“But He turned, and said unto Peter, ‘Get thee behind me, Satan: thou art an offence unto me: for thou savourest not the things that be of God, but those that be of men.'”

Matt 16:23

“…and that man of sin be revealed, the son of perdition; who opposeth and exalteth himself above all that is called God, or that is worshipped; so that he as God sitteth in the temple of God, shewing himself that he is God.”

2 Thess. 2:3,4

“For such are false apostles, deceitful workers, transforming themselves into the apostles of Christ.  And no marvel; for Satan himself is transformed into an angel of light.”

2 Cor. 11:13-14




Works Against the Roman Apologist Bellarmine

Romanist Systematic Theologies

Authoritative Documents of Romanism



Order of Contents

Collections of Articles
History of Romanism
Is the RCC a Church?
Is RC Baptism Valid?



Articles  Against the System of Romanism


Abbot, Robert – The Danger of Popery: or a Sermon Preached…  upon 2 Thess. 2:12, Wherein the Marks of Anti-Christianism and signs of truth are opened and applied, and the question of the saving and damning of those that follow Antichrist is explained by the Scriptures  (London, 1625)

Abbot (1560-1617) was a reformed Anglican and a professor of divinity at Oxford.



Brown, Charles – ‘The Strength of Popery: its Leading Elements of Influence & Power: its Tenets a Deceitful Counterfeit of the Great Truths of Scripture: a Lecture’  (1851) 40 pp.

Cunningham, William – ‘The Council of Trent’, p. 483, 12 pp., from his Historical Theology, vol. 1

Girardeau, John – ‘Romanism’, with an Appendix,  Buy  two chapters from his Discussions of Theological Questions, see the Buy link for the table of contents.

M’Crie, Jr., Thomas – ‘The Supremacy of the Pope: a Lecture’  (1851) 40 pp.

Miller, Samuel – ‘An Introductory Essay‘  to A History of Popery, including its origin, progress, doctrines, practice, institutions, and fruits, to the commencement of the nineteenth century  (1834) 15 pp.  The book is authored by “A Watchman”.



Collections of Articles  Against the System of Romanism by Individual Authors


Turretin, Francis – Institutes of Elenctic Theology, 3 vols.  (P&R)

vol. 1

2nd Topic, ‘The Holy Scriptures, the Word of God’

Q. 3, ‘Were the Sacred Scriptures Written Only Occasionally and Without the Divine Command?  We Deny Against the Papists.  60-62

Q. 6, ‘From what Source does the Divine Authority of the Scriptures Become Known to Us?  Does it Depend upon the Testimony of the Church Either as to Itself or as to Us?  We Deny Against the Papists.  85-95

Q. 9, ‘Ought Tobit, Judith, Wisdom, Ecclesiasticus, the Two First Books of the Maccabees, Baruch, the Additions to Esther & Daniel to be Numbered Among the Canonical Books?  We Deny Against the Papists.  102-106

Q. 10, ‘Have the Original Texts of the Old & New Testaments Come Down to Us Pure & Uncorrupted?  We Affirm Against the Papists.  106-112

Q. 11, ‘Are the Hebrew Version of the Old Testament & the Greek of the New the Only Authentic Versions?  We Affirm Against the Papists.  112-116

Q. 14, ‘Is the Septuagint Version of the Old Testament Authentic?  We deny.  127-131

Q. 15, ‘Is the Vulgate Authentic?  We Deny Against the Papists.  131-134

Q. 16, ‘Do the Scriptures so Perfectly Contain All Things Necessary to Salvation that There is no Need of Unwritten (agraphois) Traditions After it?  We Affirm Against the Papists.  131-134

Q. 17, ‘Are the Scriptures so Perspicuous in Things Necessary to Salvation that they can be Understood by Believers  Without the External Help of Oral (agraphou) Tradition or Ecclesiastical Authority?  We Affirm Against the Papists.  143-147

Q. 18, ‘Can the Scriptures be Profitably Read by Any Believer, and Ought He to Read Them Without Permission?  We Affirm Against the Papists.  147-149

Q. 19, ‘Whether the Scriptures Have a Fourfold Sense: Literal, Allegorical, Anagogical & Tropological.  We Deny Against the Papists.  149-54

Q. 20, ‘Whether the Scriptures (or God Speaking in Them) are the Supreme & Infallible Judge of Controversies & the Interpreter of the Scriptures.  Or Whether the Church or the Roman Pontiff is.  We Affirm the Former & Deny the Latter Against the Papists.  154-162

Q. 21, ‘Are the Writings of the Fathers the Rule of Truth in Doctrines of Faith & in the Interpretation of the Scriptures?  We Deny Against the Papists.  162-169

3rd Topic, ‘The One & Triune God’

Q. 13, ‘Is There a Middle Knowledge in God Between the Natural & the Free?  We Deny Against the Jesuits, Socinians & Remonstrants.  212-218

4th Topic, ‘The Decrees of God in General & Predestination in Particular’

Q. 3, ‘Are There Conditional Decrees?  We Deny Against the Socinians, Remonstrants & Jesuits.  316-19

Q. 13, ‘Can the Believer be Certain of his Own Election with a Certainty Not Only Conjectural & Moral, but Infallible & of Faith?  We Affirm Against the Papists & Remonstrants.  373-80

5th Topic, ‘Creation’

Q. 9, ‘Was Man Created in Puris Naturalibus, or Could He Have Been so Created?  We Deny Against the Pelagians & Scholastics.  462-464

Q. 10, In What Consisted the Image of God in Which Man was Created?  464-70

Q. 11, ‘Was Original Righteousness Natural or Supernatural?  The Former we Affirm, the Latter we Deny Against the Romanists.  470-73

6th Topic, ‘The Actual Providence of God’

Q. 4, ‘Is Providence Occupied Only in the Conservation & Sustenation of Things; or also in the Government (Through which God Himself Acts & Efficaciously Concurs with Them by a Concourse Not General & Indifferent, but Particular, Specific & Immediate)?  We Deny the Former & Affirm the Latter, Against the Jesuits, Socinians & Remonstrants.  501-505

Q. 8, ‘Whether it Follows & Can be Elicited by Legitimate Consequence from our Doctrine that we make God the Author of Sin.  We Deny Against the Romanists, Socinians, Remonstrants & Lutherans.  528-35

7th Topic

Q. 7, ‘Is There any Order Among the Angels and are There Distinct Hierarchies Among Them?  The Former we Affirm; the Latter we Deny Against the Jews & Romanists.  551-555

Q. 9, ‘Are Angels our Intercessors with God, and is Any Religious Worship Due to Them?  We Deny Against the Romanists.  560-569

9th Topic

Q. 2, ‘Whether the Hekousion or Voluntary (inasmuch as it is of him who Knowingly & Willingly does Anything) is of the Essence of Sin?  We Deny Against the Papists & Socinians.’  593-94

Q. 3, ‘Whether Guilt is the Formal of Sin, or its Inseparable Adjunct, or Only its Effect.  And Whether it May Well be Distinguished into Guilt of Culpability & of Punishment.’  594-96

Q. 4, ‘Whether All Sins of Themselves & in Their Own Nature Mortal [deadly].  Or Whether any Venial [slight & excusable] Sin can be Granted.  The Former we Affirm; the Latter we Deny Against the Papists.’  596-601

Q. 9, ‘Whether the Actual Disobedience of Adam is Imputed by an Immediate and Antecedent Imputation to All his Posterity Springing from Him by Natural Generation.  We Affirm.’  613-29

Q. 11, ‘Whether Original Sin has Corrupted the Very Essence of the Soul.  Also Whether it is a Mere Privation or a Certain Positive Quality Too.’  636-40

10th Topic, ‘The Free Will of Man in a State of Sin’

Q. 2, ‘Whether Every Necessity is Repugnant to Freedom of Will.  We Deny Against the Papists & Remonstrants.’  661-65

Q. 4, ‘Whether the Free Will in a State of Sin is so a Servant of and Enslaved by Sin that it can do Nothing but Sin; or Whether it Still has the Power to Incline Itself to Good, not Only Civil & Externally Moral, but Internal & Spiritual, Answering Accurately to the Will of God Prescribed in the Law.  The Former We Affirm; the Latter We Deny, Against the Papists, Socinians & Remonstrants.’  668-83

Q. 5, ‘Whether the Virtues of the Heathen were Good Works From which the Power of Free Will to Good can be Inferred.  We Deny Against the Papists.  683

vol. 2

11th Topic, ‘The Law of God’

Q. 3, ‘Is the Moral Law so Perfect a Rule of Life & Morals that Nothing can be Added to it or Ought to be Corrected in it for the True Worship of God?  Or did Christ Fulfill it Not Only as Imperfect, but Also Correct it as Contrary to his Doctrines?  The Former we Affirm; the Latter we Deny Against the Socinians, Anabaptists, Remonstrants & Papists.’  18-28

Q. 4, ‘May Anything be Added to the Moral Law in the Way of Counsel?  We Deny Against the Papists.’  28-32

On the 10 Commandments

Q. 5, ‘Are Four Precepts Rightly Assigned to the First Table & Six to the Second?  We Affirm.’  32-34

Q. 7, ‘Is God Alone to be Worshipped & Invoked?  Or is it Lawful to Invoke & Religiously Worship Deceased Saints?  We Affirm the Former & Deny the Latter Against the Papists.’  38-47

Q. 8, ‘Should the Bodies of Saints & Relics be Adored with Religious Worship?  We Deny Against the Papists.’  47-51

Q. 9, ‘Is it Lawful to Religiously Worship Images of God, the Holy Trinity, Christ, the Virgin & Other Deceased Saints?  We Deny Against the Papists.’  51-62

Q. 10, ‘Whether Not Only the Worship but also the Formation and Use of Religious Images in Sacred Places is Prohibited by the Second Commandment.  We Affirm Against the Lutherans.’  62-66

Q. 12. ‘Whether it is Lawful to Use Ambiguous Equivocations & Mental Reservations in Oaths.  We Deny Against the Papists & Especially the Jesuits.  70-77

Q. 14, ‘Whether the Institution of the Lord’s Day is Divine or Human; whether it is of Necessary & Perpetual or of Free & Mutable Observance.  The Former we Affirm & the Latter we Deny (as to Both Parts).  92-104

Q. 15, ‘Whether it Belongs to the Faith in the New Testament that Besides the Lord’s Day There are Other Festival Days Properly so Called whose Celebration is Necessary per se and by Reason of Mystery, not by Reason of Order or Ecclesiastical Polity Only.  We Deny Against the Papists.  100-104

Q. 16, ‘May Children Withdraw Themselves from the Power of Their Parents & Marry Without their Consent?  We Deny Against the Papists.’  104-112

Q. 21, ‘What Concupiscence is Prohibited by the Tenth Precept?  Are the Incipient Motions Sins?  We Affirm.’  134-37

12th Topic, ‘The Covenant of Grace…’

Q. 11, ‘Whether the Souls of the Fathers of the Old Testament were Immediately Received into Heaven After Death or were Cast Into Limbo.  The Former we Affirm; the Latter we Deny Against the Papists.’  257-62

Q. 12, ‘Whether the Sinaitic Legal Covenant, made by Moses with the People of Israel on Mt. Sinai, was a Certain Third Covenant Distinct in Species From the Covenant of Nature & the Covenant of Grace.  We Deny.  262-271

13th Topic, ‘The Person & State of Christ’

Q. 13, ‘From its Very Creation was the Soul of Christ so Filled with Knowledge that it could be Ignorant of or Learn Nothing?  We Deny Against the Papists.  348-352

Q. 14, ‘Did Christ Suffer Only Corporeal Punishments for us in the Body or in the Soul, but Only as to its Lower & Sensitive Part?  Or did He in Truth Also Bear the Spiritual & Infernal Punishments of Sin Themselves (in the Superior as Well as in the Inferior Part) Properly in Himself & From a Sense of God’s Wrath?  We Deny the Former & Affirm the Latter Against the Papists.’  352-56

Q. 15, ‘Was the Soul of Christ, After its Separation from the Body, Translated to Paradise Immediately?  Or did it Descend Locally to Hell?  The Former we Affirm; the Latter we Deny Against the Papists & Lutherans.’  356-361

14th Topic, ‘The Mediatorial Office of Christ’

Q. 2, ‘Is Christ a Mediator According to Both Natures?  We Affirm Against the Papists & Stancar.  379-84

Q. 4, ‘Is Christ Alone our Mediator with God?  We Affirm Against the Papists.  385-391

Q. 5, ‘Why Ought Christ to Sustain a Threefold Office of Mediator?  391-95  [Christ’s Office of Prophet was not generally recognized before Calvin.]

Q. 7, ‘In What does the Prophetic Office of Christ Consist; or what are its Parts & what is its Mode?’  397-403

Q. 12, ‘Was the Satisfaction of Christ so Perfect as to Leave no Room After it Either for Human Satisfaction in this Life or for Purgatory After this Life?  We Affirm Against the Romanists.  438-445

Q. 494, ‘Is Christ to be Adored as Mediator?  We Distinguish.  494-501

15th Topic, ‘Calling & Faith’

Q. 3, ‘Is Sufficient, Subjective & Internal Grace Given to Each & Every One?  We Deny Against the Romanists, Socinians & Arminians.’  510-517

Q. 4, ‘Is Effectual Calling so Denominated from the Event (or From Congruity) or From the Supernatural Operation of Grace Itself?  The Former we Deny; the Latter we Affirm Against the Romanists & Arminians.’  517-542

Q. 5, ‘Whether in the First Moment of Conversion Man is Merely Passive or Whether his Will Cooperates in Some Measure with the Grace of God.  The Former we Affirm & Deny the Latter Against All Synergists.’  542-46

Q. 6, ‘Whether Efficacious Grace Operates Only by a Certain Moral Suasion which Man is Able Either to Receive or to Reject.  Or Whether it Operates by an Invincible & Omnipotent Suasion which the will of Man Cannot Resist.  The Former we Deny; the Latter we Affirm Against the Romanists and Arminians.’  546-58

Q. 9, ‘Is Faith Assent Without Knowledge & Can it be Defined Better by Ignorance than by Knowledge?  We Deny Against the Romanists.’  564-68

Q. 10, ‘Is Faith Trust?  We Affirm Against the Romanists.  568-71

Q. 12, ‘Whether the Proper & Specific Object of Justifying Faith is the Special Promise of Mercy in Christ.  We Affirm Against the Romanists.’  575-80

Q. 13, ‘Whether the Form of Justifying Faith is Love or Obedience to God’s Commands.  We Deny Against the Romanists & Socinians.’  580-83

Q. 16, ‘Whether the True Believer can ever Totally or Finally Fall from Faith.  We Deny Against the Romanists, Socinians, Remonstrants and Others who Favor the Apostasy of the Saints.’  593-616

Q. 17, ‘Whether the Believer can and ought to be Certain of his Faith & Justification by a Divine & Not Merely Conjectural Certainty.  We Affirm Against the Romanists & Remonstrants.  616-33

16th Topic, ‘Justification’

Q. 1, ‘Is the Word ‘Justification’ Always used in a Forensic Sense in this Argument; or is it also used in a Moral and Physical Sense?  The Former we Affirm; the Latter we Deny Against the Romanists.’  633-37

Q. 2, ‘Is the Impulsive & Meritorious Cause (on Account of Which Man is Justified in the Judgment of God) Inherent Righteousness Infused into us or Good Works?  We Deny Against the Romanists.’  637-46

Q. 3, ‘Is the Righteousness & Obedience of Christ Imputed to us the Meritorious Cause and Foundation of our Justification with God?  We Affirm Against the Romanists & Socinians.’  646-56

Q. 5, ‘Does Remission of Sins Consist in an Absolute Removal of Them?  Or in the Pardon of Them?  And After the Guilt is Remitted is a Certain Punishment Retained?  Or is it Wholly Remitted?  The Former We Deny; the Latter we Affirm Against the Romanists.’  660-66

Q. 7, ‘Does Faith Justify us Properly and of Itself or Only Relatively and Instrumentally?  The Former We Deny; the Latter We Affirm Against the Socinians, Remonstrants & Romanists.’  669-75

Q. 8, ‘Does Faith Alone Justify?  We Affirm Against the Romanists.’  675-82

Q. 10, ‘The Unity, Perfection & Certainty of Justification’  686-89

17th Topic, ‘Sanctification & Good Works’

Q. 2, ‘Is Sanctification so Perfect in this Life that Believers can Fulfill the Law Absolutely?  We Deny Against the Romanists & Socinians.’  693-702

Q. 5, ‘Is there a Merit of Congruity or Condignity?  Do Good Works Merit Eternal Life?  We Deny Against the Romanists.  710-24

vol. 3

18th Topic, ‘The Church’

Q. 1, ‘The Necessity of the Discussion Concerning the Church, and Whether the Knowledge of the Church Ought to Precede the Knowledge of Doctrine.’  1-6

Q. 3, ‘Besides the Elect, are Reprobates and Infidels (whether secret or open) also True Members of the Church of Christ?  We Deny Against the Romanists.’  11-23

Q. 5, ‘In What Sense May the Church be Called One?’  27-30

Q. 6, ‘In What Sense is the Church Called Catholic?’  30-32

Q. 7, ‘Is the True Church Rightly Said to be Invisible?  We Affirm Against the Romanists.’  32-41

Q. 9, ‘Ought the Church to Enjoy Perpetual Splendor & Eminence; or can it be at Times so Obscured and Lessened that no Assembly of it Appears Publicly on Earth?  The Former we Deny; the Latter we Affirm Against the Romanists.’  47-57

Q. 10, ‘Where was our Church Before Luther and Zwingli, and how was it Preserved?’  57-69

Q. 11, ‘Is the Church Infallible or can it Err about Faith?  The Former we Deny; the Latter we Affirm Against the Romanists.  69-86

Q. 12, ‘Is the Truth of Doctrine which is Held in any Assembly, or its Conformity with the Word of God by the Pure Preaching & Profession of the Word, and the Lawful Administration and Use of the Sacraments, a Mark of the True Visible Church?  We Affirm Against the Romanists.  86-96

Q. 13, ‘Are the Name ‘Catholic’, Antiquity, Continued Duration, Amplitude, the Succession of Bishops, Harmony in Doctrine with the Ancient Church, Union of the Members with Each Other and with the Head, Holiness of Doctrine, the Efficacy of the Same, Holiness of Life, the Glory of Miracles, Prophetic Light, the Confession of Adversaries, the Unhappy End of the Persecutors of the Church and the Temporal Happiness of Those who have Defended it, Marks of the True Church?  We Deny Against the Romanists.’  96-121

Q. 14, ‘Can the Church of Rome of Today be Called a True Church of Christ?  We Deny Against the Romanists.’  121-37

Q. 16, ‘Should the Government of the Church be Monarchical?  We Deny Against the Romanists.  146-55

Q. 17, ‘Was Peter an Ecumenical Pontiff & the Head of the Church & the Vicar of Christ?  We Deny Against the Romanists.’  146-55

Q. 18, ‘Was Peter at Rome, & did He Hold the Episcopate There for Many Years?  We Deny Against the Romanists.  169-77

Q. 19, ‘Is the Roman Pope the Successor of Peter in a Monarchy or Ecumenical Pontificate?  We Deny.’  177-189

Q. 20, ‘Was the Primacy which Obtains in the Roman Church Established from the Beginning, or was it Introduced Little by Little & by Degrees in the Progress of the Ages?  The Former we Deny; the Latter we Affirm.’  189-99

Q. 21, ‘Is the Episcopate an Order or Grade of Ecclesiastical Hierarchy Distinct from the Presbyterate; and is it Superior by Divine Right?  We Deny.’  199-210

Q. 24, ‘Does the Right of Electing & Calling Pastors Belong to Bishops Alone or to the Church?  The Former we Deny; the Latter we Affirm Against the Romanists.’  223-235

Q. 25, ‘Was the Call of the First Reformers Legitimate?  We Affirm Against the Romanists.  235-46

Q. 26, ‘Is a Perpetual Celibacy According to Apostolic Institution to be Necessarily Observed by the Sacred Order?  Or is Marriage Lawful for Ministers?  The Former we Deny; the Latter we Affirm Against the Romanists.’  246-58

Q. 27, ‘Are Ecclesiastical Persons Exempt from the Jurisdiction of and Subjection to the Civil Magistrate?  We Deny Against the Romanists.’  258-69

Q. 31, ‘Does a Legislative Power Properly so Called, of Enacting Laws Binding the Conscience, Belong to the Church?  Or Only an Ordaining (diataktike) power, of Sanctioning Constitutions & Canons for the Sake of Good Order (eutaxian)?  The Former we Deny; the Latter we Affirm Against the Romanists.’  285-93

Q. 33, ‘Does it Belong to the Roman Pontiff to Proclaim & Gather Church Councils, to Preside Over Them & to Confer Upon Them Infallible Authority in Doctrines of Faith & Religion?  And is the Council of Trent to be Accepted?  We Deny Agains the Romanists.  306-316

19th Topic, ‘The Sacraments’

Q. 2, ‘Was it Necessary that Sacraments Should be Instituted in the Church and is their Use Necessary?  We Distinguish.’  343-45

Q. 4, ‘Is the Essential & Internal Form of the Sacraments Placed in the Relation of the Sign to the Thing Signified & in Their Merely Relative Union (schetike)?  We Affirm Against the Romanists.’  348-50

Q. 5, ‘Are the Sacraments Only Marks & Badges of our Profession?  Or are they also Signs & Seals of the Grace of God Concerning the Remission of Sins & the Regeneration of the Spirit?  We Affirm Against the Socinians & Romanists.  350-54

Q. 6, ‘Is the Sacramental Word a Declarative & Concionative (concionale) Word or is it the Consecratory which is Operative?  The Former we Affirm; the Latter we Deny Against the Romanists.  354-57

Q. 7, ‘Whether the Intention of the Minister (at Least of Doing what the Church Does) is Necessary to the Essence & Efficacy of the Sacrament.  We Deny Against the Romanists.  357-61

Q. 8, ‘Do the Sacraments of the New Testament Work Grace so Physically that they Effect & Contain it ex opere operato, Whether Faith & Devotion are Present or Not?  Or are They Rather Efficacious Signs & Seals of Grace?  The Former we Deny; the Latter we Affirm Against the Romanists.  361-69

Q. 9, ‘Does the difference Between the Sacraments of the Old & New Testaments Consist in This–That the Former Adumbrate and the Latter Contain Grace; that the Former have the Figure, the Latter have the Body Itself?  We Deny.  369-75

Q. 10, ‘Is a Mark (i.e., a Spiritual & Indelible Sign) Impressed Upon the Soul in the Three Sacraments, Baptism, Confirmation & Order?  We Deny Against the Romanists.’  375-377

On Baptism

Q. 13, ‘Is Baptism Absolutely Necessary to Salvation?  We Deny Against the Romanists’  386-93

Q. 14, ‘Is Baptism by Laymen or Women Lawful in Any Case?  We Deny Against the Romanists.’  393-96

Q. 16, ‘Was John’s Baptism Essentially the Same as Christ’s Baptism?  We Affirm Against the Romanists/’  398-403

Q. 18, ‘Is the True Doctrine Concerning Baptism Retained in the Roman Church?  We Distinguish.’  405-410

Q. 19, ‘Does Baptism Take Away Sins in Such a Way that They are Not, or Only that they do Not Reign & are Not Imputed?  Does it Take Away Past & Present Sins Only & Leave Future Sins to Repentance?  Or Does it Extend Itself to Sins Committed Not Only Before but Also After Baptism?  The Former we Deny; the Latter we Affirm Against the Romanists.’  410-414

On the Lord’s Supper

Q. 23, ‘Is a Consecration Made in the Eucharist by the Utterance of the Words, Hoc est enim corpus meum?  And Ought They to be Secretly Uttered?  We Deny Against the Romanists.’  436-442

Q. 24, ‘Is the Right of Breaking Bread Necessary in the Administration of the Supper?  We Affirm.’  442-447

Q. 25, ‘Ought Both Symbols of the Eucharist to be Administered According to the Command of God to Each & Every Adult Believer?  Or is the Use of the Cup to be Forbidden to the People?  The Former we Affirm; the Latter we Deny Against the Romanists.’  465-88

Q. 26, ‘Are the Words of the Supper to be Understood Properly & Literally (kata to rheton), or Figuratively & Sacramentally?  The Former we Deny; the Latter we Affirm Against the Romanists & Lutherans.  465-88

Q. 27, ‘In the Eucharist, is there an Entire Conversion of the Substance of the Bread & Wine into the Body & Blood of Christ; or are the Bread & Wine, in Virtue of the Words of Consecration, Truly Transubstantiated into the Very Body & Blood of Christ, the External Species Only of the Bread & Wine Remaining?  We Deny Against the Romanists.’  488-505

Q. 28, ‘Is Christ Corporeally Present in the Eucharist, and is He Eaten with the Mouth by Believers?  We Deny Against the Romanists & Lutherans.  505-19

Q. 29, ‘Is an External, Real & Properly so Called Sacrifice Offered to God in the Eucharist; Not Only of Praise, Thanksgiving & Commemoration, but a Truly Propitiatory Sacrifice for the Sins of the Living & the Dead?  We Deny Against the Romanists.’  519-38

Q. 30, ‘Is the Worship of Latria (or Adoration) Due to the Sacrament of the Eucharist?  We Deny Against the Romanists.’  538-48

Q. 31, ‘Are Confirmation, Penance, Orders, Marriage & Extreme Unction True Sacraments?  We Deny Against the Romanists.’  548-61

20th Topic, ‘The Last Things’

Q. 8, ‘Will Eternal Life Consist in the Vision of God or in the Love & Enjoyment of Him? [Both]  And Under What Symbols is it Usually Described & Why?  608-17

Q. 12, ‘What is the Difference Between the Church Militant & the Church Triumphant?  632-35  [Also refutes Purgatory & the Limbo of the Fathers]





Willet, Andrew

Synopsis Papismi, that is, ‘A General View of Papistry’, wherein the Whole Mystery of Iniquity & Sum of Anti-Christian Doctrine is Set Down, which is Maintained this Day by the Synagogue of Rome Against the Church of Christ, together with an Antithesis of the True Christian Faith, and an antidote or counter-poison out of the Scriptures, against the Whore of Babylon’s Filthy Cup of Abominations: divided into three books or centuries, that is, so many hundreds of Popish Heresies & Errors  (1592)  626 pp.

Tetrastylon Papisticum, that is, The Four Principal Pillars of Papistry, the First containing their railings, slanders, forgeries, untruths: the Second their blasphemies, flat contradictions to scripture, heresies, absurdities: the Third their loose arguments, weak solutions, subtil distinctions: the Fourth and last the repugnant opinions of new papists with the old; of the new one with another; of the same writers with themselves: yea of Popish Religion with and in itself. Compiled as a necessary supplement or fit appertinance to the Author’s Former Work, Entitled, Synopsis Papismi  ([London] 1593)

Abbot, Robert – A Mirror of Popish Subtilties, Discovering Sundry Wretched & Miserable Evasions & Shifts which a Secret, Cavilling Papist in the behalf of one Paul Spence, Priest, yet living and lately prisoner in the castle of Worcester, hath gathered out of Sanders, Bellarmine, and others, for the avoiding and discrediting of sundry allegations of Scriptures & Fathers against the Doctrine of the Church of Rome, concerning Sacraments, the Sacrifice of the Mass, Transubstantiation, Justification, etc.  (London, 1594)

Abbot (1560-1617) was a reformed Anglican and a professor of divinity at Oxford.

Perkins, William – A Reformed Catholic: or a Declaration Showing how Near we may Come to the Present Church of Rome in Sundry Points of Religion: and wherein we must forever depart from them with an advertisement to all favorers of the Roman Religion, showing that the said Religion is Against the Catholic Principles & Grounds of the Catechism  ([Cambridge] 1598)



Abbot, Robert

A Defense of The Reformed Catholic of Mr. William Perkins, Lately Deceased, Against the Bastard Counter-Catholic of Dr. Bishop, Seminary Priest: the First Part, for Answer to his Calumniations Generally Framed Against the Same & Against the Whole Religion & State of our Church in his Epistle Dedicatory…  (London, 1606)  260 pp.  ToC

Abbot (1560-1617) was a reformed Anglican and a professor of divinity at Oxford.

The True Ancient Roman Catholic, being an Apology, or Counter-Proof, Against Doctor Bishop’s Reproof of The Defense of the Reformed Catholic [above]. The first part. Wherein the name of Catholics is vindicated from Popish Abuse, and thence is showed that the faith of the Church of Rome, as now it is, is not the Catholic faith …  (London, 1611)  ToC

The Second Part of the Defense of The Reformed Catholic, wherein the Religion Established in our Church of England (for the Points Here Handled) is Apparently Justified by Authority of Scripture, & Testimony of the Ancient Church, Against the Vain Cavillations Collected…  Out of…  Popish writers…  (London, 1607)  ToC

Perkins’s Reformed Catholic had 21 chapters.  This work of Abbot refutes Dr. Bishop point-by-point through the first 9 chapters:

1. Free Will, 2. Original Sin, 3. Certainty of Salvation, 4. Justification, 5. Merits, 6. Satisfaction, 7. Traditions, 8. Vows & 9. Images.

The Third Part of The Defense of the Reformed Catholic against Dr. Bishop’s Second Part of The Reformation of a Catholic  (London, 1609)

I.H. – The Peace of Rome Proclaimed to All the World, by her Famous Cardinal Bellarmine, and the No Less Famous Casuist Navarre.  Whereof the One Acknowledges & Numbers up Above Three Hundred Differences of Opinion, Maintained in the Popish Church.  The Other Confesses near Threescore Differences Amongst their own Doctors in One-Only Point of their Religion. Gathered Faithfully out of their Writings in their own Words, and Divided into Four Books, and those into several Decades. Whereto is prefixed a Serious Dissuasive from Popery  (London, 1609)

Fowns, Richard – Trisagion, or the Three Holy Offices of Jesus Christ…  Priestly, Prophetical & Regal, how they Ought of all his Church to be Received, with a Declaration of the Violence & Injuries Offered unto the Same, by the Spiritual & Romish Babylon…  Revealing many Blasphemous Mysteries Unknown to the Vulgar  (London, 1618)

Fowns (c.1561-1625) was reformed Anglican chaplain and clergyman.

Guild, William

A Compend of the Controversies of Religion, wherein the Truth is Confirmed & Error Convinced by [the] Authority of Scripture, Witnessing of Antiquity & Confession of Party…  (Aberdeen, 1627)  The whole work is a systematic refutation of Rome’s doctrines.

Guild (1586–1657) was a Scottish divine.

Popish Glorying in Antiquity Turned to Their Shame, whereby is Showed how they Wrong, Villify & Disgrace that whereunto they Pretend to Carry Greatest Reverence: and are most guilty of that which they upbraid unto others.  Collected & proved out of themselves, for the singular profit both of pastors & professors [laymen]  (London, 1627)

The Old Roman Catholic, as at First he was taught by Paul, in Opposition to the New Roman Catholic, as of Latter he is Taught by the Pope, the One being Apostolical, the other Apostatical: derived and proven only out of the Epistle of Paul to the Romans: whereunto is added a clear probation that the same also was the doctrine of the Primitive Bishops of Rome…  discovering to all clearly the apostasy of that Church from the Ancient Roman faith and purity thereof to the novelty of gross heresy and idolatry, and sufficient to convince, if not convert, any Papist that is not willfully obdured  ([Aberdeen], 1649)  This is a systematic refutation of Romanism’s doctrines.

An Answer to a Popish Pamphlet Called, ‘The Touch-Stone of the Reformed Gospel’, Made Specially out of Themselves  (Aberdeen, 1656)  This is a systematic refutation of Romanism.

The Novelty of Popery Discovered & Chiefly Proven by Romanists out of Themselves  (Aberdeen, 1656)

Lynde, Humphrey (a Knight) – Via Tuta, the Safe Way.  Leading all Christians, by the Testimonies and Confessions of our Best, Learned [Roman] Adversaries, to the True, Ancient & Catholic faith, now professed in the Church of England   (London, 1628)

Swadin, Thomas – The Scripture’s Vindicated from the Unsound Conclusions of Cardinal Bellarmine, and the controverted points betwixt the Church of Rome and the Reformed Church stated according to the opinions of both sides  (no place, 1643)

Featley, Daniel – The Ancient Doctrine of the Church of England Maintained in its Primitive Purity.  Containing a Justification of the 39 Articles of the Church of England Against Papists & Schismatics: The similitude and harmony betwixt the Roman Catholic and the heretic, with a discovery of their abuses of the Fathers, in the first 16 ages [centuries], and the many heresies introduced by the Roman Church. Together with a vindication of the antiquity and universality of the ancient Protestant Faith  (London, 1660)

Featley was an Anglican, episcopalian Westminster divine.

ed. Annesley, Samuel – Puritan Sermons at Cripplegate, vol. 5, Against Popery, Sermons 1-6, pp. 547-700 & vol. 6, Sermons 7-25, whole

This is a series of practical, but substantial, puritan sermons refuting Romanism systematically topic by topic.



Shuttleworth, Humphrey – Lectures on the Creed of Pope Pius IV: or the Trent Confession of Faith: wherein the Arguments of Cardinal Bellarmine & Other Approved Writers of the Roman Church, in Vindication of the Principal Tenets of Popery, as Distinguished from Primitive Christianity, are Examined & Confuted  (London, 1785)  ToC

Shuttleworth appears to have been an Anglican.



Begg, James – A Handbook of Popery, or, Text-Book of Missions for the Conversion of Romanists: Being, Papal Rome Tested by Scripture, History & its Recent Workings  (1852)  349 pp.

Cunningham, William – Discussions on Church Principles: Popish, Erastian and Presbyterian  Buy  (1863)  565 pp., see Chapters 1-5, 163 pages

Gaussen, Louis – Geneva & Rome: Rome Papal as Portrayed by Prophecy and History  (1844)  66 pp.

Ministers in Glasgow, Scotland – The Doctrines & Practices of Popery Examined, in a Course of Lectures by Ministers in Glasgow  (183?) 354 pp.



The History of Romanism



Cunningham, William – ‘The Rise of the Papal Supremacy in the Early Church’  (1863), p. 207, 19 pp. from his Historical Theology, vol. 1

Brown, Charles – The Future Development of the Roman Catholic Church in Great Britain, and her Position Towards that of England  (1851)  55 pp.



Is the Roman Catholic Church a Church?

Hodge, Charles 

Is the Church of Rome a Part of the Visible Church?  HTML, from the Princeton Review, Apr., 1846

Hodge’s answer to the question is Yes.  While the Church of Rome is a visible Church in some respect, Hodge gets his answer to the below question (Yes) wrong: 

God’s people are to separate and come out of her in order not to partake of her plagues.  God predicts his righteous satisfaction in the destruction of Romanism in Rev. 18, and we are not to pray for the Man of Sin (2 Thess. 2) or for a blessing on the work of such false teachers (2 Jn. 10-11).

A Solemn Question!  Can the Protestants Conscientiously Build up the Churches of the Pope?  (1873)  one page.  There is a 13 page reply by Rev. Charles Chiniquy.



Is Roman Catholic Baptism Valid?

Is Roman Catholic Baptism Valid?



Latin Order of Contents

Collections of Articles



Latin Articles Against the System of Romanism


Bullinger, Henry – An Antithesis & Compendium of Evangelical & Papist Doctrine  (1551)  28 pp.  In each chapter first the doctrines of Scripture are asserted, and then following, the doctrines of the Papacy are enumerated on the same subject.

Bullinger (1504-75)

Table of Contents

1. On Sacred Scripture  2
2. On God & the Worship of God  4
3. On Christ Jesus, who He is & what things are brought to us by Him  8
4. On the Church & Ministers of Christ, & of its doctrine  10
5. On the Rites & Sacraments of the Church of Christ  18-28

Beza, Theodore – ch. 7, ‘A Brief Antithesis of the Papacy & Christianity’  in  1. ‘A Confession of the Christian Faith, & a Collation of the Same with Papal Heresies’  in Theological Tracts, in which many of the Doctrines of the Christian Religion are Restored to Whole and Defended from the Word of God Against the Heretical Sects of our Times, vol. 1  (Geneva, 1570), pp. 56-79  ToC

Beza (1519-1605)

Aretius, Benedict – in Examination of Theology: A Brief and Clear, Written Out Method  (Morgiis, 1584)

Table of Contents

Out of the Following Class of Places are Some Places that are Controverted between Us & the Papists

The First Place, of Justification  92
.        Nine Arguments  98
The Second Place, of Good Works  102
The Third Place, of Original Sin  105
.        Four Arguments  107
The Fourth Place, of the Church  109
The Fifth Place, of the Marriage of Priests  113
The Sixth Place, of the Number of the Sacraments  115
The Seventh Place, Of the Invocation of the Saints  119
The Eight Place, of Purgatory  123

Theological Theses on the Papacy, Which is Averse to the Evangelical Church (Heidelberg, 1598)  75 Theses

Tossanus Sr. (1541-1602) was a French Reformed theologian and professor of New Testament at Heidelberg.



Tossanus, Sr., Daniel – Theological Assertions which Briefly Display the Roman Church (Heidelberg, 1601)  19 Theses

Junius, Franciscus – 15. ‘An Oration Against the Jesuits, a Sermon translated out of the French Idiom into Latin’  1545  in The Theological Works, vol. 2  (d. 1602; Heidelberg, 1607; 1608)  For Junius’s lengthy systematic work against Bellarmine in the same volume, see our page against Bellarmine.

Chamier, Daniel – ‘Jesuit Epistles’  in 2 parts  (To & From)  appended to A Body of Theology, or Theological Common Places  (Geneva, 1653)

Hoornbeek, Johannes – 4. ‘Of Papalism’  in A Sum of Controversies in Religion with Infidels, Heretics and Schismatics  (Utrecht, 1653; 1676), pp. 192-329



Van Til, Salomon – ‘A Very Brief Description of the Origin of the Errors of Papists’  in A Compendium of Theology (Bern, 1703), pp. 233-41

Van Til (1643-1713)

Stapfer, Johann – Ch. 14. ‘Of Papalism’  in Institutes of Universal Polemical Theology, Ordered in a Scientific Arrangement  (Zurich, 1756), vol. 4, pp. 67-335

Stapfer (1708-1775) was a professor of theology at Bern.  He was influenced by the philosophical rationalism of Christian Wolff, though, by him “the orthodox reformed tradition was continued with little overt alteration of the doctrinal loci and their basic definitions.” – Richard Muller



Collections of Articles Against the System of Romanism out of Individual Authors


Rutherford, Samuel

Apologetic Exercises for Divine Grace  (Amsterdam, 1636; 1651)

Exercise 1 – Of the Divine Decrees and the Agreeable Union of Divine Will with Human Liberty

4 – Contrary to Suarez, Vasquez, Molina, Lessius and
.       Fonseca, and above all Contrary to Jacob Arminius,
.       this [that contingencies are subject to God’s
.       Absolute Decree] is Explained by the Union of
.       Contingency and the Absolute Decree   105

5 – Contrary to the Same Jesuits and Arminians, the New
.       Fiction of a Middle or Conditional Knowledge of God
.       is Overthrown   187

Exercise 3 – Of the Temporal Actions of God in Human Liberty   363

2 – Of the Efficacy of Grace, contrary to the Jesuits and
.        Arminians   395
3 – The Jesuits’ and Arminians’ Arguments against the
.        Predeterminate Efficacy of Grace are Countered
.        477
4 – The Monstrous Fiction of Congruent Calling is
.        Rejected, contrary to Suarez, Pedro da Fonseca
.        & Bellarmine  502

An Examination of Arminianism  (c. 1639-42; Utrecht, 1668)  The sections below labeled with an * have been translated into English here.

Ch. 1, On the Scriptures and Fundamental Articles

13. Whether it follows from this necessity that the Scriptures are obscure in themselves, as the Papists assert?  We deny against the same.  87

* 17. Whether, not only all the traditions of the Papists, but even new offices, such as the domineering bishop, etc, human ceremonies, and whatsoever is of positive observance in divine worship contrived by the Antichrist or the bishops and prelates, conflicts with the completeness and perfection of the Scriptures?  We affirm against the Arminians.  97

Ch. 2, On God

Heading 4:  On God’s Knowledge [Scientia]

11. Whether there is a middle knowledge in God.  We deny against the Jesuits and Arminians.  162

Heading 5:  On God’s Will and its Execution

23. Whether the dominion of his providence in free acts, according to the view of the Jesuits and Arminians, consists with God?  We deny against them.  196

24. Whether such a dominion consists with God as that He be able to effect things so that a free act be rather than not be, according to the Scriptures?  We affirm against the Remonstrants and Jesuits.  197

25. Whether God’s dominion requires that all free acts of creatures be principally and determinately from Himself?  We affirm against the Remonstrants and Jesuits.  200

27. Whether God wills sin as it is a penalty for sinning? We affirm against the Remonstrants and Jesuits. 210

36. Whether God concurs with material acts of sin by a universal, indifferent, and determinate concurrence through secondary causes?  We deny against the Jesuits and Remonstrants. 221

37. Whether an obligation as first cause excuses God so that an evil action be not imputed to Him, even though He gives a general concurrence to it? We deny against the Jesuits and Arminians.  224

43. Whether all acts of good and evil are particularized and determined by God even as far as the numerical singleness and unity of acts [generally]?  We affirm against the Jesuits and Arminians.  234

44. Whether [God’s] permission is a bare, non-efficient one, and a dereliction of will, the nature of it being indifferent?  We deny against the Jesuits and Arminians.  235

Ch. 6, On Original Sin

4. Whether concupiscence is sin, particularly after baptism and regeneration?  We affirm against the Remonstrants and Papists.  314 & 321

5. Whether concupiscence is formally prohibited by the law of God?  We affirm against the Remonstrants and Papists.  316

Ch. 7, Of the State of Fallen Man

6. Whether God, by any law founded in the merits of Christ, confers a prevenient [antecedent] grace for doing what is in it? We deny against the Papists. 336

7. Whether God gives grace of conversion to man because he is better disposed, or from any mode of equity and congruency? We deny with a distinction against the Papists and Remonstrants. 337

Ch. 8, On the State of Grace

6. Whether the grace of God efficaciously determines the will? We affirm against the Remonstrants and Jesuits.  371

Ch. 11, On the Manner of Conversion

1. Whether grace irresistibly brings about conversion? We affirm against the Remonstrants and Jesuits.  453

14. Whether the efficacy of grace depends upon a congruent calling? We deny against the Jesuits and Remonstrants.  497

Ch. 12, Of the Justification of Sinners

1. Whether we are justified by faith alone, not by our works? We affirm against the Jesuits and Remonstrants.  498

2. Whether God justly imputes the righteousness of Christ to us? We affirm against the Remonstrants, Papists, and Socinians.  506

* 3. Whether the act of believing is imputed to the believer properly, so that it is therefore his righteousness formally before God?  We deny against the Remonstrants and Jesuits.  510

4. Whether, by the grace of God which is granted to the faithful in this life, the law can be fulfilled perfectly? We deny against the Remonstrants, Papists, and Socinians.  511

5. Whether a distinction should be made between mortal and venial sin? We respond with a distinction.  516

6. Whether there is any sin under the New Covenant which is by its nature venial? We deny against the Remonstants and Papists.  517

7. Whether the most excellent works of the regenerate are polluted with sin? We affirm against the Remonstrants and Papists.  520

9. Whether the Apostle speaks of the regenerate man in Rom. 7? We affirm against the Remonstrants and Papists.  527

10. Whether good works are necessary as causes of justification, and therefore also of salvation? We deny against the Remonstrants and Papists.  530

Ch. 13, Of the Perseverance of the Saints

1. Whether (1) adults (2) who are truly regenerate, (3) not for reason of their infirmity, and (4) notwithstanding the intercession of Christ, the principle of a lively faith, the immutable covenant of God, election, and the care and power of God, can so fall away that (i) they part with all right unto the kingdom of God that they once had in Christ, (ii) fall away from the favor and grace of a gratuitous election, and (iii) totally and finally fall away? We deny against the Papists, Pseudo-Lutherans, Socinians, and Remonstrants.  553

Ch. 14, On the Certainty of Salvation

1. Whether any can be certain that he himself is truly justified, in the grace of God, and will continue to be saved? We affirm against the Papists and Remonstrants.  625, 630

Ch. 17, On Synods

1. Respecting synods, how much is to be attributed to the authority of them? Explained and proven against the Papists, Remonstrants, and Separatists. 692


A Scholastic Disputation on Divine Providence   (Edinburgh, 1649)

ch. 3 – Concerning the new fiction of Middle Knowledge. Whether Middle Knowledge rescues the Providence of God when it comes to the control of contingent things: the flights of
the Jesuits Hieronymus Fasolus, Rodrigo de Arriaga, Diego Ruiz de Montoya, Petrus de Arubal (d. 1608), Gabriel Vázquez, Philipe de Gamaches (d. 1625), and others are examined. 12

ch. 5 – The arguments of Diego Ruiz, Fasolus, Petrus de Arubal, Alexander Pesantius, and others contending for the Middle Knowledge are extracted in parts. 50

ch. 7, Quest. 1, Whether permission is merely non-violentation or non-necessitation of will; as the Jesuits Penotto, Pesantius & Ruiz and the Arminians would have it?  73

ch. 9, Quest. 4-7 – Whether permission of sin is absolutely dependent on the free good pleasure of God, or whether it arises conditionally for the determination of a created will
that is alleging said permission? Gabriele Penotto, Diego Ruiz de Montoya, Theodorus Smising, Jacob Arminius, and others are invoked for their part.  86

14 – The reasons in favor of Middle Knowledge which are poorly understood from the Scriptures by the Jesuit François Annat, opponent of Doctor William Twisse, are explained. That matters move from the state of possibilities to the state of futurition only by means of the will of God from eternity; that created will is not the cause of secret and most high Election and Reprobation; and that the matter is not explained by means of a Middle Knowledge.  164

18 – Whether, supposing that God had stored up the damned unto the day of destruction and had permissively ordained them unto sin, it would then follow that God would be the Author of sin?  The passage Prov. 16:4 (“The LORD hath made all things for himself…”) is judged and vindicated.  Likewise the passage Rom. 9:17 (“Even for this same purpose have I raised thee up…”). Also, the passage 1 Pet. 2:8 is judged and vindicated.
Bellarmino, Ruiz, Louis le Mairat (d. 1664), Arubal, Fasolus, and the Arminians are invoked in parts.  211

20 – Whether sin is the penalty of sin?Whether GOD wills sin insofar as it is the penalty of sin?  Bellarmino, Diego Ruiz, Leonardus Lessius, Gabriele Penotto, Louis le Mairat, Philipe de Gemache, and also the Arminians are invoked in parts.  261

21 – That God does not harden men by bare permission. Regarding the method of hardening, the Jesuits and Arminians are invoked in parts.  287

25 – First, of Durandus and Ludovicus a Dola, deniers of God’s non-mediated concurrence with all secondary causes.  Second,the idea is overthrown which argues for a general concurrence of GOD delimited by secondary cause.  371

26 – Whether physical predetermination, by which GOD preordains wills unto entitative physical acts of sin, makes God to be the Author of sin?Whether this is fate? Whether Manaechism? Whether, according to the doctrine of the Jesuits and the Arminians, the general and indifferent concurrence of God truly absolves God from copartnership with crime? Diego Ruiz, Arriaga, Suarez, Raynaud, Jacob Arminius, etc., are invoked in parts.  383

27 – The reasons which Rodrigo de Arriaga, Suarez, Théophile Raynaud, and Guillaume Gibieuf give against God’s predetermination unto material acts of sin are discussed.
The reasons given by Jacob Arminius, Nicolaas Grevinchoven,
and Diego Ruiz, insofar as they contend that the act of sin itself is distinguished from malice, are noted with censure.  434

28 – First, that the special Providence of God which is determinative of acts of sin and individuates them, would stand out. Second,that the “general concurrence” of the Arminians and the Jesuits, out of their Doctrine, entangles GOD with a bond of crimes.  Third, the distinction is defended by which malice of actions is exposed to have its origin from a created will, not from God.  478

29 – First, that Calvin, Beza, and our own authors use formulas of speech that agree with the Scriptures, and with quite an orthodox understanding; and that they do not sound in
unison with the Libertines. Second, the chapter answers the objections of Jacob Arminius and the Jesuits.  478

30 – That the Patristics, the Doctors, and the Scholastics stand with us regarding God’s active Providence in sin.  523

Metaphysical Inquiries

Whether creatures are able to act without a concurrent primary cause?  Whether God moves a secondary cause by a previous concurrence or a simultaneous one?  Concerning the insanity of the Jesuits in this matter.  592


Voet, Gisbert

Select Theological Disputations, vol. 12345  (Utrecht, 1648-1667)

Vol. 1

2. Of Scholastic Theology  12

6. Of the Fathers, or the Doctors of the Ancient Church, Part 1  74

7. Part 2  87

8. The New Jesuit Skepticism about the Principles of the Christian Faith  108

14. Of the Knowledge [Scientia] of God  246

30. Of the Question: Is Christ to be Worshipped as Mediator?  520
31. Of the Same, Appendix Part 1  536

46. Of the Heavenly Hierarchy & of Guardian Angels  882

Vol. 2

11. Of the Same, a Short Appendix on the Descent to Inferos [Grave, Nether World, Hell]  188

14. Problems about the Merit of Christ  228
15. Of the Same, Part 2  238
16. Of the Same, Part 3  255
17. Of the Same, Part 4  268
18. Of the Same, Part 5  277

19. Of Indulgences  286
20. Of the Same, Part 2  291

21. Of the Person of Christ the Mediator  304
22. Of the Same, Part 2  313
23. Of the Same, Part 3  324
24. Of the Same, an Appendix of Some Questions  341

31. Of the Same [Regeneration], an Appendix on [secundo?] the Moment of Conversion  465

42. An Inventory of the Roman Church, or the Papacy  684

43. The Discerning Note of the Papacy  687

44. Of the Evolution[?] [Translatione] of the Papacy from Peter to the Pope  698

45. An Orderly Presentation [Method] Warding Off the Presumption, Succession, Antiquity & Catholicity of the Papacy  724
46. Of the Same, a Short Appendix, a an Orderly Presentation Demonstrating the Novelty of the Papacy  724

[?] 47. The Papacy itself Throws out the Force of Truth for the Assertion of the Fundamentals of Christianity, and of Salvation Through the Mercy of God Alone in Christ  726
48. Of the Same, Part 2  742
49. Of the Same, Part 3  756

50. A Query on the Faith of Papists: Is it Saving or Damning?  776

51. An Inventory of Controversies, of the Temporal Power of the Pope  791
52. Of the Same, Part 2  807

53. Question: Is the Roman Throne Compatible with Reformed Governments?  827
54. Of the Same, an Appendix of Some Problems  856

55. Of the Donation of Constantine  868

56. A Historical-Theological Query on the Official [Imperii] Translation from Greek into French  882

72. ‘A Narration of the Wonderful Acts of the Spirit ad Posonium Gestae‘ [a RC book from 1643, on WorldCat & GB]  1141

73. An Exercitation[?] on Thomas, Part 1, Question 12, Article 1, ‘Of the Vision of God, According to the Essence’  1193
74. Of the Same, Part 2  1203

75. Exercitation on Thomas, Part 1, Part 2 [?], Question 3, Article 4, ‘Of the Subject of Blessedness and of [its?] the Formal Act’  1217
76. Of the Same, Part 2  1228

77. Of the Purgatory of the Papists  1240

Vol. 3

12. Added Unto the Disputation on Superstition, where is Treated of Genuflection at the Name of Jesus and unto the Table, or Altar  139
13. Part 2  163
14. Part 3  179
15. Part 4  201
16. Part 5  214

18. Of Indirect Idolatry and of Participating in Idolatry  234
19. Of the Same, Part 2  245

20. A Short Appendix on Prayer to the East  269
21. Of the Same, Part 3  278

23. A Question Proposed from the Classis [Presbytery] of Gorinchem to the Theological Faculty of Utrecht [with an answer, regarding whether reformed persons may be joined with Papists under certain conditions] 358

24. Notes & Observations of Albaspinus on Canons 2-4, 40, 55, 56, 59 of the Council of Eliberin [on Indirect Idolatry]  368

25. Of the Canonization of Saints  386
26. Of the Same, Part 2, 393
27. Of the Same, Part 3, 400

32. Of the Deities[?] or Some Chimerical Saints, the First, which is of Ursula [d. 383], etc.  472
33. Of the Same, Part 2 of the First  482
34. Of the Same, Part 3 of the First  492

35. An Index of the Chimerical Saints  503
36. Of the Same, Part 3  509

37. Appendix to the Disputations on Superstition and Idolatry  532

45. Of Being [?] Taught Ignorance  668
46. Of the Same, Part 2  681

56. Of Faith, Conscience & Dubious Theology  825
57. Of the Same, Part 2  834

59. The Status of the Inficialis [Staining?] Question of the Worship of Images in the Papacy  870

60. Of Cross-Worship, or the Worship and Abuse of the Cross  884
61. Of the Same, Part 2  893
62. Of the Same, Part 3  900

63. An Addition to the Disputations on Cross-Worship and Indirect Idolatry  931

65. Of the Pseudo-Mortifications of the Papacy  946

66. Of Processions  960

67. Of Pilgrimages Compostellanis [?]  987

68. First Short Appendix on Pilgrimages to Jerusalem  999

69. Second Short Appendix on Relics  1002

70. Third Short Appendix on Pilgrimages to the Blood of Boxtelensa [?]  1003

71. Of Pseudo-Prayers, Rosaries, Litanies, Canonical Hours & the Offices of the Roman Church  1013

72. Of Little-Bead[?] Prayers  1023

73. Of Pseudo-Prayers, etc., Part 2  1037

74. Of Litanies  1049

75.   Of Pseudo-Prayers, etc., Part 3  1056

76. Appendix on the Office, or the Canonical Hours of Blessed Mary  1068

77. Of Benedictions, Consecrations & Sacraments  1076

79. Of a Religious Vow  1100
80. Of the Same, Part 2  1113
81. Of the Same, Part 3  1123

82. Of Exorcism  1135
83. Of the Same, Part 2  1150
84. Appendix on the Exorcism of Baptized Infants  1173
85. Second Appendix  1188

86. Of Divination and Other Abuses of the Divine Name  1194

93. Of the Sabbath Day and Festival Days  1227
94. Of the Same, Part 2  1252

96. Appendix of Festivals and the Extra Quasi-Festivals the Papacy Observes  1314

97. A Short Appendix on Ecclesiastical Computation and the Correction of the Gregorian Calendar  1346

98. On the [Roman Catholic] Jubilee [involving a release from Purgatory, etc.] 1354
99. A Short Appendix on the Jesuit Jubilee  1381

Vol. 4

2. Of the Law and Gospel, Part 1  17
3. Of the Same, Part 2  30
4. Of the Same, Part 3  47

16. Of the Blind Obedience of the Papists, Part 1  182
17. Of the Same, Part 2  194

21. Of the Murder and Hurting of Oneself, even of Voluntary Flagellation  244

26. Of the Same [Vanities of this world], Third Disputation, which is of Abuses in Food & Feasts  385
27. Of the Same, Fourth Disputation, which is of Luxury and Vanity in Clothes, Houses and Goods[?]  403

41. Some Problems about the Ninth Commandment of the Decalogue, of Lying, a False Appearance and of Disguising, Part 1  631
42. Of the Same, Part 2, of Deceit, Equivocation & Mental Reservation  640

47. Disquisition on Thomas, Part 2, Part 1, Questions 68-70, of Blessed Gifts and the Fruits of the Spirit  729

Vol. 5

 3.  Is Christ’s Saving the Elect by the Special Grace of Regeneration and Faith Meritorious?  270

1-6  Of Justification  277

1  Of the Roman Proteus [the god of ‘elusive sea change’, according to the constantly changing nature of the sea; Proteus comes from the adjective protean, with the general meaning of “versatile”, “mutable”, “capable of assuming many forms”], or a Setting Forth [Defensio] of the Reasons [Causae] that Rome is Always Changing [Mutata Mutanda]   435

1  A Gleaning unto a Historical Discussion of the Popess Joan [Ioannes Anglicus, A.D. 855-857]  444

1  Of the State of Souls After Death  533

1  Of the Soul of Trajan Liberated from Hell [Inferno]  538

1-12  Of the Gestures of Praying  550

1-5  Of Subsequent Grace  716


Ecclesiastical Politics, vol. 1 (1st part of the 1st part), 2 (2nd part of the 1st part), 3 (2nd part), 4 (3rd part)  (Amsterdam, 1663-1676)  There is a table of contents at the beginning of each volume.


vol. 1

Book 1, Of the Object of Ecclesiastical Polity
Tract 1, Of the Instituted Church

5. Containing the Fourth Class of Questions about Divisions of the Instituted Church, where is treated of the Parochial, Village or Rural, Domestic, Princely, Camp, Nautical, Scholastic and Provincial Church.

[?] 6. Of Ecclesiastical Colleges, Cathedrals or Dioceses, Archbishops or Metropolitans, Patriarchs and Ecumenics.

Book 1, Tract 2
Of the Power, Polity & Canons of the Churches

5. Some Particular Questions are Determined about the Subject of Ecclesiastical Power [Who may Hold and Exercise it]:  Is it of the Magistrate and other Political Confederations?  At Least During a Corrupt or Turbulent State of the Church?  [Is it held by] The Pope, Bishops, etc. Courts of them, Cathedrals of the Church, Councils; or of Solely the Ministry, a Court of Them, or an Ecumentical or Catholic Church; or the Populus?

8. Of Ecclesiastical Canons, Decrees, Ordinances and Custom.

9. Some Thesis Questions about Ecclesiastical Canons are Explained.

10. Contains Chronicles of Some Questions, even General and Particular.

11. Contains Questions on Ecclesiastical Decrees and on Custom.

12. Ecclesiastical Law or Canon in General and Historical Explained.

13. An Explication of the Historical Body of Canon Law.

14. Of the Judgment of the Body of Canons, or of the Pontifical Right, and of the Study of Them.

15. Some Questions on Canon Law.

Part 1, Book 2

Of Ecclesiastical Things, or Acts and Exercises

Tract 1

Of Formularies, or Liturgies and Rituals

4. The Controversy which Comes Between us and the Papacy on the Same Ceremonies, in General

8. Questions on Some Rituals in Particular: on the Laying on of Hands, the [Holy] Kiss, Abstinence from Things Strangled and Blood, the Marriage Rite, Anointing, Shaking the Feet of Dust, Love Feasts, the Rite of Covenanting and of the Washing of Feet.

Tract 2, Section 4

Of the Administration of the Lord’s Supper

2. Of the Consecration of the Symbols

5. Of the Rites of Breaking, Receiving, Genuflection and Elevation

Book 2, Tract 4

Of Extraordinary, Public Practices: of Fastings and Thanksgivings

1. A Description and Distinguishing of Religious Fastings, with a Censure of Roman-Papist Pseudo-Fastings

vol. 3

Part 1, Book 3

Of Occasional Practices and Pseudo-Practices

Tract 1, of Marrying

Section 2, of Marriage

1. Of the Causes and Conditions being Required unto Marriage, and of the Impediments of the Same  41

5. Of Marriages Following, or Remarriage; of the Marriage of Cousins and Certain others which Human Law has Prohibited, though in Conscience they are not Unlawful  95

6. Of the Profession of Betrothals, Proclamations, of the Matrimonial Benediction, the Confirmation of the Same, Rituals, and of the Wedding Feast

Section 3, Of that which is Against Marriage

1. Of Lawful and Unlawful Celibacy 149

3. Of Rejections and Divorces, which, of Themselves Release the Bond of Marriage  170

4. Of Malicious Desertion  188

5. Of Various Marriage Incompatibilities, the Contempt and Condemnation of Marriage, of Having Multiple Wives, a Changing [Giving, Selling, etc.] of the Same, a Barren Marriage, Incest, an Abominable Confusion of the Sexes, Polygamy, a Rendering of Service, Concubinage, Promiscuous Desire [Vaga Libidine], Perfidious Repudiations, Divorces, Desertions and of Marriages and Promiscuous Desire in the Future World  197

Part 1, Book 4

Of the External Adjuncts of Ecclesiastical Practices

Tract 1

Of the Liberty, Immunity and Dignity of the Church

7. Is Liberty for Papal Exercise[s] to be Conceded in Civil States which have been Reformed?  490

8. At this time, is Liberty for the Exercise[s] of Papists in the Belgic Federation to be Conceded for Political or Ecclesiastical Reasons?  497

11. Of the Liberty of Exemption, or of Ecclesiastical Immunity  584

12. Of the Dignity of the Church  584

Book 4, Tract 2

Of the Property of the Church, or of Ecclesiastical Goods

1. Of the Name, Definition and Division of Ecclesiastical Goods  595

3. The Next Issue to be Considered [Questio] is General, on the Origin and Acquisition of Ecclesiastical Goods, where these Six Distinct Points Ought to be Considered: 1. Who, and by Whom, are they Acquired?  2. Among Whom?  3. by what Means, or in what Manner?  4. of what Kind?  5. How Much?  6. For what End and Effect?  665

7. Shameful Things, Having been Hidden, are Exposed, along with the Defense of Wastefulness.  1. A Brief Argument is Shaken off from a Particular, which is Entirely and Only as an Argument to the Man [Ad Hominem] in this Matter, to be Able to Make one Absolved. An Exception about the Agreement of the Magistrate is Rejected. 722

8. Eight Escapes of Usurpers and Wasters are Taken Up  733

11. Clouds of Testimonies on the Use and Abuse of Goods are Adduced.  791

Book 4, Tract 3
Of the Stipends of Ministers

6. Of Ecclesiastical Benefits in the Papacy  838

Book 4, Tract 4

Of the External Requisites and Adjuncts of Sacred Practices

1. Of the Temporalities of Sacred Practices

Tract 4, Section 2

Of Church-Buildings

1. Of Church-Buildings and Places of Holy Things under the Old and New Testament  851

2. Of the Church-Buildings of Papists  862

3. Questions on Church-Buildings are Pressed Hard in the Controversy Between us and the Pontiffs  868

4. Textual Problems, and the History of Church-Buildings is Delineated  872

5. A Delineation of Some More Dogmatic Problems on Church-Buildings  881

6. A Delineation of Some Other Problems, More Moral and Practical, on Church-Buildings  887

Tract 4, Section 3

Of Utensils and Other Adjuncts of Church-Buildings

1. Of Bells  894

2. Of Vessels and other Sacred Utensils which themselves are of an Active Church-Building, They Being Kept in the Chancel [Choro Continentur]

3. Of Altars

4. Of 1. Candlesticks, Candles, Lamps; 2. Censers; 3. Books; 4. Sacred Vestments.  936

5. Of Cemetaries  939

6. Of Dedications [of Church-Buildings and Anniversary Feasts]  960

vol. 3

Part 2, Book 1, Of the People of the Church

Tract 1

1. Of the People of the Church in General  1

2. Of the Relations, Quantity, Liberty, Power, Dignity, Equality and Obedience of the People of the Church  14

3. A Doubt and Objections Against the Equality and Obedience of Members of the Church are Taken Up  31

Book 1, Tract 2

Of that which is in Them, which are Reckoned amongst the People

1. Of the Distinction[s] of those Numbered Among the People by Internal and Ecclesiastical Qualities  85

2. Of the Division of the People by External and Secular Qualities  86

Book 1, Tract 3

Of Confessors and Martyrs

1. Of Confessors  89

2. Objections Against the Necessity of a Confession of Faith are Solved and Related Questions are Determined  96

3. Of Persecution and Persecutors  112

4. Of Martyrdom and Martyrs in General  121

5. Of Various Distinctions and Divisions About Martyrs  126

A Short Appendix on the History of Martyrs  137

Part 2, Book 2

Which is of Ministers and the Ecclesiastical Ministry

Tract 1

Of the Necessity, Difficulty, etc. of a Minister

1. Of the Necessity of a Minister  213

2. Objections Against the Necessity of a Minister are Responded to  223

4. Of the Authority or Power of a Minister  247

5. Objections Against the Divinely Collated Authority of Ministers are Orderly Responded to  253

6. Some Questions about the Authority of a Minister are Explained, of which Some Concern the Nature and Properties of Power and Authority in Itself; Others, the Exercise of Them.  263

10. Of the Efficacy and Power of a Minister  336

Book 2, Tract 2

Of the Classes, Orders and Grades of Sacred Ministers

1. Of the Division of Ministers into Ordinary and Extraordinary; and of the Extraordinary Ministers of the Old Testament: the Patriarchs and Prophets  337

2. Of the Extraordinary Ministers Under the New Testament, and First, of the Apostles  351

3. Of the Evangelists and Prophets of the New Testament  364

4. Of the Extraordinary Ministry of John the Baptist  372

Book 2, Tract 3

Of the Ordinary Ministers of the Old and New Testament

2. Of the Ordinary Ministers of the New Testament, and of Pastors, or Preachers  401

3. Of the Functions of Pastors Negatively, or of Neglect, that is, of non-Attention to Himself and to the Church  405

4. Of Elders and Presbyters Governing  436

5. Objections Against the Order of Elders Responded to  462

6. Some of the Problems About Elders are Responded to  471

7. Of Doctors  479

8. Of Deacons  496

Book 2, Tract 4

Of Assisting Helpers to the Sacred Minister and Ministers

1. Of Deaconesses  508

2. Of the Visitors of the Sick, Announcers [Proponentibus], Catechists, Readers, Precentors, Custodians, Porters or Messengers  514

3. Of Visitors, Examiners, Deputies or Ambassadors, Correspondents, Presidents, Assessors and Registrars  527

Book 3, Tract 2

Of the Opposites to Calling

1. Of the History of the Law of Patronage  580

2. The Law of Patronage is Indicted  595

5. The Consensus of Antiquity on Ecclesiastical Elections  617

6. Objections and Exceptions are Responded to  612

7. Some Particular Questions about the Usurpation of the Law of Patronage are Responded to  632

8. Of the Use of a Clerical Patron of Patrons, whether of the Heterodox or the Orthodox  637

9. Those are Examined which are Against our Sentiment and Diatribe on the Law of Patronage; They are Added from Some.  644

Part 2, Book 4

Of the Roman Heirarchy

Book 4, Tract 1

Of Governing Clerics

1. Of the Greatest Pontiff [the Pope]  775

Appendix  784

A Compendium of Some Principal Things Contained in the Ceremonial of Gregory XV, and of the Election of the Roman Pontiff  785

2. Of Cardinals  793

3. Of Patriarchs, Primates, Archbishops, Bishops, Deans  816

4. A Delineation of a Brief Controversy about Episcopacy  832

5. Containing a Disquisition on Presbytery and Episcopacy  850
.           Part 1  851
.           Part 2  859
.           [Four] Consequences 869

6. Of Ecclesiastical Governments According to Ordinaries[?], Those put Forward[?], Archdeacons, Archpresbyters, Vicars, Counselors 869

Appendix to Ch. 6 876

Book 4, Tract 2

Of Ecclesiastical Attendants [Ministrantibus]

1. Of Pastors [Parochis] and Priests [Sacerdotibus]  879

2. Of Deacons, Sub-deacons, Acolytes, Exorcists, Readers, Porters  885

3. Of Ecclesiastical Attendants, Canons and House-Rules [Oeconomis]  895

Table of [the Titles of] Majesty and Power of the Sacred Monastery of Casinum  897

Book 4, Tract 3

Of Ecclesiastical Assistants

2. Of Doctors and Professors of Cannonical Law  918

Book 4, Tract 4

Of Ecclesiastical Supererogators

Section 1, Of Monasticism in General

1. Of the Suppositions and Fundamentals of Monasticism  925

2. Of the Efficient, Fundamental and Occasional Causes of Monasticism  929

3. Of Examples of Monasticism, which are Produced out of Scripture and Antiquity  940

Section 2, Of Monastics in General

1. A Description of a Common Monk.  A General Description and Subject Theses [Quaestionibus], and the Note of a Monk is Exhibited.  950

2. Doctrinal Issues, Moral Suppositions  and the Foundation of Monasticism  964

3. Explications of Textual Questions about the Suppositions and Foundation  976

4. Historical Questions about the Suppositions and Fundamentals of Monasticism  985

5. The Primary Divisions of Monastics from the Form, or Rules, and from the Subject  993

6. Of Monastics in Excess, etc.  997

7. Of Monastics in Defect  1002

8. Of Moderate Monasticism in-between Excess and Defect  1004

9. Some Problems on Rules and Examples [Analogiis] of Them, especially of Cloppe, are Explicated  1012

10. Of the Strictest [Religiosis], or the Monks of the Society of Jesus  1021

Tract 4, Section 3

Of Examples [? Analogis] and Relations of Monasticism, Brotherhoods and Holy Soldiers

1. Of Brotherhoods in General  1034

2. Of Brotherhoods of Mary  1048

3. Reasons for Brotherhoods are Attacked, Objections and Exceptions are Refuted and some Questions are Responded to  1067

4. Of the Holy War of the Pope, or the Religious Ordinances of Knights [Equitum] in the Roman Church  1080

5. Of the Johannites  1087

6. Questions are Responded to About Holy Soldiers  1095

7. Of the Ordinance of the Johannites in the Belgic Federation, Whether it ought to be Retained or Set Aside  1102

8. Reasons for Demanding the Recovery of the Johannites are Dissolved  1111

9. Some other Objections for the Recovery of the Johannites are Refuted  1118

10. Is the Order of the Equestrian Johannites Neutral?  1123

11. Hypothetical, or Historic-Theological Questions  1125

12. Questions of Controversy Between Papists  1128
.           Addenda  1129

Vol. 4

Book 1, Tract 2

Of the Government, Appointment and Maintenance of Examinations, Exercises, Elections and Visitations

1. Of Examinations  74

2. Of Ecclesiastical Visitations  92

3. Of the Appointing and Governing of Ecclesiastical Callings and all the Exercises and Actions in the Church  109

Book 1, Tract 3

Of the Assemblies, Gatherings [Collegiis] and Corresponding Relations of the Antecedents of Churches

7. Of the Persons present in Synod, or of the Persons Convened to the Synod  190

Book 1, Tract 4

Of Ecclesiastical Books, Records, Writings and Instruments

1. Of Ecclesiastical Books  272

2. Of Ecclesiastical Records and Writings  278

Part 3, Book 2

Considerations on the Governing and Ordering of the Church Respecting its being Erected

Tract 1, Of the First Planting and Collection of Churches

1. Of the Plantation and Planters of Churches  293

Appendix:  Of the Builders of Church Buildings, the Erectors of Colleges and the Founders of Revenues  316

3. Of the Missions and Missionaries of the Papacy  349

Book 2, Tract 2

Of the Government of the Church, which Ought to be Maintained and Augmented

1. Of the Augmentation and Multiplication of Exercises, Acts and Ecclesiastical Offices  355

Book 2, Tract 3

Of the Government of the Churches Less Conspicuous

3. Of the Means for the Propagation of Religion and the Augmenting of the Church by the Conversion of the Infidels, Heretics and Idolaters  404

Book 2, Tract 4

Of Churches by Analogy [Analogicis] which ought to be Raised, Encouraged and Governed

1. Of Churches in Courts and Academies  409

2. Of the Governance of Military Churches  4141

Tract 3, Section 2

Of the Joining With [Syncretismo] or Union of the Separatist Churches

5. All the Notable Deliberations and Endeavors about the Joining Together, or Union, of Protestants and the Reformed with the Roman Church are Referenced and Noted  615

Book 3, Tract 4

Containing a Disquisition on the Means to Reformation and to the Joining Together of the Churches which ought at some Point to be Adhered to or as are Usually Commended

Section 1

Of Colloquiums, Conferences [Collationibus] & Disputations

4. Containing an Index of Conferences and Disputations about Religion  667

Book 3, Tract 4, Section 3

Of Amnesty, Conciliation and Neutrality

1. Of Amnesty  741

Part 3, Book 4, Of Ecclesiastical Discipline

Book 4, Tract 1, Of Ecclesiastical Power

5. Of the Mandatory Power and Mandates [Greek] or [Greek] of the Churches  787

7. Of the Legislative Power of the Churches  795

8. Of the Jurisdiction or the Judicial Power of the Church  798

9. Of Ecclesiastical Punishment or Correction, and Censure  800

11. Whether the Ecclesiastical Power Imparted by Churches having been Reformed is a Papal Mastery [Imperium]?  805

12. Another Certain Mode is Shaken Off, of Another Method of Sacred Power and Government which Ought to be Refused, and of those Church Magistrates which Ought to be Allotted  806

13. Another Method to the Building of Caesaro-Papism is Examined  817

Book 4, Tract 2

Of the Keys to the Kingdom of Heaven

1. Of the Keys of the Kingdom of Heaven  841

2. Of the Key of Discipline, [with] a Handling [Tractatio] of Homonymous and Synonymous Terms  843

4. Of the Object of Ecclesiastical Discipline  848

7. Of Ecclesiastical Correction  857

9. Of Citation, Suspension, etc.  861

10. Of the Causes of Discipline: Impulsive or Meritorious  863

11. Of Distributing or Administering Causes of Discipline  865

12. Of Suspension  865

13. Of the Mode of the Administration of Discipline  869

14. Of the Ends or Effects of Discipline  872

15. A Consequence out of of the Doctrine on the Effects of Discipline is Deduced  875

16. On the Division of Discipline  879

17. On that which Follows upon Discipline  881

Book 4, Tract 3

Of Excommunication

1. The Term ‘Excommunication’ and the Thing itself is Explained through the Definition [of it]  882

2. Of the Efficient Causes of Excommunication  885

3. Of the Object, or Subject of Excommunication  889

4. Of the Mode of Excommunication  909

5. Of the Effects of Excommunication  922

6. Of the Ends and Uses of Excommunication  929

7. Of Repentance and the Restitution of [Recovering Persons From?] Excommunications  930

Book 4, Tract 4

Of the Opposites of Discipline

2. Of Some of the Repugnant Things in the Usurping of Discipline in the Papacy; First, of the Bodily Afflictions of the External Man  943

3. An Enumeration of the Many Abuses and Repugnant Things in the Ecclesiastical Discipline which has been Instituted in, or Observed by the Papacy  953

4. Various Abuses are Recounted which Ought to be Referred to the Power of the Church in General or to Censures in Specific  969


Turretin, Francis – Works, vol. 4, Disputations

On the Necessity of Our Secession from the Church of Rome

1. The State of the Question is Propounded: the Roman Church is Argued to be Heretics  3
2. First Part on Roman Idolatry  31
3. Second Part on Roman Idolatry  53
4. Third Part on Roman Idolatry  77
5. On Roman Tyranny  97
6. On the Romish Babylon  125
7. A Demonstration of the Antichrist  147
8. Objections are Solved  181



Latin Books


Pareus, David – Collection 9, ’40 Disputations on the Controversies of the Jesuit Cardinal, Robert Bellarmine’  in Theological Collections of Universal Orthodox Theology, where also All of the Present Theological Controversies are Clearly and Variously Explained, vol. 2  (1611/20)

Pareus (1548-1622)

1. The Canon of the Sacred Scriptures  389
2. The Editions, Versions & Readings of the Sacred
.      Scriptures  397
3. The Interpretations of the Sacred Scriptures  403
4. About Traditions  413
5. Of God, One & Three  421
6. Of the Incarnation of the Son of God  424
7. Of the Monarchical Church of the Apostle Peter  430
8. Of the Successors of the Roman Pontiff in the Monarchical
.      Church of the Apostle Peter  433
9. On the Antichrist  436
10. Continuation of the Antichrist  442
11. On the Power of the Roman Pontiff, Spiritual &
.       Temporal  447
12. On Ecclesiastical Councils  450
13. Of the Church & its Notes  455
14. Of Clerics  465
15. Of Monks  467
16. Of the Civil Power or Magistrate  470
17. About Purgatory  476
18. Of the Blessedness & Canonization of the Saints  482
19. Of the Veneration of Relics & Images  487
20. Of the Sacraments in General  492
21. Of the Effect, Difference & Number of the Sacraments  498
22. Of the Sacrament of Baptism & of Confirmation  503
23. Of the Eucharist  510
24. Of the Possibility of the Presence of the Body of
.       Christ under the Appearance of the Eucharist  515
25. Of the Substance, Rite, Effect, Integrity & Veneration of
.       the Sacrament of the Eucharist  520
26. Of the Mass  525
27. Of the Pseudo-Sacrament of Penitence  530
28. Of Indulgences, Extreme Unction, Ecclesiastical Order
.       & Matrimony  536
29. About the Grace of the First Man  540
30. Of the Cause of Sin  546
31. Of the First Sin & its Effects  550
32. Of Grace & Free-Will  557
33. Of Free-Will  562
34. Of Free-Will in Morals & Spirituals  568
35. Of the Nature & Proper Act of Justification by Faith  572
36. Of the Formal Cause of Justification & of Inherent
.       Righteousness  582
37. Of the Uncertainty, Immutability & Inequality of
.       Righteousness  590
38. Of the Necessity & Righteousness of Works  598
39. Of the Merits of Works  606
40. Of the Good Works in Particular: Prayer, Fasting &
.       Alms  613


Hommius, Festus – 70 Theological Disputations Against Papists  (Leiden, 1614)

Table of Contents

1. Books of Sacred Scripture  1
2. Authority of Sacred Scripture  5
3. Perfection of Sacred Scripture  9
4. Perspicuity of Sacred Scripture  13
5. Interpretation of Sacred Scripture, as to the Words: or, the Versions & Reading of Sacred Scripture  16
6. Interpretation of Sacred Scripture, as to the Sense: of the Judge of Controversies of Faith  20
7. Divinity of Christ, or Accordingly, is it Possible to Call Him, ‘Auto-Theos’?  26
8. Human Nature of Christ, or of the Body & Spirit of Christ  29
9. The Mediatorial Office of Christ  34
10. The Descent of Christ to ‘Inferos’ & the Limbo of the Fathers  37
11. Of the Ideal Church Government  43
12. Primacy of the Apostle Peter & of the Pontiff of Rome in his Succession  47
13. Antichrist  51
14. The Power of the Pope in Spiritual Matters  58
15. The Power of the Pope in Temporal Matters  64
16. The Necessity, Distribution & End of Councils  72
17. The Stipulations of a Legitimate Council  77
18. Authority of Councils  84
19. Essence of the Church  90
20. Is the Church Always Visible?  And is it Able to Utterly Fall Away?  98
21. Is it Possible for the Church to Err?  103
22. Notes of the True Church  107
23. Roman Church, or of the Pontificate & of the Reforming Church  115
24. Clerics, or of Ecclesiastical Ministers & their Calling  124
25. The Orders of Ecclesiastical Ministers  132
26. Celibacy of Church Ministers  140
27. Stipends & Immunities of Church Ministers  144
28. Monastics & Hermits  149
29. Monastic Vows, Evangelical Councils & Works of Supererogation  156
30. The Magistrate & his Office About Religion  168
31. The Peace of Religion, & of Heretics  180
32. Purgatory  187
33. Suffrages, or the Prayers of the Living for the Dead, & of the Burial of the Dead  196
34. Of the Blessedness & Canonization of Dead Saints  204
35. Of the Worship & Invocation of Dead Saints  209
36. Worship of Relics  216
37. Worship of Images & of the Sign of the Cross  221
38. Worship of Consecrated Things  231
39. Church Buildings  237
40. Pilgrimages & of Processions  244
41. Festivals of Christians  251
42. Nature of Sacraments  257
43. Number, Effects & Ceremonies of the Sacraments  262
44. Baptism  267
45. Baptismal Ceremony  273
46. Confirmation  277
47. Supper of the Lord  281
48. Right Use & Effects of the Lord’s Supper & the Communion Under Both Kinds  289
49. Mass  297
50. Penitence [Poenitentia]  305
51. Oral Confession & of Satisfaction  311
52. Indulgences & of Release [Iubilaeo]  318
53. Extreme Unction & of the Order  326
54. Marriage  332
55. State of Man Before the Fall & of Paradise  341
56. Sin & its Cause  349
57. Fall of Adam  358
58. Original Sin  364
59. Grace of God  373
60. Predestination  384
61. Free-Will of Man  392
62. Justifying Faith  406
63. Justification  412
64. Certainty of Salvation  422
65. Perseverance of the Saints  429
66. Perfection of Man in this Life  437
67. Good Works in General  444
68. Prayer  455
69. Fasting  466
70. Alms  472


Scharp, John – A Course of Theology, in which all the dogmas and controversies of faith agitated in this generation between us and Papists are handled one by one and the arguments of Bellarmine are responded to, vol. 12 (Geneva, 1620)  Extended Latin Table of Contents

Sharp (1572-1648) was also influential in France.  Even though this work is against the Papists, Scharp handles most of the topics of theology in systematic order.

Brief Table of Contents

vol. 1

1. Of Theology  1
2. Of Sacred Scripture  8
3. Of God  170
4. Of the Trinity  208
5. Of Predestination  288
6. Of Creation  366
7. Of the Image of God in Man Before the Fall  367
8. Of Angels  388
9. Of the Providence of God  408
10. Of Sin  411
11. Of Original Sin  456
12. Of Actual Sin  506
13. Of the Sin Against the Holy Spirit  522
14. Of the Evil of Punishment  531
15. Of Free Choice  542
16. Of the Law of God  585
17. Of the Gospel  688
18. The Covenant & Testament  701
19. Of Christ the Mediator  703
20. Of the Office of Christ  817
21. Of Calling  898
22. Of Justification  921
23. Of Repentance  1152
24. Of the Christian Life  1230
25. Of Christian Liberty  1236
26. Of Fasting  1251
27. Of Scandal  1265
28. Of Prayer  1269
29. Of Glorification  1280
30. Of the Resurrection of the Body  1284
31. Of the Last Judgment  1291
32. Of Life Eternal  1294
33. Of the Sacraments  1301
34. Of Baptism  1345
35. Of the Lord’s Supper  1381
36.  Of the Five Spurious Sacraments  1555


Vol. 2

1. Of the Church  9
2. Of the Church Triumphant  19
3. Of the Church Militant  87
4. Of the Body of the Church Militant  273
5. Of Councils  385
6. Of Monastics  441
7. Of Vows  457
8. Of the Magistrate  488
9. Of Purgatory  521


Alsted, Johann Heinrich – Polemical Theology, Exhibiting the Principal Eternal Things of Religion in Navigating Controversies  (Hanau, 1620; 1627)

Alsted (1588-1638)

Extended Table of Contents

Brief Table of Contents

Part 4, Controversies with the Romanists

Sacred Scripture  349
Christ the Mediator  369
The Roman Pontiff  379
Councils  390
Of Controversies  394
Church  396
Clericis  406
Monastics  414
Laics [On the Civil Magistrate]  426
Church Striving in Purgatory  433
Burial  442
Church Triumphant in Heaven & of the Saints in Heaven  444
Relics, Images & the Worship of Things  451
Church Buildings & Feasts  461
Sacraments in General  465
Baptism & Confirmation  475
Sacrament of the Eucharist & the Sacrifice of the Mass  483
Repentance & Indulgences  502
The Three Other Sacraments: Extreme Unction, Ordination & Matrimony  513
Grace of the First Man in Paradise  520
The Loss of Grace & the State of Sin  526
Grace & the Predestination of God, & the Free-Will of Man  538
Justification & of Good Works in General  548
Of the Good Works in Specific: Prayer  566
.       Fasting  569
.       Alms  572


Chamier, Daniel – Panstratiae Catholicae, or a Body of the Controversies of Religion Against the Papists, vols. 1 (Canon), 2 (God, Worship of God), 3 (Man), 4 (Sacraments), 5 (Church)  (Frankfurt, 1627-1629)

“The name of Chamier (d. 1621) is one of the greatest, not only among Calvinistic divines, but in all theological literature.  His Panstratiae Catholicae (1626) is the ablest work from a Calvinistic hand in in the great Roman Catholic Controversy, and takes its general rank with books like Chemnitz’s Examen and Gerhard’s Confessio Catholica.  It was prepared at the request of the Synod of Larochelle.  There is no difference of opinion among competent judges as to its distinguished merits, and it is justly regarded among all Calvinists as one of the highest authorities.” – Krauth, a Lutheran, p. 47


Table of Contents

Vol. 1

Locus 1, The Canon

Inquiry 1, What Should be the Rule [Canon]?

Book 1, Scripture  1
Book 2, Not the Church:  Papal Arguments  14
Book 3, Not the Pope:  Papal Arguments  24

Inquiry 2, Of the Parts of the Canon

Book 4, Of the Apocryphal Books:  Papal Arguments  45
Book 5, Catholic Arguments  52

Of the Nature of the Canon

Inquiry 1, From where is the Authority of the Canon?

Book 6, From Only Itself  72
Book 7, Papal Arguments  89

Inquiry 2, of the Perfection of Scripture

Book 8  101
Book 9  Papal Arguments  134

Of the Use of the Canon

Book 10, of Reading the Scriptures  178

Of Understanding Scripture

Book 11, of Translating the Scriptures  190
Book 12, of the Authority of the First Edition of the Sacred Books  207
Book 13, of the Septuagint Edition  224
Book 14, of the Vulgate Edition  242

Of the Interpretation of Scripture

Book 15, of Various Senses & the Perspicuity of Scripture  261
Book 16, of the Interpreters of Scripture  287


Vol. 2

Detailed Table of Contents

Locus 2, of God & the Worship of God

Part 1, of God

Book 1, of the Trinity  1
Book 2, of the Attributes of God: Omnipotence, Providence
.              Contingency & Necessity  19
Book 3, of the Author of Sin  36

Of the Incarnation

Book 4, of the Person, Human Nature, Nativity, the Soul of Christ  55
Book 5, Of the Descent to Inferos & the Resurrection of Christ  74
Book 6, of the Body of Christ  100

Of the Office of Mediator

Book 7, of the Mediation according to the Natures & the Mediator
.              for Whom?  121
Book 8, of the One Mediator  133

Of Ecumenicity

Book 9, Whether it is Anything?  146
Book 10, Catholic Arguments  171

Hypothesis 1

Book 11, of Peter the Apostle  192
Book 12, Papal Arguments  236

Hypothesis 2, of the Pope

Book 13, of the Authority of the Pope in the Church  251
Book 14, Catholic Arguments  287
Book 15, of the Authority of the Pope in the Republic  309
Book 16, of the Antichrist  318
Book 17, Papal Arguments  361


Part 2, Of Worship

Book 18, of the Calumnies of the Papists  378
Book 19, Inquiry 1, Whether Religious Worship is able to Consist with Creatures  391
Book 20, Inquiry 2, of the Invocation of the Saints; Inquiry 3, of Relics  401

Inquiry 4, of Images

Book 21, of Images of God & the Veneration of Images  413
Book 22, of the Cross & Images in Church Buildings  439


vol. 3

Of Man: Corrupt & Restored

Book 1, Inquiry 1, of Sin  1
Book 2, Question 2, of Free Choice, Human Choice & Controversy 1: the Power of Choice in Civil Things  9
Book 3, Controversy 2, of the Power of Choice unto Good, Theologically  20
Book 4, Catholic Arguments  42
Book 5, of the Original Sin of those born of the Faithful & of the Controversy about the Virgin Mary  55
Book 6, Question 3, of the Punishments of Sin, of the Punishment of Original Sin, & of Venial & Mortal Sin  79

Of the Restoration of Man, of the Chief Cause

Book 7, Of Predestination  98
Book 8, Of the Cause of Predestination & of the Cause of Reprobation  109

Of the Sub-alternate Cause of the Restoration by Christ

Book 9, Of the Merits of Christ by Compact & of the Efficacy of the Death of Christ  124

Of the Nature of the Restoration in Particular: of Sanctification & Justification

Book 10, Of Sanctification & Justification, & of Concupiscence  134
Book 11, of the Fulfillment of the Whole Law & of the Imperfection of Works  156

Of the Parts of Sanctification

Book 12, Of Faith, of the Knowledge of Faith, of the Tie of Faith & Works  183

Of the Object of Faith

Book 13, Of the Application of Justification, of the Certainty of Faith & of the Proper Faith of the Elect  197
Book 14, Of the Merit of Works  226
Book 15, Of the Necessity of Works, of Christian Liberty & of the Constitutions of the Church  252

Laws Concerning Marriages

Book 16, Of the Celibacy of Priests  271
Book 17, Papal Arguments  302
Book 18, Of the Grades of Impediments to Marriage, of Free-Persons & of Repudiations  324
Book 19, Laws of Fastings & of the Time of Fasting  350
Book 20, Of Vows, of Continency, of Councils  369

Part 2, of Justification

Book 21, What it is; Inquiry 1, of Inhering; of Imputation  418
Book 22, Of Faith Alone Justifying  455
Book 23, Of the Pardon of Punishments & Proper Satisfactions  478
Book 24, Of the Satisfactions of Others; Inquiry 1, Whether Some may Satisfy for Others; Inquiry 2, Of the Treasury of Indulgences  517
Book 25, Of the Effects of Restoration & the Limbo of the Fathers  545
Book 26, Of Purgatory  559


Vol. 4

Locus 4, Of the Sacraments

Book 1, Of the Sacraments in General  1
Book 2, Of the Efficacy of the Sacraments  25
Book 3, Of the Strength & Efficacy of the Old [Testament] Sacraments  54
Book 4, Of the Number of the Sacraments, of Confirmation, of Penance, of Extreme Unction, of Ordination, of Marriage  69
Book 5, Of Baptism  115
Book 6, Of the Eucharist & of the Elements  145
Book 7, Of the Adoration of the Eucharist  165
Book 8, Of Both Species: Catholic Arguments  197
Book 9, Papal Arguments  228

Of the Thing Signified

Book 10, Of the Enunciation of the Sacrament, & Firstly of the Boundaries [of the Words]; Then of the Interpretation of the Enunciation  253
Book 11, Of Corporal Chewing  289-332


vol. 5, Of the Church

Detailed Table of Contents
Subject Index
Scripture Index

Supplement to vol. 4

ch. 1, Of the Spiritual Presence of Christ in the Eucharist  1

Vol. 5, Of the Church

Bk. 1, Of the Nature & Privileges of the Church in this Earth  54
Bk. 2, Of the Notes of the Church  81
Bk. 3, Of Councils  117
Bk. 4, Of the Members of the Militant Church  151
Bk. 5, Of the Jurisdiction of the Militant Church, the Church
.          Triumphant & the False Church  185


Maresius, Samuel – A New Synopsis of Elenctic Theology, or an Index of the Controversies of Faith out of the Sacred Scriptures produced by the Jesuit Jacob Tirinus, & Augmented, Amended & Refuted by a Continuous Censure, vol. 12  (1646-7)

“Another of the greatest names, in high renown for ability and Calvinistic orthodoxy, is that of Maresius (d. 1673).  He has been called the Calvinistic Calovius [a Lutheran].  His life was a life of contest against the errors outside of Calvinism, and errors which tried to shelter themselves within it.  His greatest work is in his reply to Tirinus, the Jesuit, who had added to his Commentary (1632) an ” Index of Controversies on Matters of Faith.”  Maresius first gives Tirinus in full, in his own words, and then adds his own strictures.” – Krauth, a Lutheran, pp. 48-9

Clauberg, Johann & Martin Hund – Select Disputations, in which Controversies of Faith Against All Kinds of Adversaries (Principally the Socinians & Papists…) are Explicated  (Duisberg, 1665)

Clauberg (1622-1665) was a German theologian and philosopher.  Clauberg was the founding Rector of the first University of Duisburg, where he taught from 1655 to 1665.  He is known as a ‘scholastic Cartesian’.  Hund (1624-1666) was a professor of theology at Duisburg from 1655-†1666.

Table of Contents


Resurrection of the Flesh, 1-3  1
Trinity, 1-12  13


Word of God, 1-3  98
Power of the Word & Phrases of Sacred Scripture, 1-4  117
Consequences Deducted out of Sacred Scripture,1-11  145
Disputation on the Presupposition of Sacred Scripture  227


Of the Fundamental Truth of Faith, 1-12  242
Of the Novelty of Dogmas in Theology, 1-2  347
Of the End that Ought to be Aimed at in Theology  387
Of the Faith of Antichrist, 1-2  406


Of Oral Chewing, 1-6  424
Of the Multi-Presence of the Body of Christ, 1-3  452
Of the Nature of Liberty, 1-2  477
Of the Distinction of the Divine & Human Intellect  487


Of the Image of God, 1-7  491
Of the Election of Men to Salvation  530
Of the Testaments & Covenants of God  545
Of the Justification of Man Before God in All his Estate  550




“Come hither; I will shew unto thee… the great whore… with whom the kings of the earth have committed fornication, and the inhabitants of the earth have been made drunk with the wine of her fornication… and I saw a woman… full of names of blasphemy… and the woman was arrayed in purple and scarlet colour, and decked with gold and precious stones and pearls, having a golden cup in her hand full of abominations and filthiness of her fornication: and upon her forehead was a name written… The Mother Of Harlots And Abominations Of The Earth.  And I saw the woman drunken with the blood of the saints, and with the blood of the martyrs of Jesus.”

Rev. 17:1-6




Related Pages

The Antichrist


The Church