“Except a man be born again, he cannot see the kingdom of God… The wind bloweth where it listeth, and thou hearest the sound thereof, but canst not tell whence it cometh, and whither it goeth: so is every one that is born of the Spirit.”
Order of Contents
Anthology on the Post-Reformation
Heppe, Heinrich – sections 16-28 in ch. 20, ‘Calling’ in Reformed Dogmatics (Wipf & Stock, 2007), pp. 518-27
Heppe quotes and references: Heidegger, Burman, Witsius, Voet, Polan, Mastricht, Wolleb, Keckermann, Riissen, Bucan, Hemming, Sohn, Ursin, Pezel, Walaeus, Turretin, Calvin, Crocius, Leiden Synopsis & Wyttenbach.
Viret, Pierre – ‘Of the Regeneration of a Christian Man’ in A Christian Instruction… (London, 1573), 11th Dialogue, ‘Of the gifts of the Holy Ghost, belonging to the only elect’, pp. 230-32
pp. 24-26, 34-35, 38, 138 of A Brief & Pithy Sum of the Christian Faith made in Form of a Confession (London, 1562)
pp. 21-22, 37, 42, 50-51, 53, 58-62, 175, 177, 210-11, 221 of Propositions & Principles of Divinity Propounded & Disputed in the University of Geneva by Certain Students of Divinity there, under Mr. Theodore Beza & Mr. Anthony Faius… (Edinburgh, 1591)
Bullinger, Heinrich – pp. 97-110 of Sermon 2, ‘Of Repentance & the Causes Thereof’ in the 4th Decade (d. 1575; Parker Society, 1851)
Woolton, John – ‘Of the Renovation, or Regeneration of the old Man’ in A New Anatomy of Whole Man, as well of his Body as of his Soul: Declaring the Condition & Constitution of the Same, in his First Creation, Corruption, Regeneration & Glorification (London, 1576), pp. 27-40
Marbeck, John – ‘Regeneration’ in A Book of Notes & Common Places with their Expositions… (London, 1581), pp. 898-99
Merbecke (c. 1510 – c. 1585) was an English composer and strongly Calvinistic theological writer whose musical setting of the early Anglican liturgy standardised the sung Anglican service until the late 20th century.
ch. 20,‘Of the regenerate man’s free-choice & power to do good’ in Confession of the Christian Religion… (1586; Cambridge, 1599) There are other references to regeneration in the ToC.
Speculum Christianum or, A Christian Survey for the Conscience. Containing, Three Tractates… (London, 1614)
Question 2, ‘The manner how the Saints do sin willingly’
Frewen, John – 221. ‘The Grace of Regeneration Figured in Baptism’ in Certain Fruitful Instructions & Necessary Doctrines meet to Edify in the Fear of God Faithfully Gathered Together… (London, 1587)
Frewen (1558-1628) was an English puritan.
Ursinus, Zacharias – ‘The works of the regenerate and unregenerate differ seven manner of ways’ in The Common Place of Sin, section 1, What Sin is, 3. ‘Of how many kinds of sin there are’ in The Sum of Christian Religion: Delivered… in his Lectures upon the Catechism… trans. Henrie Parrie (Oxford, 1587), 1st part, pp. 98-99
pp. 45-46, 63-64 of A Short Treatise Against the Donatists of England, whom we call Brownists… (London, 1590)
This, and the below, is mainly on how the regenerate can fall into serious sins, which the Brownists seemed to deny.
Bastingius, Jeremias – pp. 11b-12a, 16b, 17b, 117b-118a, 123a in An Exposition Or Commentary upon the Catechism of Christian Religion which is Taught in the Schools & Churches Both of the Low Countries & of the Dominions of the County Palatine (Cambridge, ca. 1591)
Virel, Matthew – pp. 52-57 in ch. 3, ‘Of Faith’, ‘The Exposition of the Apostles’ Creed’, Third Part in A Learned & Excellent Treatise Containing All the Principal Grounds of Christian Religion (London, 1594)
Polanus, Amandus – The Substance of Christian Religion soundly set forth in Two Books, by Definitions & Partitions… (London, 1595), pp. 94-100
1.5 & 1.8 in ‘Treatise on Justification’ trans. Aaron Clay Denlinger & Noah Phillips MAJT 27 (2016), pp. 108-10 This work was published posthumously in Rollock’s time.
A Treatise of God’s Effectual Calling… (d. 1599; London, 1603)
pp. 9-10 of Ch. 2,‘Of the Word of God, or of the Covenant in general…’
pp. 15-24 of Ch. 3,‘Of the Covenant of Grace’
pp. 207-10 of Ch. 34,‘Of Repentance’
pp. 220-26 of Ch. 37,‘Of Man’s Free-will’
Cawdrey, Robert – A Treasury or Storehouse of Similies both Pleasant, Delightful & Profitable… (London, 1600)
Cawdry (1540-1600) was reformed.
Bucanus, William – Institutions of Christian Religion Framed out of God’s Word… (1602; London, 1606)
31st Place, ‘Of the Justification of Man before God’
Bucan (d. 1603) was a professor of divinity at the University of Lausanne, Switzerland.
39th Place, ‘Of Repentance, where of Regeneration’, pp. 317-18
Cowper, William – ch. 1, ‘Of his New Birth or Regeneration’ in The Anatomy of a Christian Man… (London, 1611), pp. 1-13
Willet, Andrew – Controversy 3, ‘That regeneration is not the cause that there is no condemnation to the faithful’ in Hexapla, that is, A Sixfold Commentary upon the Most Divine Epistle of the Holy Apostle St. Paul to the Romans… (Cambridge, 1611), ch. 8, Places of Controversy, pp. 390-91
Wilson, Thomas – ‘Regeneration’ in A Christian Dictionary… (London, 1612)
Greenham, Richard – The Works of the Reverend & Faithful Servant of Jesus Christ, Mr. Richard Greenham… (London, 1612)
A Short Form of Catechizing
Godly Instructions for the Due Examination & Direction of All Men
Lever, Christopher – bk. 2, ch. 5, ‘Of Regeneration, or New Birth’ in The Holy Pilgrim, leading the Way to Heaven. Or a Divine Direction in the Way of Life… (London, 1618), pp. 213-30
Of Domestical Duties… (London, 1622), pp. 105-9
A Learned & Very Useful Commentary on the Whole Epistle to the Hebrews… (London, 1655)
Ch. 1, §56, ‘Of the difference betwixt divine Generation & Regeneration’
Ch. 12, §105, ‘Of regeneration, & the causes thereof’
Ch. 13, §175, ‘Of God’s continuing to work upon the regenerate’
Ames, William – bk. 1, ch. 26, sections 21-27 in The Marrow of Theology trans. John D. Eusden (1623; Baker, 1997), p. 159
Ames (1576-1633) was an English, puritan, congregationalist, minister, philosopher and controversialist. He spent much time in the Netherlands, and is noted for his involvement in the controversy between the reformed and the Arminians.
Downame, John – The Sum of Sacred Divinity Briefly & Methodically Propounded: More Largely & Clearly Handled & Explained (London, 1625), bk. 2, pp. 419-551
Carter, John – ‘Regeneration’ in Winter-Evenings’ Communication with Young Novices in Religion. Or Questions & Answers about Certain Chief Grounds of Christian Religion (Cambridge, 1628), pp. 16-17
Wolleb, Johannes – pp. 82, 110-11, 243, 270-71 in The Abridgment of Christian Divinity so exactly & methodically compiled… 3rd ed. (d. 1629; London, 1660)
A Treatise on Justification: or The Disputatio de Justitia Habituali et Actuali… trans. Josiah Allport (1631; London: 1844), vol. 1
pp. 27-28 of ch. 5
ch. 33, 2ndQuestion, 1stProposition, ‘The good works of the regenerate have in them, 1. A supernatural goodness; 2, are pleasing and acceptable to God in a supernatural way; 3, are destined by his Covenant or promise for the most gracious rewards’
pp. 265-66 & 268-69 of Determination 9, ‘Free-will is not granted to the unregenerate for their spiritual good’ in The Determinations, or Resolutions of Certain Theological Questions, Publicly Discussed in the University of Cambridge trans. Josiah Allport (1634; 1846) bound at the end of John Davenant, A Treatise on Justification, or the Disputatio de Justitia... trans. Josiah Allport (1631; London, 1846), vol. 2
de Valdes, Juan – The Hundred & Ten Considerations of Signior John Valdesso treating of those things which are Most Profitable, Most Necessary & Most Perfect in our Christian Profession… (Oxford, 1638)
Hooker, Thomas – ‘The Privilege of Adoption, & Trial thereof by Regeneration’ in The Christian’s Two Chief Lessons, viz. Self-Denial & Self-Trial… (London, 1640), pp. 285-303
Maccovius, John – ch. 14, ‘On Regeneration’ in Scholastic Discourse: The Distinctions & Rules of Theology & Philosophy (1644), pp. 239-49
Maccovius (1588–1644) was a reformed, supralapsarian Polish theologian.
Christ Dying & Drawing Sinners to Himself… (London, 1647)
‘Regeneration & Justification Not One’ 78
‘Libertines Falsely make Justification & Regeneration One’ 271-72
A Survey of the Spiritual Antichrist… (London, 1648)
Influences of the Life of Grace… (London, 1659)
How God withdraws Influences in particular acts hic et nunc [here and now] and yet has promised to bestow Influences in the regenerate by promise 18
Whether the habit of grace may cease in the regenerate from all its operations? 244
Eight evidences that in the regenerate the saving habit of grace never ceases from emitting some influences 239
Reprobates resist not the formal acts of regeneration 346
Rogers, Daniel – 8th Benefit, ‘Regeneration’ in Collections: or Brief Notes gathered out of Mr. Daniel Rogers’s Practical Catechism for Private Use… (London, 1648), pt. 2, article 5, pp. 167-68
Burgess, Anthony – Spiritual Refining: or A Treatise of Grace & Assurance… (London, 1652), section 4, ‘Wherein is handled the Nature of sanctifying Grace under the Title of Regeneration, with the counterfeit thereof’, pp. 201-44 All on John 3:3
Sermon 34, ‘Showing what the New-Birth or Regeneration is’
Sermon 35, ‘Showing how Ignorant Men of Great Learning & Outward Righteousness in the World may be [Ignorant] of Regeneration’
Sermon 36, ‘The Ground of the Necessity of Regeneration is the Corruption of Men’s Nature’
Sermon 37, ‘Of the Unexpressibleness of this New Life’
Sermon 38, ‘Laying Open the Counterfeits of a New Birth’
Sermon 39, ‘Declaring what both by Duty & Privilege a Son of God is, which he becomes by the New Birth’
Watson, Thomas – §2. ‘That Regeneration goes along with remission, & is a branch of the charter’ in The Christian’s Charter, showing the Privileges of a Believer (London, 1654), ch. 4, ‘The Augmentation of the Charter’
Cocceius, Johannes – ch. 7, ‘The Ability to Receive in the Covenant of Grace & its Inducement’ in The Doctrine of the Covenant & Testament of God, trans. Casey Carmichael (1654; RHB, 2016), pp. 144-55
Norton, John – pp. 282-83 in ch. 12, ‘The Soul is Passive in Vocation’ in The Orthodox Evangelist, or a Treatise wherein Many Great Evangelical Truths are Briefly Discussed, Cleared & Confirmed (1654)
Norton (1606-1663) was a puritan divine in England and an ordained, congregationalist teacher in Massachusetts. In 1635 he went to New England. He was an active member of the convention that formed The Cambridge Platform in 1648, and was a contributor to its drafting. He succeeded John Cotton as minister at the first church in Boston. In the following years, Norton became a leading opponent of the Antinomians and Quakers in New England. He wrote the biography of John Cotton.
Lyford, William – pp. 297-99 of ch. 10, section 2, ‘Of Man’s Free Will & ability to spiritual good’ inThe Instructed Christian, or the Plain Man’s Senses Exercised to Discern Both Good & Evil, being a Discovery of the Errors, Heresies & Blasphemies of these Times, & the Toleration of them… (1655; Philadelphia, 1847)
Cotton, John – A Practical Commentary, or an Exposition with Observations, Reasons & Uses upon the First Epistle General of John (London, 1658), on 1 Jn. 5:1, 4-5
Drake, Roger – pp. 435-48 of Sermon 20, ‘The Believers Dignity & Duty, or High Birth & Honorable Employment’ in The Morning Exercise Methodized… (London, 1660)
Drake was an English puritan.
Wilkinson, Henry – ‘The Necessity of the Knowledge of Regeneration’ n Jn. 3:10 in Three Decades of Sermons… (Oxford, 1660), Decade 2, pp. 89-104
Gouge, Thomas – A Word to Sinners, & a Word to Saints… (London, 1668), pt. 1
Ch. 3, ‘Of the Nature of Regeneration, What it is’
Ch. 4, ‘Of the parts of Regeneration & Causes concurring thereunto’
Ch. 5, ‘The Reasons why Regeneration is necessary to Salvation’
Ch. 6, ‘An use of Exhortation to endeavor after Regeneration, with quickening Motives thereunto’
Ch. 14, ‘The Duties to be Practiced in order to your Regeneration’
Ch. 15, ‘Other Means on our part to be performed for attaining of Regeneration’
Ch. 16, ‘Several Objections of Carnal and unregenerate men against the use of the forementioned Means, Answered’
Ch. 17, ‘The second branch of the use of Exhortation unto the Regenerate’
Ch. 18, ‘An Exhortation to bless God for the work of Regeneration and to walk worthy thereof’
Ch. 19, ‘The singular good things which the Regenerate ought to do above others’
Rijssen, Leonard – A Complete Summary of Elenctic Theology & of as Much Didactic Theology as is Necessary trans. J. Wesley White MTh thesis (Bern, 1676; GPTS, 2009) 316 pp. with an Introduction by White
ch. 9, ‘The Law, the Fall, & Sin’
Controversy 2 – Can unregenerate man dispose himself toward
conversion? We deny against the same, p. 93
ch. 12, ‘Christ’s Offices’
Controversy 5 on the Priesthood – Did Christ also merit for us the Spirit of regeneration? We affirm against the Arminians, pp. 132-33
ch. 13, ‘Conversion & Faith’
Owen, John – bk. 3 of Pneumatologia, or a Discourse concerning the Holy Spirit (1676) in Works, vol. 3
ch. 1, ‘Work of the Holy Spirit in the New Creation by Regeneration‘
ch. 2, ‘Works of the Holy Spirit Preparatory unto Regeneration’
ch. 3, ‘Corruption or Depravation of the Mind by Sin’
ch. 4, ‘Life & Death, Natural & Spiritual, Compared’
ch. 5, ‘The Nature, Causes & Means of Regeneration’
ch. 6, ‘The Manner of Conversion Explained in the Instance of Augustine’
Polhill, Edward – pp. 230-33 & 394-401 in Speculum theologiæ in Christo… (London, 1678)
Flavel, John – The Method of Grace, in bringing Home the Eternal Redemption contrived by the Father… (London, 1681)
Cole, Thomas – ‘A Discourse of Regeneration, etc.’ on Jn. 3:3 in A Discourse of Regeneration, Faith & Repentance Preached… (London, 1692), pp. 1-160
Heidegger, Johann H. – sections VII-IX in Locus XXI, ‘On the Grace of Calling’ in The Concise Marrow of Theology (1697; RHB, 2019), pp. 147-48
à Brakel, Wilhelmus – The Christian’s Reasonable Service, ed. Joel Beeke, trans. Bartel Elshout (1700; RHB, 1992/1999), vol. 2, ch. 30
A Refutation of the Arminian Error that Man Has a Natural Inclination to Repent & Believe 216-22
Man‟s Passivity at the Moment of Regeneration 222-25
Howe, John – ch. 10, ‘Regeneration’ in Christian Theology… Systematically Arranged ed. Samuel Dunn (d. 1705; London, 1836), pp. 209-32
Witsius, Herman – ch. 6, ‘Of Regeneration’ in bk. 3 in The Economy of the Covenants… (d. 1708; NY: George Forman, 1798), vol. 2, pp. 49-73
Halyburton, Thomas – ‘A Modest Inquiry whether Regeneration or Justification has the Precedency in Order of Nature’ in The Works of the Rev. Thomas Halyburton… (d. 1712; London: Thomas Tegg, 1835), pp. 547-58
Amongst other helpful things, Halyburton argues the traditional reformed paradigm that regeneration is antecedent to justification, and not the other way around.
Pictet, Benedict – pp. 339-41 of ch. 3, ‘Of Inward Calling’ in Christian Theology… trans. Frederick Reyroux (d. 1724; London, 1834)
Boston, Thomas – pt. 1, ‘On Regeneration’ on 1 Pet. 1:23 in III. The State of Grace in Human Nature in its Fourfold State… in The Whole Works… ed. Samuel M’Millan (d. 1732; Aberdeen: George & Robert King, 1850), vol. 8, pp. 138-76
Ridgley, Thomas – pp. 65-80 of Questions 67-68, ‘Effectual Calling’ in A Body of Divinity… (d. 1734; NY: Robert Carter, 1855), vol. 2, pp. 65-80 The editor’s extended note at the end, that of John M. Wilson, is not necessarily helpful.
Ch. 2, ‘The Evidence of the Doctrine of Original Sin from what the Scripture Teaches of the Application of Redemption’ in pt. 3 of The Great Christian Doctrine of Original Sin… in The Works of Jonathan Edwards… in Two Volumes (d. 1758London, 1840), vol. 1, pp. 213-15
On Edwards’s doctrine of regeneration see the synopsis by the editor on p. ccxxxviii.
The ‘Miscellanies’ in WJE Online, vols. 13, 18, 20
Riccaltoun, Robert – ch. 20, ‘Regeneration & Eternal Life’ in Essays on Human Nature & Several Doctrines of Revelation in The Works… in Three Volumes… (Edinburgh: A. Murray, 1771), vol. 1, pp. 390-405
Riccaltoun (1691-1769) was one of the leading Marrow Men.
Brown of Haddington, John – pp. 454-64 in ch. 4, ‘Of Sanctification’ in bk. 5 of A Compendious View of Natural & Revealed Religion… (Glasgow, 1782)
Griffin, Edward D. – Sermon 118, ‘Regeneration Not Wrought by Light’ on Eze. 36:26 in The National Preacher (New York), vol. 6, no. 9 (Feb. 1832), pp. 321-36
‘A Practical View of Regeneration’ (1836) from The Biblical Repertory & Princeton Review, vol. 8, 30 long paragraphs
Thoughts on Religious Experience (1844)
ch. 23, ‘Regeneration & Conversion’ in A Brief Compend of Bible Truth (Philadelphia: Presbyterian Board of Publication, 1846), pp. 127-30
Dick, John – Lecture 66, ‘Effectual Calling’, ‘Regeneration’ in Lectures on Theology (Edinburgh: W. Oliphant, 1834), vol. 3, pp. 270-81
Dick was an orthodox Scottish professor of theology in the Secession tradition. Excellent systematic.
‘Regeneration Necessary to Perceive the Beauty & Excellency of Divine Things’ originally entitled, “Regeneration & The New Divinity Trend”, taken from the Princeton Review (1846). It is a review of “Regeneration and the Manner of Its Occurrence, A Sermon from John 5:24″ by Samuel H. Cox, D.D., which advocated some common philosophic arguments against the doctrine of monergistic regeneration.
Hodge refutes the synergistic teaching that the natural man’s decision to trust Christ must come from an indifferent moral disposition and shows that the only reasonable explanation for holy decisions is that they must spring from holy first causes and inclinations.
‘Regeneration’ in Essays & Reviews (1857) pp. 1-48
In this you will find Hodge taking up the interesting subjects of Regeneration, the Atonement, Theories of the Church, that the Roman Church is part of the Visible Church, the Lord’s Supper, Slavery (which he is against) and Emancipation, amongst others.
Buchanan, James – ‘New Birth, Repentance & Faith’ 10 paragraphs, from The Office & Work of the Holy Spirit (1847)
Smeaton, George – Doctrine of Holy Spirit
Hill, George – ch. 1, ‘Regeneration—Conversion—Faith’ in bk. 5 in Lectures in Divinity ed. Alexander Hill (NY: Robert Carter, 1851), pp. 601-10
Hill (d. 1819) was a leader of the moderate party (contra the evangelicals) in Scotland. His textbook was widely influential, and according to Thomas Chalmers, was orthodox, though without the warm fervor that should attend evangelical doctrine. Chalmers used the work with his students of divinity as a platform for his own lectures. See Chalmers’ assessment of Hill’s divinity here.
Plumer, William – ch. 30, ‘Regeneration’ in The Grace of Christ, or Sinners Saved by Unmerited Kindness (Philadelphia: Presbyterian Board of Publication, 1853), pp. 261-74
Chalmers, Thomas – bk. 5, ch. 1, ‘Regeneration—Conversion—
Theological Seminary of the Presbyterian Church of Nova Scotia – Lecture 97, ‘Regeneration’ in A Course of Study in Systematic & Pastoral Theology & Ecclesiastical History… (Charlottetown: Burris Brothers, 1857), p. 71 with a bibliography
Hodge, A.A. – ch. 29, ‘Regeneration’ in Outlines of Theology: Rewritten & Enlarged (d. 1886; NY: A.C. Armstrong, 1905), pp. 456-65
Dabney, Robert L. – ‘The Believer Born of Almighty Grace’ on Eph. 1:19-20 in Discussions (d. 1898; Banner of Truth), vol. 1, Evangelical & Theological, pp. 482-96
Macpherson, John – ch. 72, ‘Regeneration’ in Christian Dogmatics (Edinburgh: T&T Clark, 1898), pp. 397-402
Macpherson was a professor of Free Church of Scotland.
Bosma, M.J. – ch. 5, ‘Regeneration’ in Exposition of Reformed Doctrine: A Popular Explanation of the Most Essential Teachings of the Reformed Churches (B. Sevensma, 1907), pp. 179-85
Bosma was an American, Dutch reformed pastor in Grand Rapids.
Clark, David – ch. 8, ‘Regeneration’ in A Syllabus of Systematic Theology (1920), pt. 3, Soteriology, pp. 187-88
David Clark was Gordon Clark’s father. The book is dedicated to the Princeton scholars A.A. Hodge, Francis Patton and John Cairns, his professors in systematic theology.
ch. 24,‘Regeneration’ in Christian Salvation: its Doctrine & Experience (Presbyterian Committee of Publication, 1921), pp. 293-325
“Webb (1856-1919), professor of apologetics and systematic theology at the Presbyterian Theological Seminary of Kentucky at Louisville (1909-1919), writes from a Reformed and Presbyterian perspective.” – Robert L. Reymond
Ch. 11, ‘Sons by Regeneration’ in The Reformed Doctrine of Adoption (Eerdmans, 1947), pp. 178-88
Berkhof, Louis – ‘Regeneration & Effectual Calling’ 39 paragraphs in Systematic Theology (1950)
Reymond, Robert – ‘Regeneration (New Birth)’ in ch. 19 of A New Systematic Theology of the Christian Faith (Thomas Nelson, 1998), pp. 718-21
A Treatise of the Threefold State of Man… (London, 1596), pp. 202-426
Two Treatises concerning Regeneration: 1. Of Repentance, 2. Of the Diet of the Soul, showing the one, how it ought to be sought after and may be attained unto, the other, how it being gotten, is to be preserved and continued (London, 1597) 119 pp.
Whately, William – The New Birth: or a Treatise of Regeneration, Delivered in Certain Sermons, etc. (London, 1619) 186 pp. Method
Ambrose, Isaac – Prima, the First Things, in reference to the Middle & Last Things: or, the Doctrine of Regeneration, the New Birth, the very Beginning of a Godly Life (London, 1650) 72 pp. ToC
Ambrose (1604-1664). This contains an appendix, ‘A more particular method for the man not yet born again, to have his part in the second birth’.
Swinnock, George – The Door of Salvation Opened by the Key of Regeneration in Works, vol. 5, pp. 3-264
Dickson, David – Therapeutica Sacra, showing Briefly the Method of Healing the Diseases of the Conscience concerning Regeneration (Edinburgh, 1664) 532 pp. ToC
Charnock, Stephen – Discourses: The Necessity, the Nature, the Efficiency & the Instrument of Regeneration in Works (1865), vol. 3, pp. 3-335
Wallis, John – The Necessity of Regeneration in Two Sermons… (London, 1682) 47 pp.
van Mastricht, Peter – A Treatise on Regeneration… with an Appendix containing Extracts from many Celebrated Divines of the Reformed Church… (1698; New Haven, 1770) 85 pp. no ToC from his Theoretical-Practical Theology
Table of Contents
Doddridge, Philip – Practical Discourses on Regeneration, in Ten Sermons (d. 1751) 250 pp.
Witherspoon, John – A Practical Treatise on Regeneration (d. 1794) 330 pp.
Backus, Charles – The Scripture Doctrine of Regeneration considered, in Six Discourses (Hartford: Hudson, 1800) 180 pp. ToC
Backus (1749-1803) was an American congregationalist minister.
Spring, Gardiner – Dissertation on the Means of Regeneration (NY: 1828) 50 pp.
Buchanan, James – The Office & Work of the Holy Spirit (1842) specifically Part 1, The Spirit’s Work in the Conversion of Sinners, p. 9, 230 pp. and Part II, Illustrative Cases from the Bible, p. 239, 195 pp.
Anderson was a Scottish Relief minister in Glasgow, which branch merged with the United Presbyterian Church. He was involved with the 1839 revival in Kilsyth and was a friend of George Gilfillan.
Wilson, Superville, Payne, Caird & Seeley – Regeneration; being Five Discourses (London: Religious Tract Society) 160 pp. no ToC
Bavinck, Herman – Saved by Grace: the Holy Spirit’s Work in Calling & Regeneration Buy (1901; RHB) 230 pp.
Bavinck wrote this in critique of his fellow contemporary Dutch leader, Abraham Kuyper, the father of Neo-Calvinism and a proponent of presumptive regeneration.
2nd Helvetic Confession (1566) – ch. 9, ‘Of Free-will & so of Man’s Power & Ability’
Synod of Dort (1618-1619) – Canons
3-4th Heads, articles 3, 11-12, 16-17, rejection 4, 8
5th Head, article 1, 7, rejection 3, 4, 8
A System or Body of Divinity… (London, 1654), bk. 7, ch. 2, ‘Of Effectual Vocation’, p. 490
“Regeneration (says Dr. [William] Twisse) is to be preferred before salvation, the one [is] a translation from the state of nature into the state of grace; the other is only a translation from the state of grace into the state of glory.
By the one we are made the sons of God; by the other we only obtain the inheritance of the sons of God.”
The Covenant of Life Opened… (1655), p. 95
“Question: ‘Who are they who are to believe God shall give them a new heart?’
Answer: No man is positively to believe it while God work it in Him, for no man is to believe that he is predestinated to glory while he first have the effects thereof in him, ‘the hid Manna’, ‘the white Stone’, ‘the new Name’. But no man is to despair or to create fatal inferences that he is reprobate, since God begins kindly with him with a Gospel call.”
On the Post-Reformation
Cunningham, William – section 4, ‘The Will in Regeneration’ in Historical Theology, (Edinburgh: T&T Clark, 1863-1864), vol. 1, ch. 20, ‘The Doctrine of the Will’, pp. 613-25
Muller, Richard – Dictionary of Latin & Greek Theological Terms… (Baker, 1985)
On 1800’s American, Southern Presbyterianism
Fentiman, Travis – II. The Doctrine of Adoption: A. Adoption is distinct from Regeneration in John L. Girardeau’s Doctrine of Adoption: a Systematic and Biblical Defense (RBO, 2014), pp. 4-6
Only the Initial Aspect of Regeneration is Strictly Monergistic (the Lord Working Alone & Man being Wholly Passive)
Only considering regeneration in its initial aspect is often how the term ‘regeneration’ (unqualified) is used in both popular and technical uses. Yet the term and concept of ‘regeneration’ and being ‘born again’ (according to Scripture and many historic, reformed divines) also includes the whole of the new birth and receiving spiritual life (including the aspects in which man is active in conversion and, upon personally exercising faith, his receiving of Christ spiritually into his soul and becoming a new creature and heir to eternal life).
The terms also designate his beginning in sanctification and his enjoyment of this new, spiritual life. As regeneration by its fundamental import signifies the renewing of real righteousness in man, so the term also broadly includes the whole of sanctification in this life and the perfect renewal of his nature in glorification in the next life.
In the Bible verses below, be sure to regard the order of salvation. For instance with respect to 2 Cor. 5:17, about being made a new creature in Christ: One is only spiritually, mutually and formally in Christ upon exercising faith, which is an active work of the believer (by the sovereign, irresistible grace of the Holy Spirit in the elect person). Hence, according to the Word of God, becoming and being a new creature, or being born again, is inclusive of the cooperative work of man in conversion in appropriating that to himself.
Modern debates between ‘Calvinists’ and ‘Arminians’ are often framed upon the simplistic defining of the question, whether regeneration is logically prior to faith or whether faith is logically prior to regeneration. The problem with this statement of the question is that these two options are not mutually exclusive: they have both been rightly affirmed in different senses by historic, reformed theology:
Reformed theology affirms in the narrow sense that regeneration is logically prior to faith (in that the Holy Spirit produces faith in the individual).
Yet it also affirms, in a very important, common, proper and Scriptural sense that it is only on account of faith that Christ spiritually enters the soul with all his benefits, the person then, and only then, being able to be said to be fully born again in the enjoyment of new, spiritual and eternal life.
The precise point of difference between the reformed and Arminians in the Post-Reformation was not whether regeneration (generally) is logically prior to faith, but rather, whether the initial aspect of regeneration (which will produce faith) is a work wholly of God, wherein man is passive, God working alone (or monergistically).
While there is some appropriate leeway in how one may define terms and argue such principles for certain purposes and contexts, yet, why this subject is so important, is not for how language may be used, but rather so that the Scriptures are not abused (and that by ‘Calvinsts’), but may be rightly and fully understood (rather than dismissed, explained away or neglected).
Hence, with our Savior’s words in John 3:3-6, “Ye must be born again…”, if it sounds like there is some responsibility and part upon man to be born again, it’s because there is. For ‘Calvinists’ to make all of the blessings of new, spiritual life in that passage, and others, to only involve that which comes before faith, and before an organic and vital union with Christ, is a running over, depleting of and perversion of the Scriptures.
For more help in understanding the order of salvation in these things, see ‘In What Way Union to Christ is Before & After Faith’.
Dt. 10:16 “Circumcise therefore the foreskin of your heart, and be no more stiffnecked.”
Jer. 4:4 “Circumcise yourselves to the Lord, and take away the foreskins of your heart, ye men of Judah and inhabitants of Jerusalem…”
Mt. 19:28 “…ye which have followed Me, in the regeneration when the Son of man shall sit in the throne of his glory, ye also shall sit upon twelve thrones…”
John 1:12-13 “But as many as received him, to them gave he power to become the sons of God, even to them that believe on his name: which were born, not of blood, nor of the will of the flesh, nor of the will of man, but of God.”
John 3:5-8 “Except a man be born of water and of the Spirit, he cannot enter into the kingdom of God. That which is born of the flesh is flesh; and that which is born of the Spirit is spirit…
The wind bloweth where it listeth, and thou hearest the sound thereof, but canst not tell whence it cometh, and whither it goeth: so is every one that is born of the Spirit.”
Rom. 3:22 “Even the righteousness of God which is by faith of Jesus Christ…”
Rom. 5:1 “Therefore being justified by faith, we have peace with God through our Lord Jesus Christ:”
2 Cor. 5:17 “Therefore if any man be in Christ, he is a new creature: old things are passed away; behold, all things are become new.”
Col. 2:13 “And you, being dead in your sins and the uncircumcision of your flesh, hath He quickened together with Him, having forgiven you all trespasses;”
Gal. 3:26 “For ye are all the children of God by faith in Christ Jesus.”
Eph. 2:8 “For by grace are ye saved through faith…”
Eph. 3:17 “That Christ may dwell in your hearts by faith;”
Titus 3:5-7 “…but according to his mercy He saved us, by the washing of regeneration, and renewing of the Holy Ghost, which He shed on us abundantly through Jesus Christ our Saviour, that being justified by his grace, we should be made heirs according to the hope of eternal life.”
1 Pet. 1:21-23 “Who by Him do believe in God, that raised Him up from the dead… that your faith and hope might be in God. Seeing ye have purified your souls in obeying the truth through the Spirit unto unfeigned love of the brethren, see that ye love one another with a pure heart fervently: being born again, not of corruptible seed, but of incorruptible, by the Word of God…”
Calvin, John – Institutes, bk. 3
ch. 6, ‘The Life of a Christian Man’, section 1, pp. 353-4
ch. 14, ‘The beginning of justification; in what sense progressive.’, pp. 351-73
“…in Chapter XIV, by a consideration of the commencement and progress of regeneration in the regenerate…” – ch. 11, p. 300
Witsius, Herman – pp. 255-58 in Conciliatory or Irenical Animadversions on the Controversies Agitated in Britain: under the unhappy names of Antinomians & Neonomians (1807), Notes, No. 19 on p. 119
Muller, Richard – ‘conversio’ in Dictionary of Latin & Greek Theological Terms… (Baker, 1985)
as translated in Heinrich Heppe, Reformed Dogmatics ed. Bizer, trans. Thomson (1950; Wipf & Stock, 2007), ch. 20, ‘Calling’, section 20, pp. 520-21
“In the conversion of a man there is no concurrence of the powers of free arbitrium. But at the first moment of it man and his will act in a purely passive state. Here we are speaking of the first impulse and moment of conversion, or the first beginning of this movement, in which acknowledging his sins man turns to God.
And this first beginning, we assert, does not depend on the natural strength of the will, but is the beginning of grace alone, according to the express testimonies of Scripture, Col. 2:13 (and you being dead through your trespasses and the uncircumcision of your flesh, you, I say, he did quicken together with him, having forgiven us all our tresspasses), where it is said that men are dead in sins…
Yet at the very moment in which God effects in us the grace of conversion He also bends man’s will to desire and seek for that grace, and so in the progress of conversion the will co-operates with divine grace.”
Scholastic Discourse: The Distinctions & Rules of Theology & Philosophy (1644), ch. 14, ‘On Regeneration’, pp. 239, 243
“1. In respect of its first moment regeneration comes about in another way than in respect of its progression.
Regarding the first moment of regeneration man is purely passive; regarding its progression man cooperates with God.
13. In this life regeneration is by degrees: these degrees do not only concern regeneration by itself but also the subjects.
Some people are more regenerate than others; hence older people are more regenerated than the young ones.”
as quoted in Heinrich Heppe, Reformed Dogmatics ed. Bizer, trans. Thomson (1950; Wipf & Stock, 2007), ch. 20, ‘Calling’, section 17, pp. 518-9, citing Voet, II, 436 & 449
“Regeneration is God’s action in elect sinners, redeemed, actively justified and called through Christ, by which He substantially (realiter) turns them from corruption to new life (or holiness), that they may henceforth live unto God.”
“Regeneration is instantaneous, or happens in an instant. When it is termed successive by some, this is to be understood of the whole complex or collection of the term in the first few moments. Here we are dealing with the term regeneration in its first moment.”
A Complete Summary of Elenctic Theology & of as Much Didactic Theology as is Necessary, trans. J. Wesley White MTh thesis (Bern, 1676; GPTS, 2009), ch. 13, ‘Conversion & Faith’, p. 151
“Controversy 3 – Is man in the first act of regeneration merely passive? We affirm against the Socinians and the Arminians.”
“No one is regenerated without his own act consequently. Thus the newborn does not elicit the act of regeneration (I grant it); with his own act antecedently (I deny it), because we are passive in the beginning of regeneration.”
Peter van Mastricht
A Treatise on Regeneration… (New Haven, 1770),
section 5, pp. 16-17
“That we may attain unto a more clear understanding of the nature of this regeneration, so necessary to salvation: we must carefully observe with regard to the word, that both the Scriptures and also divines use it sometimes in a larger sense, to denote the whole operation of the Holy Ghost upon the souls of those who are to be saved, whereby they are brought into a state of grace, so that, besides the external call, it comprehends conversion, and even initial santification: in which sense practical divines lay down the marks, motives and means of regeneration.
Sometimes the word regeneration is used in a more limited sense, as distinguished from the external call, from conversion and from sanctification: so that the external call signifies only the offer of redemption for our reception: Regeneration conveys that power into the soul, by which the person who is to be saved is enabled to receive the offer. Conversion puts forth the power received into actual exercise, so that the soul does actually receive the offered benefits. Sanctification brings forth the fruits of conversion, or of faith and repentance, in a carefulness to maintain good works, yet not so immediately but that a union with Christ and justification come between conversion and sanctification, at least in the order of nature, if not of time.
It is in this stricted sense of the word we shall consider the doctrine of regeneration at present…”
section 24, pp. 34-35
“Those places of Scripture which are alleged [Dt. 10:16; Jer. 4:4; Eze. 18:31; Rom. 12:2; Joel 2:13; Mt. 4:17] speak not of regeneration strictly so called, by which God infuses the first principle of life, but of conversion, wherein He brings forth the life already bestowed into actual exercise.”
section 25, pp. 36-37
“In these commands God speaks to his Church, to his people who had long been his delight; therefore they must have been already regenerate; since, without regeneration no one can see or enter into the kingdom of God. Therefore by these commands God does not mean to bring about regeneration as it denotes the first infusion of the spiritual life, but the drawing forth of that life which is infused by regeneration into the second acts or consequent exercises (which is expressly mentioned in the passage, from whence the first of these commands is quoted) which is done in conversion, that follows upon regeneration, in which man, being drawn, runs after God; being turned, he actively converts and turns himself to God by the power of his grace
On the Regeneration of Infants
In the excerpts below notice the divines’ distinction between the grace of faith which enables a person to believe, or gives them this power, versus the acts of faith by which the person actually accepts and receives Christ. What is not noted explicitly in the Confession is the great time delay that the divines often allowed in these things in respect of infants being regenerated. This distinction and possible time delay is taught in detail by Mastricht in the article below. The Confession does allow for this time delay in infants in its chapter on baptism.
Note also though, that the Confession does not say that baptism is the regular time that God regenerates infants. Rather, it in fact says, in the chapter on Saving Faith, that the ordinary time of regeneration is concurrent with the hearing of the Word, that is when children have the ability to understand it and exercise active faith.
Confession of Faith
ch. 14, ‘Of Saving Faith’
“I. The grace of faith, whereby the elect are enabled to believe to the saving of their souls,[a] is the work of the Spirit of Christ in their hearts,[b] and is ordinarily wrought by the ministry of the Word:[c] by which also, and by the administration of the sacraments, and prayer, it is increased and strengthened.[d]
II. By this faith, a Christian believeth to be true whatsoever is revealed in the word, for the authority of God himself speaking therein;[e] and acteth differently upon that which each particular passage thereof containeth; yielding obedience to the commands,[f] trembling at the threatenings,[g] and embracing the promises of God for this life and that which is to come.[h] But the principal acts of saving faith are, accepting, receiving, and resting upon Christ alone for justification, sanctification, and eternal life, by virtue of the covenant of grace.[i]
ch. 28, ‘Of Baptism’
“VI. The efficacy of baptism is not tied to that moment of time wherein it is administered;[q] yet notwithstanding, by the right use of this ordinance, the grace promised is not only offered, but really exhibited and conferred by the Holy Ghost, to such (whether of age or infants) as that grace belongeth unto, according to the counsel of God’s own will, in his appointed time.[r]
van Mastricht, Peter – section XVII of A Treatise on Regeneration… (New Haven, 1770), Doctrinal Part, pp. 27-8
Buchanan, James – ‘The Regeneration of Infants’ (1843) 27 pp. from his The Office and Work of the Holy Spirit, p. 212 ff.
The Person in Romans 7:6-25 is Regenerate
Willet, Andrew – Hexapla, that is, A Sixfold Commentary upon the Most Divine Epistle of the Holy Apostle St. Paul to the Romans… (Cambridge, 1611), ch. 7, Questions & Doubts Discussed
36th Question, ‘Of that famous question whether St. Paul do speak in his own person, or of another here in this 7th Chapter’
. ‘The former arguments answered’
. ‘Arguments for the affirmative part, that St. Paul speaks in
. his own person as of a man regenerate’
Cade, Anthony – Saint Paul’s Agony, a Sermon Preached… specially touching the motions of sin remaining in the Regenerate (London, 1618)
Cade (c.1564-1641) was a reformed Anglican.
Fraser, James –
Rutherford, Samuel – 9. ‘Whether the Apostle speaks of the regenerate man in Rom. 7? We affirm against the Remonstrants and Papists’, pp. 527-30 An Examination of Arminianism (c. 1639-42; Utrecht, 1668), ch. 12, pp. 527-30
Calvin, John – ch. 18 in An Instruction Against the Fanatical & Furious Sect of the Libertines, which Call Themselves ‘The Spiritual Ones’ in The Smaller Works of John Calvin… (1563), pp. 216-228
ch. 20, ‘Of the Free-Choice of a Regenerate Man, & of the Power to Good’, pp. 199-205 in The Faith of the Christian Religion (Newstadt, 1588; 1601)
ch. 7. ‘Of the Powers of Free-Choice in a Regenerate Man’ in Of the Fall of the First Man, of Sin & of the Law in The Theological Works (1618; n.d.), vol. 4, pp. 136-61 Hard to read
Table of Contents
ch. 1, 7 theses 136
ch. 2, 5 theses 140
Of the Power of the Will… 2 theses 144
Question 3, thesis 3 146
Question 4, thesis 6 149
Question 5, thesis 5 153
Question 6 153
Question 7, thesis 7 155
Question 8, thesis 8 156
Arguments to the contrary 158
Aretius, Benedict – Sacred Problems of Theology: Common Places of the Christian Religion Methodically Explicated (Geneva, 1589; Bern, 1604)
Theological Theses on the Regeneration of Man (Basil, 1603)
38. ‘Of Regeneration’ in The Divisions of Theology Framed according to a Natural Orderly Method (Basil, 1590; Geneva, 1623), bk. 1, pp. 135-39
Alsted, Johann H. – ch. 28. ‘On Regeneration’ in Theological Questions Briefly Set Forth and Exposited (Frankfurt, 1627), pp. 209-16
Eglinus, Raphael – 19 Didactic Theses on Our Regeneration & of the Office of the Regenerate, Rom. 6 (Marburg, 1614)
Pareus, David –Theological Collections of Universal Orthodox Theology… (1611/1620)
27. ‘On Regeneration & Repentance’, pp. 255-60
28. Appendix on Regeneration & Repentance, Comprehending the False Dogma of Romanists, pp. 260-64
17. ‘On Regeneration, or the Conversion of Man to God’, pp. 136-41
13. ‘On Conversion, or the Regeneration of Man’, pp. 157-59
A Theological Disputation on Regeneration (Franeker, 1625)
A Theological Collection of all that which is Extant... (Franeker, 1641)
1st Part: a Collection, 6. Miscellaneous Questions are Pulled Together, pp. 396-410
Disputation 1, ‘Of a Previous Preparation to Regeneration’, pp. 396-406 Two Related Questions:
‘Whether those which teach that the will necessarily follows the judgment of the intellect ought to decline to that absurdity which from that is seen to follow (gifts having been infused are not consequently necessary for the will), rightly they may say that gifts poured in the will by the benefit of the illustrating of the mind are as much as the means of some intervention’, pp. 408-10
Another Part: Theological Theses through Common Places, pt. 4, Disputations
1. Of Regeneration 312
2. Whether dispositions in unregenerate men are given unto regeneration? 314
3. Whether a man may cooperate with God in his regeneration, or whether his self may merely, passively accept [habeat] it? 317
4. Whether any may savingly hear the Word of God who is not regenerate? 320
5. Of the Power of God which is used in our Regeneration 323
6. Of the Effects of Regeneration, and in Specific of Faith 326
V. “Whether reigning sin may occur in the regenerate?” [No] in Johannes Maccovius Revived, or Manuscripts of his… ed. Nicolaas Arnoldi (Amsterdam, 1659), Anti-Eckhardus, ch. 10, Of Sin, p. 657
“The Holy Spirit repudiates this question, Rom. 6:14 to the end.”
A Syllabus of Theological Problems (Utrecht, 1643)
Select Theological Disputations (Utrecht, 1648-1667)
‘On Regeneration’, pp. 465-447
‘On Regeneration’, pt. 2, pp. 447-65
Appendix on that which follows the Moment of Conversion, pp. 465-68
Maresius, Samuel – ch. 19. ‘Whether we hold that regenerate men have been sinning out of custom [consuetudine]?’ in The Hydra of Socinianism Expunged (Groningen, 1651), vol. 3, bk. 5, pp. 584-94
Chamier, Daniel – 18. ‘Of Concupiscence in the Regenerate’ in A Body of Theology, or Theological Common Places (Geneva, 1653), bk. 5, pp. 233-36
Cocceius, Johannes – ch. 44. ‘Of Regeneration’ in A Sum of Theology Rehearsed out of the Scriptures (Geneva, 1665), pp. 445-52
Rutherford, Samuel – An Examination of Arminianism (c. 1639-42; Utrecht, 1668)
Valckenier, Johannes – A Theological Disputation on Regeneration (Leiden, 1669)
Nicolaus, Johannes – A Textual Theological Disputation out of Jn. 3:5 on Regeneration (Bern, 1674)
Essenius, Andreas – ch. 14, ‘Of Calling & Regeneration’ in A Dogmatic Compendium of Theology… (Utrecht, 1685), pp. 555-66
ch. 3,‘Of Regeneration by the Holy Spirit’ in Of the Truth of the Reformed, or Evangelical, Religion (Utrecht, 1688), bk. 5, ‘Of the Economy of the Holy Spirit’, pp. 518-31
ch. 3.‘Of Calling & Regeneration’ in A Synopsis of the Christian Religion (Utrecht, 1689), bk. 5, pp. 326-39
Marck, Johannes à – sections 1-6 in ch. 28, ‘Regeneration, Adoption, Reconciliation & Liberty’ in A Compendium of Christian Theology, Didactic & Elenctic (Amsterdam, 1696; 1722), pp. 541-51
Heidegger, Johann H.
The Marrow of Christian Theology (Zurich, 1713), bk. 2, Locus 21, ‘Of the Grace of Calling’, pp. 146-50
Sections 21-26, ‘Of Regeneration’
Sections 27-29, ‘Of the Imperfection of Regeneration’
Van Til, Salomon – ch. 9, ‘Of Calling & Regeneration’ in A Compendium of Theology (Bern, 1703), pt. 2, pp. 179-85
Vitringa, Sr., Campegius – ‘Of Regeneration’ in The Doctrine of the Christian Religion, Summarily Described through Aphorisms, vol. 3 (d. 1722), vol. 3, ch. 15, ‘Of the Actions, Faith & Repentance, which God works in the Sinner; of Calling & Regeneration’, pp. 217-41
Table of Contents
Controversies on Grace 215-17
Reformed Writers on Regeneration 217-18
On Regeneration in Scripture 218-20
Nature of, Whether Regen. Precedes Faith 221
Romanists on 221-22
Lutherans on 222-24
Illumination, Lutheran Controversies 224
Regeneration Lost & Regained? 225
Anti-Trinitarians on 225-26
Simon Mennon on 226-27
Remonstrants on 227-29
Fanatics & Mystics on 229-30
Hobbes & Deurhoff 230-31
van Hattem 231
Relation of Intellect to Will in 231-32
Papists: ex opere operato, by baptism 232-33
Lutherans: through Baptism & Spirit 233-34
Enthusiasts & Fanatics: Inner Light 234
Man is Passive in 1st Moment 234-35
Unregenerate not able to prepare for 235
Papists require dispositions 235-36
Socinians on Preparation 236-38
Remonstrants on Preparation 238
Infants able to be Regenerated 238-39
Anti-Trinitarians: Infants not able 239-40
Various states & grades of 240
Signs of 240-41
Regeneration in the OT 241
Hottinger, Johann Jakob – A Theological Dissertation on the Communion of the Holy Spirit with those having been Elected & Redeemed, being Regenerated, Sealed & Confirmed (1723) 16 pp.
Honert, Jan van den – Inaugural Oration on Regeneration (1734) in Didactic-Elenctic Theological Institutions (Leiden, 1735), pp. 217-58
De Moor, Bernard – sections 1-6 in ch. 28, ‘Of Regeneration, Adoption, Reconciliation & Liberation’ in A Continuous Commentary on John Marck’s Compendium of Didactic & Elenctic Christian Theology, vol. 5 (Leiden, 1761-71), pp. 178-218
Grebenitz, Elias – A Theological Tract on Regeneration, in Three Disputations (Frankfurt, 1671) no page numbers
Grebenitz (1627-1689) was a German reformed professor of logic, metaphysics and theology at Frankfurt.
Table of Contents
Disputation 1, On Regeneration in General
Section 1, The Knowledge of the Name
Section 2, The Knowledge of the Thing
Subsection 1, Of the Existence of Regeneration
Point 1, Of the Absolute Existence
Point 2, Of the Relative Existence of Regeneration
Subsection 2, Of the Essence of Regeneration
Subsection 3, Of the Coexistence of Regeneration
Disputation 2, On Conversion
Section 1, The Knowledge of the Name
Section 2, The Knowledge of the Thing
Subsection 1, Of the Existence
Subsection 2, Of the Essence of Conversion
Subsection 3, Of the Coexistence of Conversion
Disputation 3, On Preparation
Section 1, The Knowledge of the Name
Section 2, The Knowledge of the Thing
Subsection 1, Of the Existence of Preparation
Subsection 2, Of the Essence of Preparation