Musical Instruments in Worship

“And David spake to the chief of the Levites to appoint their brethren to be the singers with instruments of music, psalteries and harps and cymbals, sounding, by lifting up the voice with joy.”

1 Chron. 15:16

“Which was a figure for the time then present, in which were offered both gifts and sacrifices…  Which stood only in… carnal ordinances, imposed on them until the time of reformation.  But Christ being come an high priest of good things to come, by a greater and more perfect tabernacle, not made with hands…”

Heb. 9:9-11

“By Him therefore let us offer the sacrifice of praise to God continually, that is, the fruit of our lips giving thanks to his name.”

Heb. 13:15




The Westminster Confession and Musical Instruments in Worship



Order of Contents

Where to Start?
Are Musical Instruments in Worship a Big Deal?
Articles  (18)
Are Musical Instruments Circumstances of Worship?
Books  (16)
The History of & Quotes



Where to Start?


Williamson, G.I. – ‘Instrumental Music in Worship: Commanded or Not Commanded?’  n.d.  28 paragraphs  from The Biblical Doctrine of Worship



Schwertley, Brian – Musical Instruments in the Public Worship of God  Buy  1996  84 pp.

An excellent, exhaustive, Biblical defense of a capella praise.  The first part of the book surveys the Regulative Principle of Worship.  If you are familiar with that, and committed to it, begin at p. 32 where Schwertley brings in the question of musical instruments in the praise of God.


Classical & Early Church History

Ferguson, Everett – A Cappella Music in the Public Worship of the Church  Buy

Ferguson, a renowned early Church historian, gives the most exhaustive survey available of the ancient world, the New Testament era and the Early Church era on the Greek words for singing that are claimed to inherently imply musical instrumentation.  In demonstrating that they do not, he also sets forth the dominance of a cappella singing in the early Church and the middle ages.

After all, ‘a cappella’ originally meant, ‘from the chapel’, as the chapel traditionally sang without instrumentation.  While this short book is second to none on linguistics and history, it is weak on theology.

While this book is highly recommended, the distinctives of the Campbellite Churches of Christ, with which Ferguson was associated, are not.  Interestingly, the Campbellites received their practice and viewpoint against musical instruments in worship from their previous Scottish presbyterian heritage.


Reformed History

As musical instruments largely did not begin to come into presbyterian churches from the Reformation till the late-1800’s, and that due to influences outside of presbyterianism, no instruments in worship may be regarded as the majority, historic, presbyterian practice and viewpoint.

Schwertley, Brian – Musical Instruments in the Public Worship of God: the Historical Evidence  Buy  2003  19 pp.

This is an anthology of 85 quotes from church history (mostly reformed church history) demonstrating its large opposition to musical instruments in worship.



Are Musical Instruments in Worship a Big Deal?

Robert Candlish, of the Free Church of Scotland

as quoted in James Gibson’s, The Public Worship of God, 1869, p. 107

“I believe that it is a question which touches some of the highest and deepest points of Christian theology.  

Is the temple destroyed?  Is the temple worship wholly superseded?  Have we, or have we not, priests and sacrifices among us now?  Is the temple or the synagogue the model on which the Church of the New Testament is formed?  Does the Old Testament itself point to anything but ‘the fruit of the lips’ [Heb. 13:15] as the peace-offering or thank-offering of gospel times?  Is there a trace in the New Testament of any other mode of praise?

For my part I am persuaded that if the organ be admitted, there is no barrier, in principle, against the sacerdotal system in all its fullness — against the substitution again, in our whole religion, of the formal for the spiritual, the symbolic for the real.” 


Matthew Poole, a puritan

Evangelical Worship is Spiritual Worship as it was Discussed in a Sermon  1660  pp. 13-14

II. A Voluntate Dei, ‘from the will of God’.  This is the other reason: ‘For the Father seeks such to worship Him.’ [Jn. 4:23 God requires such worship and worshippers.  

The foundation of this reason is this: The rule of worship is not mans fancy, but God’s will: Men’s fancies and wills are infinitely various, and therefore those that have gone that way, have been divided into a thousand varieties; they worship they know not what, as v. 22.  Only God’s will is the stable rule: None knows the mind of God but the Spirit of God: Now this is the worship God requires in Gospel times.

Argument Second:  From the end [design] of worship.  Look what the ends of worship are, such must the worship be: And that was the reason why the Jewish worship was so much typical, because the end of it was to represent Christ; And that end being now attained, and Christ exhibited [revealed], we must consider what were and are the further ends of worship.  Now the ends are of two sorts.

1. In reference to God.
2. In reference to men.

And both will show us that the worship must be spiritual.

I. In relation to God; so it is double:

1. To please God: this is finis operis & operantis too [‘the end of the work, and of working’], (if a man be sincere) Ps. 19:14, ‘Let the words of my mouth and the meditation of my heart be acceptable in thy sight.’  Now it is only spiritual worship that can please God: That man does but little consider the nature of God, that thinks God is pleased with the bowing of the knee to an altar, no, it is the bending of the heart that God respects.  It is not an organ in a church, but the organ of a gracious heart, and melody in the heart that pleases God.

2.  To exalt God amongst men, to render Him glorious in the eyes of the world: Now how is that done?  Do you think that it makes God glorious, when men seek to honor Him with bodily and external services?  No, you cannot dishonor God more than by giving Him such a worship as begets a carnal representation of God, etc.  And when God would set Himself forth in his glory, He represents Himself in a spiritual manner, and He takes them off from all corporeal thoughts and fancies: ‘God is a Spirit.’  ‘To whom will you liken Me?’  ‘You saw no shape.’  ‘God dwells not in temples made with hands.’

II.  In reference to men; so the ends of worship are purely spiritual: such as these (for I can but name them) the elevation of the soul to God, and its assimilation to Him, the union of man with his Creator, the supply of the soul’s spiritual necessities, and the conduct of a sinner to glory, and all these are spiritual works, and to be done by spiritual helps, and therefore evangelical worship must be spiritual worship.”





Blaikie, Alexander – ‘The Manner of Praise’  1849  being ch. 3 of A Catechism of Praise

Blaikie was a minister in the Associate Reformed Presbyterian Church (ARP) in Boston.  The denomination was a merger in America of the Scottish Seceders and the Reformed Presbyterians.  His book is a classic.

Dabney, Robert

‘Against Musical Instruments in Public Worship’  1849/1888, includes 2 pieces, one a Review of Dr. John L. Girardeau’s Instrumental Music in Public Worship

Dabney was one of the last American presbyterian stalwarts that upheld the majority historic reformed view against using musical instruments in the worship of God, as instruments were minutely regulated by God’s express command in scripture and inherently tied to the OT temple administration which is now done away with.

Myers, Andrew – ‘Architect of Orthodoxy’  2010  11 paragraphs

Dabney, besides a pastor and theologian, was also an architect.  He built multiple buildings for churches designed to keep an organ out.

Breckinridge, R.J. – A Protest Against the Use of Instrumental Music in the Stated Worship of God  1856  12 pp.

Breckinridge was a Southern presbyterian.

Hislop, Alexander – ‘The Instrumental Music of Judaism’  1858  2 large paragraphs  being an Appendix to The Scriptural Principles of the Solemn League and Covenant, in their Bearing on the Present State of the Episcopal Churches  See near the bottom of the page for the appendix.  There is also a large paragraph devoted to musical instruments in worship near the beginning of ch. 1.

Hislop (1807-1865) was a minister in the Free Church of Scotland.

Brown, Hugh – ‘A Discourse Against Instrumental Music in Public Worship’  1859  90 paragraphs

Brown (1810-1888) was a minister of the United Presbyterian Church in New York.

Robertson, W. – ‘The Organ Question’  1868  95 paragraphs

This pamphlet is the substance of two lectures given in connection with the agitation by some in order to introduce an organ into the worship of God.  In 1873, five years after these lectures, the pro-organ party carried the day and an organ was introduced into the worship of Coupland Street United Presbyterian Church, Manchester, England.

Gibson, James – ‘Instrumental Music’  1869  23 pp.  being a chapter from his The Public Worship of God

This chapter argues against the introduction of musical instruments in the public worship of the Free Church of Scotland (for which church Gibson was a systematic theology professor).  He critiques Robert Candlish and Robert Buchanan who left the matter as an open question.

Johnson, Robert – A Discourse on Instrumental Music in Public Worship  1871

Johnson (1810-1879) was a minister in the Reformed Presbyterian Church in Iowa.  This is an extremely well reasoned defense of the anti-instrumentalist position in which he engages several well known objections and examines the plausibility of the arguments of those who would introduce these instruments into the worship of God.

Hutcheson, R. – Instrumental Music in New Testament Worship, pt. 1, 2, 3  1872  in The Reformed Presbyterian and Covenanter

Begg, James, the Younger

‘The Use of Organs in Christian Worship Indefensible’  Buy

‘Instrumental Music in Christian Worship Unlawful’  1870  24 pp.  Here is a review in the Original Secession Magazine

Anarchy in Worship, or Recent Innovations Contrasted with the Constitution of the Presbyterian Church and the Vows of her Office Bearers  n.d.  48 pp.

Begg the younger was a leading constitutionalist in the Free Church of Scotland.

‘Special Duties and Dangers of the Free Church of Scotland’  being the closing address of Free Church Presbyterianism   There is a subsection on ‘NEW STRUGGLE FOR PURITY OF WORSHIP — INSTRUMENTAL MUSIC’ about 2/5 the way down the page

Nevin, Robert – Instrumental Music in Christian Worship: A Review Chiefly in the Way of Reply to Professor Wallace  Buy  16 pp.  Here is an excerpt.  Here is a review.

Wishart, William – Psallo  1882  32 paragraphs  from the Evangelical Repository

Wishart (1821-1906).  This article examines the claims of proponents of musical instruments in worship taken from the meaning of the Greek word ‘psallo’.   Dr. Wishart explains why psallo does not provide Biblical support for the use of mechanical instruments of worship.

A Disruption Elder – ‘The Organ Question Critically Examined’  1884  12 pp.

The author was an elder during the Disruption of 1843 where the Free Church of Scotland continued as the legal and spiritual heir of the Church of Scotland from the Reformation.  The late-1800’s saw musical instruments starting to come into the Free Church, till they were later excised in the events of 1900.

Kennedy, John – The Introduction of Instrumental Music into the Worship of the Free Church Unscriptural, Unconstitutional and Inexpedient  n.d.  29 paragraphs

M’Donald, John – Instrumental Music in Religious Worship  n.d.  4 pp.

M’Donald (1843-1933) was a minister in the Reformed Presbyterian Synod, which published this tract in the 19th century.



Freeman, Brad – Why not Instruments in Worship?  2014  7 pp.

Rev. Freeman is a minister in the Presbyterian Reformed Church in America.



Watkins, K.M. – ‘Musical Instruments in Worship’  n.d.  11 pp.

Rev. Watkins is a Free Presbyterian minister in Vancouver, Canada.  This is a transcript of a lecture on ‘An historical and biblical survey of musical instruments in Christian worship’



Are Muscial Instruments Circumstances of Worship?


Girardeau, John – Are Musical Instruments Circumstances of Worship? Part 1 & Part 2  p. 136 and p. 188 respectively, 18 and 11 pp. respectively, from his Instrumental Music in the Public Worship of the Church

Circumstances are indifferent things relating to the worship of God that have no spiritual significance, such as the time of worship, the furniture one sits on, etc.  The Biblical and Confessional answer is to whether musical instruments can be brought into worship as indifferent circumstances is: No.

Carson, J.G. – pp. 42-45 of Proceedings of the Convention of the United Presbyterians Opposed to Instrumental Music in the Worship of God  1883

Littell, D.S., Proceedings of the Convention of the United Presbyterians Opposed to Instrumental Music in the Worship of God, 1883, p. 54

“What is admitted by some hair-splitting distinction, as incident or circumstance, a distinction it takes learned doctors two years to elaborate, goes to the people, and with them becomes worship, takes the place of simple and spiritual worship.  Misled by their spiritual guides, they practice or enjoy music, and think that worship.

Have you not heard of Christians, not very ignorant, who were ‘carried to the very gates of heaven’ by an instrumental voluntary?  When you have given that delicate infant spiritual worship, a Corliss engine [organ] to cut its teeth on, the probably, nay, certain result is, that the infant will have the breath knocked out of it, and the engine will go on.

Paul, who admits doctrinally, that circumcision has no spiritual effect, who for social reasons, ‘because of the Jews who were in those quarters’ circumcised Timothy, yet utterly refused to do the same in the case of Titus.  The doctrinal results are too dangerous.  ‘To whom we gave place by subjugation, no, not for an hour, that the truth of the gospel might continue with you.”

W.W. Barr, Proceedings of the Convention of the United Presbyterians Opposed to Instrumental Music in the Worship of God, 1883, p. 21

“…no one, at least, who adopts the theory that instrumental music is a ‘circumstance’ of worship to be determined, not by written revelation, but by the light of nature, can fairly doubt on this point any longer.  The apostles give us instances and examples of worship, instances and examples of singing praise, but there is not a shadow of evidence that an instrument of music was used by any individuals, families or congregations in the worship of God.”

Kennedy, D.S., Proceedings of the Convention of the United Presbyterians Opposed to Instrumental Music in the Worship of God, 1883, p. 67-68

“Forbear!  Forbear!  It’s a little one!  ‘A non-essential!’  ‘A circumstance!’  Only an ‘incident’!  It’s popular, many of us like it, ‘and want it, and will have it’…”

Shall we set the sails and send the church of Christ to sea, before the pleasant breezes of culture, tastes, preferences and aesthetics, knowing the terrific gale soon to blow, and before which our ecclesiastical ship is doomed to flounder?…  Our responsibilities extend to the incidents as well to the essentials…



Schwertley, Brian – p. 52 of Musical Instruments in the Public Worship of God  1999



Clark, R. Scott – ‘Could Instruments be Idols?’  2008  6 paragraphs

Watkins, K.M.

‘Musical Instruments in Worship’, p. 10

Fifthly, some consider instruments to be a mere circumstance rather than a real element of worship, so the Church can use them or not, as it sees fit. That there are such circumstances the Westminster Confession acknowledges: “There are some circumstances concerning the worship of God . . . common to human actions and societies, which are to be ordered by the light of nature, and Christian prudence, according to the general rules of the word, which are always to be observed” (1:6).

However, God did not treat instruments as mere circumstances. They had no place in Old Testament worship until He put them in it by His express command. And He has never put them into New Testament worship. Plus, to class something as a mere circumstance rather than an element of worship, it must be common to human society and necessary. Appointing a suitable time and place to meet for public worship is a circumstance of worship, because without that no gathering of people could be possible, and is done for all orderly public meetings. But singing with instruments is not necessary: it may be done, but it does not need to be done.


Brad Freeman

Why Not Instruments In Worship?, V. A Common Reason Answered

            There are many who consider the use of instruments as merely an aid to singing.  If Christians are commanded to sing in worship, what is wrong with using an instrument to assist the voice in carrying the tune? After all, it is argued, without an instrument to assist, many would not be able to sing the tunes properly.  In other words, instruments have become a necessary aid to the practice of a Scriptural element of worship, as if congregational singing is impossible or impractical without mechanical help.  Looking at it this way, some argue that instruments are a circumstance to worship, not an element regulated by Scripture, much like the building, what pulpit is used, and other things common to any kind of meeting.

            Even if instrumental music could be considered as an aid to worship, the Lord still strictly controls what aids are allowed in His worship.  The Israelites, in their zeal to offer to the Lord true worship, nevertheless committed idolatry when they forged the golden calf at Sinai to magnify the great power of God.  They weren’t blind pagans; they intended to worship the God of Israel, not some pagan deity.  But in their desire for an aid to worship, they sinned and instead provoked the wrath of God.  To them the golden calf was an aid to worship that they thought the Lord would have allowed, but to the Lord it was an unauthorized aid that He abhorred. In matters of worship, both reason and the will of man is a fatal guide.  We would do well to remember the words of Solomon in Prov. 16:25, “There is a way that seemeth right unto a man, but the end thereof are the ways of death.”

            In relation to Christian conscience, we must realize that employing instruments treads on the liberty of conscience Christ purchased for all His saints.  On the other hand, since it can’t be demonstrated that instruments are expressly commanded in worship, no harm is done to any conscience where instruments are prohibited and the unity of the Spirit can be maintained in the bond of peace.





A Letter to a Friend in the Country, Concerning the Use of Instrumental Music in the Worship of God, in Answer to Mr. Newte’s Sermon… on the Occasion of an Organ being Erected in that Parish  1698  96 pp.



Anonymous – An Essay Upon the Sacred Use of Organs in Christian Assemblies  1713  74 pp.   with a Preliminary Discourse on Ritualism by Robert Williamson, 1865

A very instructive essay which explains the rise of the use of musical instruments and the reason their use was discontinued in the best Reformed churches.



The Organ Question: Statements of Dr. Ritchie and Dr. Porteous, For and Against the Use of the Organ in Public Worship in the Procedings of the Presbytery of Glasgow, 1807-1808  with an Introductory Notice by Robert Candlish of the Free Church of Scotland

Porteous, on p. 27 argues (for 48 pp.) against the organ.  

Begg, James, the Elder – A Treatise on the Use of Organs and Other Instruments of Music in the Worship of God, in which it is Inquired Whether Instrumental Music be Authorized by God in the Worship of the New Testament Church, and by the Constitution and Laws of the Established Church of Scotland   1808  56 pp.

Begg the Elder, a minister in the Church of Scotland, was the father of the more well known James Begg the Younger who was a Disruption Worthy and minister and constitutionalist leader in the Free Church of Scotland.

A Statement of the Proceedings of the Presbytery of Glasgow Relative to the Use of an Organ in St. Andrew’s Church in the Public Worship of God  1807  300 pp.  Here is the American Edition with a unique Preface and Appendix.

Adamson, John – The Unlawfulness of Instrumental Music in the Worship of God: Stated in a Letter to a Friend in Defence of A Few Candid Reasons… , Against the Mistakes and Representations of Mr. J. Bedford…  1823  102 pp.

Christie, George – The Use of Instrumental Music in the Public Worship of God  1867  24 pp. printed in Nova Scotia, Canada.  The work is in the form of a dialogue

Canada Presbyterian Church – The Organ Question: Line upon Line, or Instrumental Music in Presbyterian Churches; Reports of Discussions in the Courts of the Canada Presbyterian Church in 1867  1868  60 pp.

Johnson, Robert – A Discourse on Instrumental Music in Public Worship  1871

Johnson was a minister in the Reformed Presbyterian Church in Iowa.

Robb, J. Gardner – Christian Worship, Praise Pure and Perfect Without Instrumental Music: A Review of the Pamphlet by Professor Wallace, Entitled, Instrumental Music: Its Place in the Worship of God the Same Under All Dispensations  1872  48 pp.

Kerr, James – The Fruit of Our Lips: Instrumental Music an Unscriptural Addition to the Service of Praise  1877  Here is the work’s outline.

Proceedings of the Convention of United Presbyterians Opposed to Instrumental Music in the Worship of God  1883  170 pp.

M’Ewan, John – Instrumental Music: A Consideration of the Arguments For and Against its Introduction into the Worship of the Free Church of Scotland  1883  with a preface by George Smeaton

Rev. John M’Ewan was minister of John Knox Free Church in Edinburgh.

Girardeau, John – Instrumental Music in the Public Worship of the Church  Buy  1888  208 pp.

The classic book length Biblical defense against musical instruments in worship.  This was written at a time when the presbyterian churches were capitulating to Anglican worship practices.  Girardeau was one of the last of the faithful ministers to uphold the old historic reformed view and practice.

Glasgow, James – Heart and Voice: Instrumental Music in Christian Worship not Divinely Authorized  n.d.  275 pp.  Here is a review.

Glasgow was an Irish presbyterian, professor of oriental languages, and at one time a missionary with Alexander Kerr to India.  He also wrote a commentary on the book of Revelation.



Kurfees, M.C. – Instrumental Music in the Worship, or the Greek Verb ‘Psallo’ Philologically and Historically Examined  1911  128 pp.

While the information in this book is very useful, Kurfees was a leader in the Campbellite Churches of Christ, whose distinctives in general are not recommended.  Interestingly though, the Campbellites received their practice and viewpoint against musical instruments in worship from their previous Scottish presbyterian heritage.



Price, John – Old Light on New Worship: Musical Instruments and the Worship of God, a Theological, Historical and Psychological Study  Buy  2005  256 pp.

Price is a reformed baptist.  Here is a review by Geoff Thomas.

“I enthusiastically recommend this book on congregational worship.  It is a great relief to have access to a scholarly modern examination of the question…  For clarity and fulness of treatment, yet at the same time for courtesy and pastoral wisdom, this short study on an aspect of the regulative principle is first-class.  I highly recommend it to church members as well as to ministers of the gospel.” – Maurice Roberts



The History of & Quotes

The History of

Myers, Andrew – ‘The History of Instruments in American Churches’  2009  being 3 large quotes from historians/authors

Shifferd, Scott – ‘Charles Spurgeon Differs from Today’s Baptists on Church Music’  2008  9 paragraphs, with a quote from Andrew Fuller also


Collections of Quotes

Schwertley, Brian – Musical Instruments in the Public Worship of God: the Historical Evidence  Buy  2003  19 pp.

This is an anthology of 85 quotes from church history (mostly reformed church history) demonstrating its large opposition to musical instruments in worship.

Anonymous – What Did Early Christians Believe About Using Instrumental Music in Worship?  n.d.  7 quotes from the Early & Medieval Churches, with 63 quotes from other time periods and scholars.  Note that this document was compiled by a website connected with the Campbellites, a.k.a. the Restoration movement.


Individual Quotes

Thomas Aquinas

John Calvin

John Rainolds  1598

The Scottish Commissioners to the Westminster Assembly  1644

Robert Baillie  1644
Samuel Rutherford  1644, 1646


Matthew Poole

Evangelical Worship is Spiritual Worship as it was Discussed in a Sermon  1660

To the Reader

…The reader will see that I only declared my dislike of organs in our churches, and therein I think I have better authority than those that are of another mind, forasmuch as in the Homily of the Place and time of Prayer (a book established and enjoined by the laws of the land) p. 131, they bring in some superstitious persons, complaining that they could not “hear the like piping, singing, chanting and playing upon the organs, that they could before”: To this is immediately answered thus; “But (dearly beloved) we ought greatly to rejoice and to give thanks to God, that our Churches are delivered out of those things which displeased God so sore, and filthily defiled his holy House”


p. 17

considerable inconveniences, which follow from the introduction, affectation and imposition of a ceremonial way of worship under the Gospel

2. There is a great obstruction to edification and the salvation of souls [due to the obstructing of spiritual worship and knowing God truly: spiritually as a Spirit]: Beloved, that man understands little of the worth of a soul, that does not value the salvation of one soul, before ten thousand of those unnecessary ceremonies.  Better all the organs in the world broken, all material temples leveled with the ground, all sacred garments (as they are accounted) of ministers, cast into a fire, than one soul lost.


James Renwick  †1688

Matthew Henry  †1714

John Gill

A Complete Body of Doctrinal and Practical Divinity, Vol. 3, ‘Of Singing Psalms As A Part of Public Worship’ (London, 1796), p. 384

5.  It is observed, that David’s psalms were sung formerly with musical instruments, as the harp, timbrel, and cymbal, and organs; and why not with these now?  If these are to be disused, why not singing itself?  I answer, these are not essential to singing, and so may be laid aside, and that continue; it was usual to burn incense at the time of prayer, typical of Christ’s mediation, and of the acceptance of prayer through it; that is now disused; but prayer being a moral duty, still remains: the above instruments were used only when the church was in its infant-state, and what is showy, gaudy, and pompous, are pleasing to children; and as an ancient writer observes, “these were fit for babes, but in the churches (under the gospel-dispensation, which is more manly) the use of these, fit for babes, is taken away, and bare or plain singing is left.”  As for organs were first introduced by a pope of Rome, Vitalianus, and that in the seventh century, and not before


Robert Candlish

Quoted here.

[After making the supposition that a Presbyterian Church might come to the conclusion that the question be left an open one, and that kirk-sessions and congregations should be allowed to exercise their discretion in regard to it, he adds:]

‘It is manifest, however, that this is a conclusion which could satisfy none but those who either approve of instrumental music, or reckon it a matter of indifference. All who are conscientiously opposed to it – who regard it as inexpedient and unlawful, unauthorised, and unscriptural – must feel themselves bound, as Presbyterians, to do their utmost against a proposal to have it even tolerated. In their own judgment it is an act of will worship; and there is no plea of conscience on the other side to which they might be bound to let their own judgment defer.’

‘It is enough to say that it [tolerating both sides of the practice] is inconsistent with Presbyterianism. Those Presbyterians who disapprove on conscientious and scriptural grounds of a particular mode of worship – as, for instance, of the organ – cannot divest themselves of responsibility by merely excluding it from their own congregations. They are bound to resist the introduction of it in all the congregations of the Church, as well as in their own.’




“…David and the captains of the host separated to the service of the sons of Asaph, and of Heman, and of Jeduthun, who should prophesy with harps, with psalteries, and with cymbals…”

1 Chron. 25:1

“And he set the Levites in the house of the Lord with cymbals, with psalteries, and with harps, according to the commandment of David, and of Gad the king’s seer, and Nathan the prophet: for so was the commandment of the Lord by his prophets.”

2 Chron. 29:25




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