity of the Connection of Church & State’, p. 135
V. ‘Spiritual Independence & the Principles of Toleration’, p. 148
VI. ‘Liberty of Conscience; its Extent & Limits’, p. 159
VII. ‘Doctrine of the Westminster Confession on Church & State’, pp. 171-87
Macklin, Professor – ‘National Religion; or, the Establishment Principle Vindicated & Proved: a Speech Delivered at Ayr on the 12th July, 1873’ 16 pp.
Myers, R. Andrew – ‘A Primer on the Establishment Principle’ 2009 8 questions with brief answers
1500’s – 1600’s
See The Civil Magistrate’s Authority Around Spiritual Things (Circa Sacra).
Brown, John, of Haddinton – The Absurdity and Perfidy of all Authoritative Toleration of Gross Heresy, Blasphemy, Idolatry, Popery, in Britain: in two letters to a friend, in which the doctrine of the Westminster Confession of faith relative to toleration of a false religion, and the power of the civil magistrate about sacred matters… are candidly represented and defended Buy 1780 160 pp.
Brown (1722-1787) was the grandfather of John Brown of Edinburgh and was one of the leading seceder ministers of the Scottish Church.
Free Thoughts on the Toleration of Popery 1780 480 pp.
Bruce (1746-1816) was a Secession (Anti-Burgher) minister author and professor of Divinity (successor to Moncreiff). ‘When the British Parliament repealed the penal statutes against Roman Catholocism in 1778, Bruce defended legal restraints in’ this work. (DSCH&T)
A Historico-Politico-Ecclesiastical Dissertation on the Supremacy of Civil Powers in Matters of Religion, Particularly [Against] the Ecclesiastical Supremacy Annexed to the English Crown 1802 152 pp.
Balfour, William – The Establishment Principle Defended, a Reply to the Statement by the Committee of the United Presbyterian Church on Disestablishment and Disendowment 1873 237 pp. with a preface by James Begg
Balfour was a minister in the Free Church of Scotland, as was James Begg.
Birks, Thomas R. – Church and State, or National Religion and Church Establishments Considered with Reference to Present Controversies 1869 a vicar in the Anglican Church (which is Erastian), holds that Christ’s Mediatorial Kingdom includes all things, Symington quotes him a few times in Messiah the Prince
1833 263 pp.
Brown (1806-84) was a leader in the Free Church of Scotland and the brother of David Brown (of the J.F.B. Bible commentary).
Lectures on the Establishment and Extension of National Churches 6 Lectures, in Church and College Establishments being Works, vol. 17 (of 25)
Christian and Economic Polity of a Nation being vol. 10 of Select Works of Thomas Chalmers, ed. William Hannah
Corimer, John – A Defense of Church Establishments 1833 71 pp. published anonymously, being a second review of the speeches of the leading men of the Voluntary Church Association
This book was written at the beginning of the 10 year Intrusion Controversy in 1833 that led up to the birth of the Free Church of Scotland from the Church of Scotland in the Disruption of 1843. The Intrusion Controversy centered around the unlawful intrusion of the civil government into the jurisdiction of the Church. Many saw the abuses and hence argued for a complete disassociation between Church and State, otherwise known as the Voluntary Principle. Corimer here argues for the Biblical Establishment Principle against the Voluntary Principle. His book is a review of Voluntary lectures that were lately delivered. “Second” in the original title refers to the fact that he had previously responded to the Voluntary lectures before they were published in book form. Here he responds to the lectures more fully after their publication.
Gibson, James – The Church in Relation to the State 1872 220 pp. this book consists of a 170 page treatise written by Gibson in 1833 and a 45 page lecture given by Gibson in 1853, edited and compiled by James M’Naught
The first part of the book is a historical essay. It is often claimed that the Establishment Principle instituted by Constantine in the 300′s was the major contributing factor to the later Romish and priestly domination of the Church. Gibson argues from history that the Church would have been much helped from the Establishment Principle under Constantine, but in fact it was due to the Voluntary Principle that the later Romish domination came about. This essay was highly recommended by the Doctors M’Crie and Cunningham, and (according to them) had not been answered.
The second part of the book demonstrates the Establishment Principle from the moral law of God’s application to the civil constitution. The book as a whole was highly recommended by James Begg, George Smeaton, and John Kennedy, amongst others.
M’Crie, Thomas – Statement of the Difference… particularly on the Power of Civil Magistrates Respecting Religion, National Reformation, National Churches, and National Covenants 1807 particularly chapters six through eight
Free Church of Scotland Ministers – A Collection (1869-1870) ToC
This has addresses bound together by James MacGregor, D. MacColl, George Smeaton, James Aitken Wylie, James M’Naught, Robert Smith Candlish, William Cousin, William Nixon et al.
Smeaton, George – National Christianity & Scriptural Union: or, an Exposition of the Union-Question, Addressed to the Office-Bearers, Members & Adherents of the Free Church of Scotland (Edinburgh: Johnstone, Hunter & Co., 1871) ToC 124 pp.
Symington, William – Messiah the Prince Buy 1881 480 pp.
From the Reformed Presbyterian perspective.
See the Latin subsection on the page, The Civil Magistrate’s Authority Around Spiritual Things (Circa Sacra).
ed. Schmid, Heinrich – Sections 5-9 of ch. 60, ‘The Political Estate’ 1875 2 pp. in The Doctrinal Theology of the Evangelical Lutheran Church, pp. 60-61
This is an anthology of excerpts from the early (1500’s-1700’s), classic Lutheran writers. While the early Lutherans were good on the magistrate upholding both tables of the Law, and establishing the Church in the land, yet they erred somewhat on the side of Erastianism.
Instances include: the magistrate, ‘directing the Church and the Christian religion in their external government’, ‘appointing suitable ministers of the Church’, ‘the framing and maintenance of the laws of the Church’, etc.
The Crow Indian Nation of Montana 2013
See their legislative declaration.
“That Jesus Christ is hereby proclaimed as ‘Lord of the Crow Indian Reservation’ by the Crow Tribal Legislature.”
Free Church of Scotland (Continuing) – ‘Mosque in Stornoway’ 2017 by Rev. David Blunt
Article 39: The Necessity of Governments
And as He has established kingdoms, republics, and all sorts of principalities, either hereditary or otherwise, and all that belongs to a just government, and wishes to be considered as their Author, so He has put the sword into the hands of magistrates to suppress crimes against the first (1 Kgs 15:12; 2 Kgs 23) as well as against the second table of the Commandments of God (Deut 1:15-17; 16:18–20; Ps. 82:1-4; Jer. 21:12; 22:2–3).
George Smeaton 1875
The Scottish Theory of Ecclesiastical Establishments and How Far the Theory is Realised, 1875, pp. 4-5
The State, considered in its corporate character, is a MORAL PERSON, with a moral standing and responsibility. It is not the creation of the so-called social compact or of the popular will, but a divine institution based on natural religion. It coheres by a moral and religious bond; and its rulers are the lieutenants of God.
If the State is a moral person, capable of performing duty, of committing sin, and suffering punishment, which everyone must own who traces the fate of nations according to the divine word, it follows that a nation, acting by its rulers, can accept Christianity and make a public profession of it as the national rule and guide.
It had been held together previous to the recognition of Christianity by some form of religion however impure, without which it could not have existed. And the first duty of the civil ruler when brought in contact with Christianity and persuaded of its divine origin is to RECEIVE THE BIBLE AS A REVELATION in a national way.
The immediate effect of this is that it constitutes the State a Christian State, and pledges it to purge out its previous religion in the same way as Pagan and Mahommedan nations constituted themselves, according to their false religions, or as the atheistic state was constituted, or rather attempted to be constituted, by the French Convention.
A nation must have a religion, and the only question is, which it will adopt. And when Christianity comes to the nation, or to the family, it does not frown on either of these institutions, which also are divine in origin, but enters into them with an elevating purifying power, and sweetly coalesces with all that is purely human in both. These ordinances of God now became vessels by which Christianity is diffused.
The national recognition of the Bible as a revelation subjecting the nation to its authority, though a great step gained, does not exhaust the nation’s duty, as widely diverging views prevail upon the right interpretation of the Bible. The State must by the necessity of the case ADOPT A CREED which will commonly be prepared by the Church. The same duty that devolves upon an individual Christian confronts a Christian State, and it naturally appends the civil sanction to the Church’s creed. It must distinguish between scripture truth and its perversion. The State, by the adoption of a creed, gives utterance to the self-consciousness of a Christian community. It confesses the Christianity it has adopted.
The Difference Between the 1800’s Establishment Principle & the Reformation Doctrine of Circa Sacra
Fentiman, Travis – ‘ VII. The Later Scottish Development & the Free Church of Scotland’s Establishment Principle’ in The Civil Government’s Authority about Religion & the Church, Circa Sacra: An Extended Introduction & a Section from the English Presbyterians’ Divine Right (1646; ReformedBooksOnline, 2021), pp. 84-104
“Thou shalt have no other gods before Me.”
“[The Establishment Principle is not only] worth living for, but a principle worth dying for.”
John Kennedy of Dingwall
Free Church of Scotland
“And the Lord shall be King over all the earth: in that day shall there be one Lord , and his name one.”
“The Lord cannot be one, nor his name one… when by law, multitudes of names, ways and religions are tolerated.”
The Interpretation and Defense of the Original Westminster Standards