“Ye cannot be partakers of the Lord’s table, and of the table of devils.”
1 Cor. 10:21
“But, behold, the hand of him that betrayeth me is with me on the table.”
“That ye may eat and drink at my table in my Kingdom”
Burroughs, Jeremiah – Gospel Worship, Sermon 13, Points 1 & 2, pp. 261-5
Burroughs was a Westminster divine.
Kneeling in the Act of Receiving the Sacramental Elements of Bread and Wine Proven Unlawful, 1619, 30 pages, a chapter from his larger work: The Perth Assembly.
The unlawful Perth Assembly in 1618 imposed the King of England’s will in the worship of the Church of Scotland. One of the five unBiblical practices prescribed was kneeling at communion. This practice was done to give a special honor (an honor that scripture does not prescribe) to the elements of the Lord’s Supper and was little different than the Roman Catholic’s worshipping of the bread and wine as Christ’s physical body and blood. In addition to this, it overturned the Biblical and Scottish practice of sitting at the Table for communion. Thus Calderwood Biblically refutes kneeling at communion and defends sitting at the Table.
Of the Communicants’ Gesture in the Act of Receiving, Eating and Drinking, 1636, 138 pages, a chapter from his A Re-Examination of the Five Articles Enacted at Perth anno 1618. The Re-examination was a later, fuller refutation of the five articles of Perth.
This book was influential in the rise of the Second Reformation in Scotland in 1638, being printed two years before that event, when Biblical worship was re-instituted in the land.
Gillespie, George – Of the Use of a Table in the Lord’s Supper, from his Treatise of Miscellany Questions, ch. 18, 1649, 20 paragraphs, with a four paragraph Introduction by Bobby Phillips. There is also a short appendix on Gillespie on the Common Cup.
This is the fullest, most Biblically detailed article defending the practice. Gillespie, one of the commissioners to the Westminster Assembly, gives six arguments for sitting at a table in the Lord’s Supper. See here for a summary of his arguments.
Isbell, Sherman – The Administration of the Lord’s Supper, 2006, 20 pages
This historical essay describes the Biblically principled practice of the reformation Scottish Church’s administration of the Lord’s Supper. Special attention is given to their communion seasons which were often held outdoors in fields, ministering to thousands, and included preparatory preaching, sitting at tables, and using common cups.
Ridley, Nicholas – Reasons why the Lord’s Board should Rather be after the Form of a Table than of an Altar, in Works of Nicholas Ridley, p. 321-4
Ridley (d. 1555) the English reformer and martyr under Bloody Mary argues against using an altar in worship (as in Romanism) and argues for the use of a table.
Rutherford describes the Biblically rich way the Church of Scotland practiced the Lord’s Supper during his day, with a preparatory sermon the day before, the singing of psalms, sitting at a table, using a common cup, with Table addresses by the minister, etc.
Specifically with regard to a Common Cup and Sitting at the Table
Begg, James – A Treatise on the Use of The Communion Table, in Celebrating the Sacrament of the Lord’s Supper, 1824, this is only 4 of the 7 sections of the book, including the Introduction and the Conclusion
This is the fullest book on the topic. Begg argues for the practice from the example of Christ and the apostles, that it is in conformity with the practice of the early church, that corruptions and innovations away from the practice came later, that sitting at the table has always been the authorized practice of the Scottish Church, and lastly answers arguments in favor of “the late innovation.”
The Second Head, Of Sacraments
“The Table of the Lord is then most rightly ministered when it approaches most nigh to Christ’s own action. But plain it is, that at that Supper Christ Jesus sat with his disciples, and therefore do we judge that sitting at a table is most convenient to that holy action“
The Ninth Head, Concerning the Policy of the Church
“The reparation would be according to the possibility and number of the church. Every church must have doors, closed windows of glass, thatch or slate able to withhold rain, a bell to convocate the people together, a pulpit, a basin for baptism, and tables for the ministration of the Lord’s Supper.”
The Perth Assembly, 1619
“That has been the uniform and constant order of this Church [of Scotland], since the reformation [in 1560]: that the communicants should receive the sacramental elements of bread and wine, sitting at the table. In the second head of the First Book of Discipline [of the Church of Scotland, 1560], are set down these words: ‘The table of the Lord is then rightly ministered when it approaches most near to Christ’s own action, but it is plain that at that supper Christ Jesus sat with his disciples, and therefore we do judge that sitting at a table is most convenient to that holy action.’
In the general Assembly held in December 1562 it was ordained, That one uniform order be observed in the ministration of the sacraments, according to the order of Geneva [Switzerland, where John Calvin was]…
But so it is, that sitting at the table in the act of receiving has been established by laws, custom, long prescription of time and confirmed by oaths and subscriptions as is evident by the former deduction.”