“But He turned, and said unto Peter, ‘Get thee behind me, Satan: thou art an offence unto me: for thou savourest not the things that be of God, but those that be of men.'”

Matt 16:23

“…and that man of sin be revealed, the son of perdition; who opposeth and exalteth himself above all that is called God, or that is worshipped; so that he as God sitteth in the temple of God, shewing himself that he is God.”

2 Thess. 2:3,4

“For such are false apostles, deceitful workers, transforming themselves into the apostles of Christ.  And no marvel; for Satan himself is transformed into an angel of light.”

2 Cor. 11:13-14




The Roman Church is a Church, her Baptism Valid, the Reformers’ Ministerial
.      Calling was Valid, Necessity of Separation from Her & Whether Romanists
.      may be Saved

Works Against Bellarmine
Romanist Systematic Theologies
Authoritative Documents of Romanism

7 Sacraments
Classifications & Degrees of Sin; Distinction Between Venial & Mortal Sin
Perpetual Virginity of Mary
Immaculate Conception of Mary
Concupiscence; Desires of & Pre-Motions to Sin are Sinful, Even Without
.     an Explicit Consent of the Will



Order of Contents

Against the System of Romanism
.      For Children  1
.      Catechisms  3
.      Articles  52+
.      Collection of Articles – Turretin
.      Books  110+
.      Poetry & Songs  8

History  8
.      Antiquity of Protestantism & Late Rise & Novelty of Romanism  14
.      Roman Forgeries & Misrepresentations  4
.      Jesuits  5
.      Origins of the Rosary

Apostolic Succession  1
Indelible Mark in Ordination
Roman Miracles  3
Council of Trent  18+
Letters to Romanists  6
Converts’ Testimonies from Romanism to Protestantism  14
Satire  7
Economics  2

Bibliographies 5
Latin  20



Against the System of Romanism


For Children

A Protestant Catechism for Little Children, or Plain Scripture Against Popery  (London, 1673)  11 pp.





Mico, John – A Pill to Purge out Popery: or, A Catechism for Romish Catholics, showing that Popery is Contrary to the Grounds of the Catholic Religion, and that Therefore Papists Cannot be Good Catholics  (London, 1623; rep. 1677)

* A Minister – No Popery, or a Catechism Against Popery, wherein the Heretical Doctrines, idolatrous worship and superstitious practices of the Roman Church are briefly yet plainly refuted and the Protestant principles proved by Testimonies of Holy Scripture & Evidence of Reason  (London, 1682)

Beverley, Thomas – A Catholic Catechism, Showing the Impossibility [that] the [True] Catholic Religion Should be Varied to the Degree of a Thought from the Measures Left Sealed by the Apostles, without the loss of Truth, and Therefore [showing] the Impossibility [of] Popery, or whatever else is not found in Scripture, should be Catholic…  (London, 1683)  148 pp.

Beverley (d. 1702) was an Ebglish puritan.



Articles Against the System of Romanism


Traheron, Bartholomew – A Warning to England to Repent and to Turn to God from Idolatry and Popery, by the Terrible Example of Calece…  ([Wesel?] 1558)  26 pp.

Traheron (1510?–1558?) was an English reformer who was exiled during the reign of the Romanist, Bloody Mary (1553-8) in England, when this work was printed, from Germany.

Constant, Leonard – A Christian & Wholesome Admonition Directed to the Frenchmen which are Revolted from True Religion and have Polluted Themselves with the Superstition & Idolatry of Popery  trans. Christopher Fetherstone  (London [1587])  130 pp.

Constant (d. 1610)



Carew, Thomas – ‘Against Popery’  on Mt. 16:18  being the first sermon in  Four Godly & Profitable Sermons Preached by Maister Thomas Carew, the First Against Popery or False Religion…  (London, 1605)

Carew (d. 1616) was an English puritan.

I.D. – A Protestation Against Popery, by Way of a Confession of Christian Religion, Collected for the Benefit of Private Friends  (Oxford, 1607)  38 pp.

Anon. – Six Demands (from an Unlearned Protestant to a Learned Papist) so Forcible Against all Obstinate Papists that not any of Them are able to Reply without Absurd Equivocation.  Also an Invincible Argument to Prove the Church of Rome to Err, with an Infallible Note whereby to Know the Spirit of Truth & the Spirit of Error  (London, 1609)  29 pp.

Du Moulin, Pierre

* Oppositions of the Word of God, Together with the Doctrine of the Roman Church, Moreover, What Points are Held by the Same Church which She Hides from Those whom She Means to Draw to Her Faction  (London, 1610)  17 pp.

Du Moulin (1568-1658) was a reformed, Huguenot minister in France who also resided in England for some years.  He was involved extensively in combatting Romanism in print.

This work enumerates 38 false teachings and practices of Romanism, contrary to the Word of God.  At the end (pp. 13-17) is a section on: ‘Certain points held in the Roman Church which they would hide from those whom they mean to draw to their faction’.

A Short View of the Chief Points in Controversy Between the Reformed Churches & the Church of Rome in Two Letters to the Duke of Bouillon, upon his Turning Papist…  (London, 1680)  88 pp.

Hay, Peter – A Vision of Balaam’s Ass, wherein he did perfectly see the present estate of the Church of Rome, written…  for the reformation of his countrymen  (London, 1616)  286 pp.  ToC

Hay was a gentleman of North Britain.  The work is dedicated to the king, and George Abbot, the archbishop of Canterbury, who also wrote against Romanism (below on this page).

Garey, Samuel – ‘A Short Dissuasive to All Lay-Papists who Desire to be True Servants to their Savior, or good Subject to their Sovereign’  38 pp.  in Great Britain’s Little Calendar: or Triple Diary…  5. Whereunto is annexed a Short dissuasive from Popery  (London, 1618)

Garey (1582 or 83 – 1646) was a preacher.

Abbot, Robert – The Danger of Popery: or a Sermon Preached…  upon 2 Thess. 2:12, Wherein the Marks of Anti-Christianism and Signs of Truth are Opened & Applied, and the question of the saving and damning of those that follow Antichrist is Explained by the Scriptures  (London, 1625)  42 pp.

Abbot (1560-1617) was a reformed Anglican bishop, a professor of divinity at Oxford, and a major polemical writer against Romanism.  George Abbot (who also wrote against Romanism, below on this page), the archibishop of Canterbury was his younger brother.

Yates, John – Ibis ad Cæsarem, or a Submissive Appearance before Cæsar; in Answer to Mr. Moutague’s Appeal (entitled Appello Cæsarem), in the Points of Arminianism & Popery, Maintained & Defended by Him Against the Doctrine of the Church of England, vol. 3  (1626)  46 pp.  The work is well organized into topical subheadings of beliefs of Romanists, which Yates refutes.

Yates (fl. 1612-1657 or 1660) was a reformed Anglican cleric and divine, and an editor of Jeremiah Burroughs’s and William Bridge’s works.

Kaye, William – Satisfaction for all such as Oppose Reformation, in a Confutation of Twelve Practices of Popery, proved to be Condemned by Christ and his Apostles: with an Answer also made to Mr. Oddy’s Objections which he Wrote Against the Covenant  to which is also added a True Character of the Covenant  (London, 1647)  33 pp.

Kaye was an English minister and covenanter.

Owen, John

* The Chamber of Imagery in the Church of Rome Laid Open, or an Antidote Against Popery, a Sermon  (1652)  47 pp.

Owen was an Independent, English puritan.

* The Church of Rome, No Safe Guide, or Reasons to Prove that No Rational Man who takes due care of his own Eternal Salvation can give Himself up unto the Conduct of that Church in Matters of Religion  (London, 1679)  being two sermons  47 pp.

“Were a man in a wilderness where are a multitude of cross paths, all pretending to lead unto an inhabited City, whi­ther he must go or perish; if he see men not only contending some for one way, some for another, but killing and destroy­ing one another, about the preference of the several ways they esteem best and safest; he deserves to wander and pe­rish, if he refuse a guide that is tendered unto him with suffi­cient evidence of his truth and faithfulness.”

* Choice Texts of Holy Scripture Against the Principal Points of Popery, in Difference Betwixt Them & the Protestants  (London, 1663)  8 pp.  Laid out in a table

Baxter, Richard

A Winding-Sheet for Popery  (London, 1657)  13 pp.

Baxter was an Independent, English puritan.

Select Arguments & Reasons Against Popery  (1675)  6 pp.  11 Arguments & 9 Reasons

Durham, James – A Commentary upon the Book of the Revelation…  (Edinburgh, 1658)

Lecture 1, ch. 9, ‘Concerning the Comfortless Grounds that Popery Lays Down for the Comforting of Poor Afflicted Consciences’

Durham describes the Romanist theory of penance, confession, absolution and purgatory in detail, with its difficulties.

* Lecture 2, ‘Concerning the Idolatry of the Church of Rome’

Carpenter, Richard – Rome in her Fruits, being a Sermon Preached…  in the which Sermon the author sets up his standard in opposition to the fruits and practices of Rome, and likewise answers in brief a late pamphlet, entitled ‘Reasons why Roman Catholics should not be Persecuted’  (London, 1663)  32 pp.  Dedicated to the House of Commons

Carpenter (c.1604-1670) was an Anglican who converted to Rome in 1625, but returned to the Church of England after 1635.

Burnet, Gilbert – The Mystery of Iniquity Unveiled in a Discourse, wherein is held forth the Opposition of the Doctrine, Worship & Practices of the Roman Church to the Nature, Designs & Characters of the Christian Faith  (London, 1673)  161 pp.

Burnet (1643-1715) was a Scottish philosopher and historian, and later a latitudinarian, Arminian, Anglican Bishop of Salisbury in England.  He was fluent in Dutch, French, Latin, Greek, and Hebrew.  Burnet was highly respected as a cleric, a preacher, an academic, a writer and a historian. He was always closely associated with the Whig party, and was one of the few close friends in whom King William III confided.

A Person of Honor – A Protestant Antidote Against Popery, with a Brief Discourse of the Great Atheisticalness & Vain Amours now in Fashion.  Written in a Letter to a Young Lady  (Dublin, 1673)  176 pp.

Chillingworth, William – Reasons against Popery, in a Letter from Mr. William Chillingworth to his friend, Mr. Lewger, persuading him to Return to his Mother, the Church of England, from the Corrupt Church of Rome  (London, 1673)  8 pp.

Chillingworth (1602-1644) was an Arminian Anglican, anti-Sabbatarian controversialist who disagreed with a part of the Athanasian Creed.  He became persuaded initially of Romanism by the Jesuit John Percy (alias, John Fisher) in 1630, though began to dispute against Romanism in 1631.

Lloyd, William

A Seasonable Discourse Showing the Necessity of Maintaining the Established Religion in Opposition to Popery
(London, 1673)

Lloyd (1627-1717) was a latitudinarian Anglican bishop.

A Reasonable Defence of the Seasonable Discourse...  or a Reply to a Treatise called, A Full Answer & Confutation of a Scandalous Pamphlet, etc.  (London, 1674)

Papists No Catholics, & Popery No Christianity  (London, 1677)

Beaulieu, Luke

Planes Apokalypsis. Popery Manifested, or the Papist Incognito made Known by way of Dialogue Betwixt a Papist Priest, Protestant Gentleman & Presbyterian Divine. In Two Parts  (London, 1673)  75 pp.

Beaulieu (1644 or 45 – 1723) was a Huguenot exile and Anglican cleric in England.  He was antagonistic to presbyterians in this work.

A Discourse Showing that Protestants are on the Safer Side, notwithstanding the Uncharitable Judgment of their Adversaries, and that their Religion is the Surest Way to Heaven  (London, 1687)  43 pp.

* J.N. – The Plain Man’s Defence Against Popery: or a Discourse Showing the Flat Opposition of Popery to the Scripture  (London, 1675)

J.N. was a ‘chaplain to a person of honor’.

Dodwell, Henry – Two Short Discourses Against the Romanists  (London, 1676)  120 pp.

Dodwell (1641-1711) was an Anglican-Irish scholar, theologian and controversial writer (who defended the non-juring bishops).  Edward Gibbon spoke of his learning as ‘immense’ and that his ‘skill in employing facts is equal to his learning,’ although he severely criticized his method and style.

Comber, Thomas

Friendly & Seasonable Advice to the Roman Catholics of England by a Charitable Hand  (London, 1677)  152 pp.

Comber (1645-1699) was an Anglican and the Dean of Durham.  In the troubled reign of the Romanist king, James II (1685-88), Comber became conspicuous as a champion of the cause of protestantism.

The Plausible Arguments of a Romish Priest Answered by an English Protestant, Seasonable & Useful for All Protestant Families  (London, 1686)  54 pp.  ToC

Thomas, John – A Vindication of the True Christian Religion, in Opposition to the Abominations of Popery, in a Sermon upon Eze. 21:24-27: being the text appointed by the Pope for Master Whitebread, one of the Popish Conspirators, to Preach upon the Accomplishing of their Wicked Design for taking away the Life of His Most Sacred Majesty [King Charles II]  (London, 1679)

Thomas was an Anglican clergyman.

* Poole, Matthew – Mr. Matthew Pool…  his Late Sayings a Little Before his Death, Concerning the Material Points of the Popish Party charged against the Protestants, wherein the desperate tenets of popish Jesuitical principles are detected & solidly censured: for the settlement of all real professors and practical opposers of those damnable delusions, in a few words to the wise…  (1679)

Poole (1624–1679) was an English puritan who was likely assasinated through poison by Romanists.  See also, Thomas Harley, Matthew Poole: His Life, His Times, His Contributions Along with His Argument Against The Infallibility of the Roman Catholic Church (2009)  Buy

Williams, John – Christianity Abused by the Church of Rome & Popery Showed to be a Corruption of it, being an Answer to a Late Printed Paper given about by Papists, in a Letter to a Gentleman  (London, 1679)  21 pp.

Williams (1636-1709) was an Anglican bishop.

Owen, Thankfull – A True & Lively Representation of Popery, showing that Popery is only New-Modelled Paganism & Perfectly Destructive of the Great Ends & Purposes of God in the Gospel  (London, 1679)

Owen argues in favor of ‘the Reformed religion’.

L’Estrange, Roger

The Reformed Catholic, or the True Protestant  (London, 1679)  35 pp.

L’Estrange No Papist Nor Jesuite: Discussed in a Short Discourse Between Philo-L’Estrange and Pragmaticus  (1681)  18 pp.

Sir L’Esrange (1616-1704) an English pamphleteer, royalist and was against presbyterianism, as is seen in this work.  He wrote an acclaimed translation of the works of Flavius Josephus in 1702.

A.B. – A Dissuasive from Popery, Sent in a Letter from A.B. to C.D.
(Dublin, 1681)

Jekyll, Thomas – Popery, a Great Mystery of Iniquity, Proved in a Sermon…  (London, 1681)  32 pp.

Jekyll (1646-1698) was an Anglican clergyman.

J.S. – Popery Displayed in its Proper Colors, wherein its Non-Entity & Nullity is Demonstrated by Undeniable Arguments: with Several Remarkable Passages relating to the Present Times: humbly offered to the honourable House of Commons  (London, 1681)

Johnson, Samuel – ‘A Comparison of Popery & Paganism’  in Julian the Apostate…  Together with a Comparison of Popery & Paganism  (London, 1682), pp. 64-118

Johnson (1649-1703)


For the time period of 1685-88, see the many Anglican articles and works against Popery contained in the multivolume set edited by Gibson under Books, 1800’s, below.

Also see the even more comprehensive bibliography below on this webpage.

S.C. – The Truth & Excellence of the Christian Religion, with the Corruptions & Additions of the Romish Church, a Discourse, wherein the Pre-eminence of Christianity is demonstrated above the religion of Jews or heathens, and the contradiction of popery to its main articles: and that religion proved in many instances to be a mixture of heathenish superstitions and Jewish ceremonies: with a short vindication of Christian loyalty and a brief historical account of Romish treasons and usurpations since the Reformation, by a hearty professor of Reformed Catholic Christianity  (London, 1685)  141 pp.

A Short Dissuasive from Popery, & from Countenancing & Encouraging of Papists  (London, 1685)

Gordon, James – A Request to Roman Catholics to Answer the Queries upon these their following Tenets, by a Moderate Son of the Church of England  (London, 1687)

Gordon (1640?-1714)

Oates, Titus – A Balm Presented to these Nations, England, Scotland & Ireland: to Cure the Wounds of the Bleeding Protestants & Open the Eyes of the deluded papists that are ignorant of the truth, or a Seasonable Antidote against the errors of Popery and pernicious doctrines of the Church of Rome…  (late 1680’s?)

Oates (1649-1705) was a doctor of divinity.

Barlow, Thomas – A Few Plain Reasons why a Protestant of the Church of England should not turn Roman Catholic, by a Real Catholic of the Church of England  (London, 1688)

Barlow (c.1608-1691) was a reformed Anglican bishop and academic.  He was among the last English bishops to dub the Pope Antichrist.

Barecroft, Charles – A Letter to a Lady Furnishing her with Scripture Testimonies Against the Principal Points and Doctrines of Popery  (London, 1688)  80 pp.

Anon. – The Character of Popery  ([London?, 1688?])  2 pp.

Ellis, Clement – The Protestant Resolved, or a Discourse Showing the Unreasonableness of his Turning Roman Catholic for Salvation
2nd ed.  (London, 1688)

Ellis (1630-1700)

Marvell, Andrew – Mr. Andrew Marvell’s Character of Popery  (London, 1689)

Marvell (1621-1678) was an English metaphysical poet, satirist and politician who sat in the House of Commons at various times between 1659 and 1678.  During the Commonwealth period he was a colleague and friend of John Milton.

Talbot, William – The Spirit of Popery Tried, Whether it be of God, a Sermon Preached before the King…  (London, 1699)  on 1 Jn. 4:1

Talbot (1658 or 9-1730)



Lowman, Moses – The Principles of Popery Schismatical, a Sermon…  (London, 1735)  48 pp.

Lowman (1680–1752) was an English presbyterian, known as a Biblical commentator.



*  Webster, Thomas – p. 11 of Lecture 1  of Tavistock Lectures  (London, 1836)  as excerpted in a preface to John Davenant, The Determinations, or Resolutions of Certain Theological Questions, Publicly Discussed in the University of Cambridge  trans. Josiah Allport  (1634; 1846) bound at the end of John Davenant, A Treatise on Justification, or the Disputatio de Justitia...  trans. Josiah Allport  (1631; London, 1846), vol. 2, p. 204

Brown, Charles – ‘The Strength of Popery: its Leading Elements of Influence & Power: its Tenets a Deceitful Counterfeit of the Great Truths of Scripture: a Lecture’  (1851) 40 pp.

Brown (1806–1884) was a minister and moderator of the Free Church of Scotland.

Girardeau, John – ‘Romanism’, with an Appendix,  Buy  two chapters from his Discussions of Theological Questions, see the Buy link for the table of contents.

Girardeau was an American, Southern presbtyerian and professor of theology.

M’Crie, Jr., Thomas – ‘The Supremacy of the Pope: a Lecture’  (1851) 40 pp.

M’Crie was originally a minister in the Scottish Secession Church who came into the Free Church of Scotland and was known as a historian of the Scottish Church.

Miller, Samuel – ‘An Introductory Essay‘  to A History of Popery, Including its Origin, Progress, Doctrines, Practice, Institutions & Fruits, to the Commencement of the Nineteenth Century  (1834) 15 pp.  The book is authored by ‘A Watchman’.

Miller was an American presbyterian and the second professor at old Princeton Seminary as a professor of Church history.



Johnson, Charles – ‘No, Roman Catholic authors are not better on the doctrine of God’  (2023)  10 reasons



A Collection of Articles  Against the System of Romanism by Francis Turretin (d. 1687)

* Institutes of Elenctic Theology, 3 vols.  (P&R)

vol. 1

1st Topic, ‘Theology’

Q. 11, ‘Is there any use of the Testimony of the Senses in Mysteries of Faith; or ought it to be Entirely Rejected?  We Affirm the Former & Deny the Latter.’  34-37  [with respect to transubstantiation]

2nd Topic, ‘The Holy Scriptures, the Word of God’

Q. 3, ‘Were the Sacred Scriptures Written Only Occasionally and Without the Divine Command?  We Deny Against the Papists.  60-62

Q. 6, ‘From what Source does the Divine Authority of the Scriptures Become Known to Us?  Does it Depend upon the Testimony of the Church Either as to Itself or as to Us?  We Deny Against the Papists.  85-95

Q. 9, ‘Ought Tobit, Judith, Wisdom, Ecclesiasticus, the Two First Books of the Maccabees, Baruch, the Additions to Esther & Daniel to be Numbered Among the Canonical Books?  We Deny Against the Papists.  102-106

Q. 10, ‘Have the Original Texts of the Old & New Testaments Come Down to Us Pure & Uncorrupted?  We Affirm Against the Papists.  106-112

Q. 11, ‘Are the Hebrew Version of the Old Testament & the Greek of the New the Only Authentic Versions?  We Affirm Against the Papists.  112-116

Q. 14, ‘Is the Septuagint Version of the Old Testament Authentic?  We deny.  127-131

Q. 15, ‘Is the Vulgate Authentic?  We Deny Against the Papists.  131-134

Q. 16, ‘Do the Scriptures so Perfectly Contain All Things Necessary to Salvation that There is no Need of Unwritten (agraphois) Traditions After it?  We Affirm Against the Papists.  131-134

Q. 17, ‘Are the Scriptures so Perspicuous in Things Necessary to Salvation that they can be Understood by Believers  Without the External Help of Oral (agraphou) Tradition or Ecclesiastical Authority?  We Affirm Against the Papists.  143-147

Q. 18, ‘Can the Scriptures be Profitably Read by Any Believer, and Ought He to Read Them Without Permission?  We Affirm Against the Papists.  147-149

Q. 19, ‘Whether the Scriptures Have a Fourfold Sense: Literal, Allegorical, Anagogical & Tropological.  We Deny Against the Papists.  149-54

Q. 20, ‘Whether the Scriptures (or God Speaking in Them) are the Supreme & Infallible Judge of Controversies & the Interpreter of the Scriptures.  Or Whether the Church or the Roman Pontiff is.  We Affirm the Former & Deny the Latter Against the Papists.  154-162

Q. 21, ‘Are the Writings of the Fathers the Rule of Truth in Doctrines of Faith & in the Interpretation of the Scriptures?  We Deny Against the Papists.  162-169

3rd Topic, ‘The One & Triune God’

Q. 13, ‘Is There a Middle Knowledge in God Between the Natural & the Free?  We Deny Against the Jesuits, Socinians & Remonstrants.  212-218

4th Topic, ‘The Decrees of God in General & Predestination in Particular’

Q. 3, ‘Are There Conditional Decrees?  We Deny Against the Socinians, Remonstrants & Jesuits.  316-19

Q. 13, ‘Can the Believer be Certain of his Own Election with a Certainty Not Only Conjectural & Moral, but Infallible & of Faith?  We Affirm Against the Papists & Remonstrants.  373-80

5th Topic, ‘Creation’

Q. 9, ‘Was Man Created in Puris Naturalibus, or Could He Have Been so Created?  We Deny Against the Pelagians & Scholastics.  462-464

Q. 10, In What Consisted the Image of God in Which Man was Created?  464-70

Q. 11, ‘Was Original Righteousness Natural or Supernatural?  The Former we Affirm, the Latter we Deny Against the Romanists.  470-73

6th Topic, ‘The Actual Providence of God’

Q. 4, ‘Is Providence Occupied Only in the Conservation & Sustenation of Things; or also in the Government (Through which God Himself Acts & Efficaciously Concurs with Them by a Concourse Not General & Indifferent, but Particular, Specific & Immediate)?  We Deny the Former & Affirm the Latter, Against the Jesuits, Socinians & Remonstrants.  501-505

Q. 8, ‘Whether it Follows & Can be Elicited by Legitimate Consequence from our Doctrine that we make God the Author of Sin.  We Deny Against the Romanists, Socinians, Remonstrants & Lutherans.  528-35

7th Topic

Q. 7, ‘Is There any Order Among the Angels and are There Distinct Hierarchies Among Them?  The Former we Affirm; the Latter we Deny Against the Jews & Romanists.  551-555

Q. 9, ‘Are Angels our Intercessors with God, and is Any Religious Worship Due to Them?  We Deny Against the Romanists.  560-569

9th Topic

Q. 2, ‘Whether the Hekousion or Voluntary (inasmuch as it is of him who Knowingly & Willingly does Anything) is of the Essence of Sin?  We Deny Against the Papists & Socinians.’  593-94

Q. 3, ‘Whether Guilt is the Formal of Sin, or its Inseparable Adjunct, or Only its Effect.  And Whether it May Well be Distinguished into Guilt of Culpability & of Punishment.’  594-96

Q. 4, ‘Whether All Sins of Themselves & in Their Own Nature Mortal [deadly].  Or Whether any Venial [slight & excusable] Sin can be Granted.  The Former we Affirm; the Latter we Deny Against the Papists.’  596-601

Q. 9, ‘Whether the Actual Disobedience of Adam is Imputed by an Immediate and Antecedent Imputation to All his Posterity Springing from Him by Natural Generation.  We Affirm.’  613-29

Q. 11, ‘Whether Original Sin has Corrupted the Very Essence of the Soul.  Also Whether it is a Mere Privation or a Certain Positive Quality Too.’  636-40

10th Topic, ‘The Free Will of Man in a State of Sin’

Q. 2, ‘Whether Every Necessity is Repugnant to Freedom of Will.  We Deny Against the Papists & Remonstrants.’  661-65

Q. 4, ‘Whether the Free Will in a State of Sin is so a Servant of and Enslaved by Sin that it can do Nothing but Sin; or Whether it Still has the Power to Incline Itself to Good, not Only Civil & Externally Moral, but Internal & Spiritual, Answering Accurately to the Will of God Prescribed in the Law.  The Former We Affirm; the Latter We Deny, Against the Papists, Socinians & Remonstrants.’  668-83

Q. 5, ‘Whether the Virtues of the Heathen were Good Works From which the Power of Free Will to Good can be Inferred.  We Deny Against the Papists.  683

vol. 2

11th Topic, ‘The Law of God’

Q. 3, ‘Is the Moral Law so Perfect a Rule of Life & Morals that Nothing can be Added to it or Ought to be Corrected in it for the True Worship of God?  Or did Christ Fulfill it Not Only as Imperfect, but Also Correct it as Contrary to his Doctrines?  The Former we Affirm; the Latter we Deny Against the Socinians, Anabaptists, Remonstrants & Papists.’  18-28

Q. 4, ‘May Anything be Added to the Moral Law in the Way of Counsel?  We Deny Against the Papists.’  28-32

On the 10 Commandments

Q. 5, ‘Are Four Precepts Rightly Assigned to the First Table & Six to the Second?  We Affirm.’  32-34

Q. 7, ‘Is God Alone to be Worshipped & Invoked?  Or is it Lawful to Invoke & Religiously Worship Deceased Saints?  We Affirm the Former & Deny the Latter Against the Papists.’  38-47

Q. 8, ‘Should the Bodies of Saints & Relics be Adored with Religious Worship?  We Deny Against the Papists.’  47-51

Q. 9, ‘Is it Lawful to Religiously Worship Images of God, the Holy Trinity, Christ, the Virgin & Other Deceased Saints?  We Deny Against the Papists.’  51-62

Q. 10, ‘Whether Not Only the Worship but also the Formation and Use of Religious Images in Sacred Places is Prohibited by the Second Commandment.  We Affirm Against the Lutherans.’  62-66

Q. 12. ‘Whether it is Lawful to Use Ambiguous Equivocations & Mental Reservations in Oaths.  We Deny Against the Papists & Especially the Jesuits.  70-77

Q. 14, ‘Whether the Institution of the Lord’s Day is Divine or Human; whether it is of Necessary & Perpetual or of Free & Mutable Observance.  The Former we Affirm & the Latter we Deny (as to Both Parts).  92-104

Q. 15, ‘Whether it Belongs to the Faith in the New Testament that Besides the Lord’s Day There are Other Festival Days Properly so Called whose Celebration is Necessary per se and by Reason of Mystery, not by Reason of Order or Ecclesiastical Polity Only.  We Deny Against the Papists.  100-104

Q. 16, ‘May Children Withdraw Themselves from the Power of Their Parents & Marry Without their Consent?  We Deny Against the Papists.’  104-112

Q. 21, ‘What Concupiscence is Prohibited by the Tenth Precept?  Are the Incipient Motions Sins?  We Affirm.’  134-37

12th Topic, ‘The Covenant of Grace…’

Q. 11, ‘Whether the Souls of the Fathers of the Old Testament were Immediately Received into Heaven After Death or were Cast Into Limbo.  The Former we Affirm; the Latter we Deny Against the Papists.’  257-62

Q. 12, ‘Whether the Sinaitic Legal Covenant, made by Moses with the People of Israel on Mt. Sinai, was a Certain Third Covenant Distinct in Species From the Covenant of Nature & the Covenant of Grace.  We Deny.  262-271

13th Topic, ‘The Person & State of Christ’

Q. 13, ‘From its Very Creation was the Soul of Christ so Filled with Knowledge that it could be Ignorant of or Learn Nothing?  We Deny Against the Papists.  348-352

Q. 14, ‘Did Christ Suffer Only Corporeal Punishments for us in the Body or in the Soul, but Only as to its Lower & Sensitive Part?  Or did He in Truth Also Bear the Spiritual & Infernal Punishments of Sin Themselves (in the Superior as Well as in the Inferior Part) Properly in Himself & From a Sense of God’s Wrath?  We Deny the Former & Affirm the Latter Against the Papists.’  352-56

Q. 15, ‘Was the Soul of Christ, After its Separation from the Body, Translated to Paradise Immediately?  Or did it Descend Locally to Hell?  The Former we Affirm; the Latter we Deny Against the Papists & Lutherans.’  356-361

14th Topic, ‘The Mediatorial Office of Christ’

Q. 2, ‘Is Christ a Mediator According to Both Natures?  We Affirm Against the Papists & Stancar.  379-84

Q. 4, ‘Is Christ Alone our Mediator with God?  We Affirm Against the Papists.  385-391

Q. 5, ‘Why Ought Christ to Sustain a Threefold Office of Mediator?  391-95  [Christ’s Office of Prophet was not generally recognized before Calvin.]

Q. 7, ‘In What does the Prophetic Office of Christ Consist; or what are its Parts & what is its Mode?’  397-403

Q. 12, ‘Was the Satisfaction of Christ so Perfect as to Leave no Room After it Either for Human Satisfaction in this Life or for Purgatory After this Life?  We Affirm Against the Romanists.  438-445

Q. 494, ‘Is Christ to be Adored as Mediator?  We Distinguish.  494-501

15th Topic, ‘Calling & Faith’

Q. 3, ‘Is Sufficient, Subjective & Internal Grace Given to Each & Every One?  We Deny Against the Romanists, Socinians & Arminians.’  510-517

Q. 4, ‘Is Effectual Calling so Denominated from the Event (or From Congruity) or From the Supernatural Operation of Grace Itself?  The Former we Deny; the Latter we Affirm Against the Romanists & Arminians.’  517-542

Q. 5, ‘Whether in the First Moment of Conversion Man is Merely Passive or Whether his Will Cooperates in Some Measure with the Grace of God.  The Former we Affirm & Deny the Latter Against All Synergists.’  542-46

Q. 6, ‘Whether Efficacious Grace Operates Only by a Certain Moral Suasion which Man is Able Either to Receive or to Reject.  Or Whether it Operates by an Invincible & Omnipotent Suasion which the will of Man Cannot Resist.  The Former we Deny; the Latter we Affirm Against the Romanists and Arminians.’  546-58

Q. 9, ‘Is Faith Assent Without Knowledge & Can it be Defined Better by Ignorance than by Knowledge?  We Deny Against the Romanists.’  564-68

Q. 10, ‘Is Faith Trust?  We Affirm Against the Romanists.  568-71

Q. 12, ‘Whether the Proper & Specific Object of Justifying Faith is the Special Promise of Mercy in Christ.  We Affirm Against the Romanists.’  575-80

Q. 13, ‘Whether the Form of Justifying Faith is Love or Obedience to God’s Commands.  We Deny Against the Romanists & Socinians.’  580-83

Q. 16, ‘Whether the True Believer can ever Totally or Finally Fall from Faith.  We Deny Against the Romanists, Socinians, Remonstrants and Others who Favor the Apostasy of the Saints.’  593-616

Q. 17, ‘Whether the Believer can and ought to be Certain of his Faith & Justification by a Divine & Not Merely Conjectural Certainty.  We Affirm Against the Romanists & Remonstrants.  616-33

16th Topic, ‘Justification’

Q. 1, ‘Is the Word ‘Justification’ Always used in a Forensic Sense in this Argument; or is it also used in a Moral and Physical Sense?  The Former we Affirm; the Latter we Deny Against the Romanists.’  633-37

Q. 2, ‘Is the Impulsive & Meritorious Cause (on Account of Which Man is Justified in the Judgment of God) Inherent Righteousness Infused into us or Good Works?  We Deny Against the Romanists.’  637-46

Q. 3, ‘Is the Righteousness & Obedience of Christ Imputed to us the Meritorious Cause and Foundation of our Justification with God?  We Affirm Against the Romanists & Socinians.’  646-56

Q. 5, ‘Does Remission of Sins Consist in an Absolute Removal of Them?  Or in the Pardon of Them?  And After the Guilt is Remitted is a Certain Punishment Retained?  Or is it Wholly Remitted?  The Former We Deny; the Latter we Affirm Against the Romanists.’  660-66

Q. 7, ‘Does Faith Justify us Properly and of Itself or Only Relatively and Instrumentally?  The Former We Deny; the Latter We Affirm Against the Socinians, Remonstrants & Romanists.’  669-75

Q. 8, ‘Does Faith Alone Justify?  We Affirm Against the Romanists.’  675-82

Q. 10, ‘The Unity, Perfection & Certainty of Justification’  686-89

17th Topic, ‘Sanctification & Good Works’

Q. 2, ‘Is Sanctification so Perfect in this Life that Believers can Fulfill the Law Absolutely?  We Deny Against the Romanists & Socinians.’  693-702

Q. 5, ‘Is there a Merit of Congruity or Condignity?  Do Good Works Merit Eternal Life?  We Deny Against the Romanists.  710-24

vol. 3

18th Topic, ‘The Church’

Q. 1, ‘The Necessity of the Discussion Concerning the Church, and Whether the Knowledge of the Church Ought to Precede the Knowledge of Doctrine.’  1-6

Q. 3, ‘Besides the Elect, are Reprobates and Infidels (whether secret or open) also True Members of the Church of Christ?  We Deny Against the Romanists.’  11-23

Q. 5, ‘In What Sense May the Church be Called One?’  27-30

Q. 6, ‘In What Sense is the Church Called Catholic?’  30-32

Q. 7, ‘Is the True Church Rightly Said to be Invisible?  We Affirm Against the Romanists.’  32-41

Q. 9, ‘Ought the Church to Enjoy Perpetual Splendor & Eminence; or can it be at Times so Obscured and Lessened that no Assembly of it Appears Publicly on Earth?  The Former we Deny; the Latter we Affirm Against the Romanists.’  47-57

Q. 10, ‘Where was our Church Before Luther and Zwingli, and how was it Preserved?’  57-69

Q. 11, ‘Is the Church Infallible or can it Err about Faith?  The Former we Deny; the Latter we Affirm Against the Romanists.  69-86

Q. 12, ‘Is the Truth of Doctrine which is Held in any Assembly, or its Conformity with the Word of God by the Pure Preaching & Profession of the Word, and the Lawful Administration and Use of the Sacraments, a Mark of the True Visible Church?  We Affirm Against the Romanists.  86-96

Q. 13, ‘Are the Name ‘Catholic’, Antiquity, Continued Duration, Amplitude, the Succession of Bishops, Harmony in Doctrine with the Ancient Church, Union of the Members with Each Other and with the Head, Holiness of Doctrine, the Efficacy of the Same, Holiness of Life, the Glory of Miracles, Prophetic Light, the Confession of Adversaries, the Unhappy End of the Persecutors of the Church and the Temporal Happiness of Those who have Defended it, Marks of the True Church?  We Deny Against the Romanists.’  96-121

Q. 14, ‘Can the Church of Rome of Today be Called a True Church of Christ?  We Deny Against the Romanists.’  121-37

Q. 16, ‘Should the Government of the Church be Monarchical?  We Deny Against the Romanists.  146-55

Q. 17, ‘Was Peter an Ecumenical Pontiff & the Head of the Church & the Vicar of Christ?  We Deny Against the Romanists.’  146-55

Q. 18, ‘Was Peter at Rome, & did He Hold the Episcopate There for Many Years?  We Deny Against the Romanists.  169-77

Q. 19, ‘Is the Roman Pope the Successor of Peter in a Monarchy or Ecumenical Pontificate?  We Deny.’  177-189

Q. 20, ‘Was the Primacy which Obtains in the Roman Church Established from the Beginning, or was it Introduced Little by Little & by Degrees in the Progress of the Ages?  The Former we Deny; the Latter we Affirm.’  189-99

Q. 21, ‘Is the Episcopate an Order or Grade of Ecclesiastical Hierarchy Distinct from the Presbyterate; and is it Superior by Divine Right?  We Deny.’  199-210

Q. 24, ‘Does the Right of Electing & Calling Pastors Belong to Bishops Alone or to the Church?  The Former we Deny; the Latter we Affirm Against the Romanists.’  223-235

Q. 25, ‘Was the Call of the First Reformers Legitimate?  We Affirm Against the Romanists.  235-46

Q. 26, ‘Is a Perpetual Celibacy According to Apostolic Institution to be Necessarily Observed by the Sacred Order?  Or is Marriage Lawful for Ministers?  The Former we Deny; the Latter we Affirm Against the Romanists.’  246-58

Q. 27, ‘Are Ecclesiastical Persons Exempt from the Jurisdiction of and Subjection to the Civil Magistrate?  We Deny Against the Romanists.’  258-69

Q. 31, ‘Does a Legislative Power Properly so Called, of Enacting Laws Binding the Conscience, Belong to the Church?  Or Only an Ordaining (diataktike) power, of Sanctioning Constitutions & Canons for the Sake of Good Order (eutaxian)?  The Former we Deny; the Latter we Affirm Against the Romanists.’  285-93

Q. 33, ‘Does it Belong to the Roman Pontiff to Proclaim & Gather Church Councils, to Preside Over Them & to Confer Upon Them Infallible Authority in Doctrines of Faith & Religion?  And is the Council of Trent to be Accepted?  We Deny Against the Romanists.  306-316

19th Topic, ‘The Sacraments’

Q. 2, ‘Was it Necessary that Sacraments Should be Instituted in the Church and is their Use Necessary?  We Distinguish.’  343-45

Q. 4, ‘Is the Essential & Internal Form of the Sacraments Placed in the Relation of the Sign to the Thing Signified & in Their Merely Relative Union (schetike)?  We Affirm Against the Romanists.’  348-50

Q. 5, ‘Are the Sacraments Only Marks & Badges of our Profession?  Or are they also Signs & Seals of the Grace of God Concerning the Remission of Sins & the Regeneration of the Spirit?  We Affirm Against the Socinians & Romanists.  350-54

Q. 6, ‘Is the Sacramental Word a Declarative & Concionative (concionale) Word or is it the Consecratory which is Operative?  The Former we Affirm; the Latter we Deny Against the Romanists.  354-57

Q. 7, ‘Whether the Intention of the Minister (at Least of Doing what the Church Does) is Necessary to the Essence & Efficacy of the Sacrament.  We Deny Against the Romanists.  357-61

Q. 8, ‘Do the Sacraments of the New Testament Work Grace so Physically that they Effect & Contain it ex opere operato, Whether Faith & Devotion are Present or Not?  Or are They Rather Efficacious Signs & Seals of Grace?  The Former we Deny; the Latter we Affirm Against the Romanists.  361-69

Q. 9, ‘Does the difference Between the Sacraments of the Old & New Testaments Consist in This–That the Former Adumbrate and the Latter Contain Grace; that the Former have the Figure, the Latter have the Body Itself?  We Deny.  369-75

Q. 10, ‘Is a Mark (i.e., a Spiritual & Indelible Sign) Impressed Upon the Soul in the Three Sacraments, Baptism, Confirmation & Order?  We Deny Against the Romanists.’  375-377

On Baptism

Q. 13, ‘Is Baptism Absolutely Necessary to Salvation?  We Deny Against the Romanists’  386-93

Q. 14, ‘Is Baptism by Laymen or Women Lawful in Any Case?  We Deny Against the Romanists.’  393-96

Q. 16, ‘Was John’s Baptism Essentially the Same as Christ’s Baptism?  We Affirm Against the Romanists/’  398-403

Q. 18, ‘Is the True Doctrine Concerning Baptism Retained in the Roman Church?  We Distinguish.’  405-410

Q. 19, ‘Does Baptism Take Away Sins in Such a Way that They are Not, or Only that they do Not Reign & are Not Imputed?  Does it Take Away Past & Present Sins Only & Leave Future Sins to Repentance?  Or Does it Extend Itself to Sins Committed Not Only Before but Also After Baptism?  The Former we Deny; the Latter we Affirm Against the Romanists.’  410-414

On the Lord’s Supper

Q. 23, ‘Is a Consecration Made in the Eucharist by the Utterance of the Words, Hoc est enim corpus meum?  And Ought They to be Secretly Uttered?  We Deny Against the Romanists.’  436-442

Q. 24, ‘Is the Right of Breaking Bread Necessary in the Administration of the Supper?  We Affirm.’  442-447

Q. 25, ‘Ought Both Symbols of the Eucharist to be Administered According to the Command of God to Each & Every Adult Believer?  Or is the Use of the Cup to be Forbidden to the People?  The Former we Affirm; the Latter we Deny Against the Romanists.’  465-88

Q. 26, ‘Are the Words of the Supper to be Understood Properly & Literally (kata to rheton), or Figuratively & Sacramentally?  The Former we Deny; the Latter we Affirm Against the Romanists & Lutherans.  465-88

Q. 27, ‘In the Eucharist, is there an Entire Conversion of the Substance of the Bread & Wine into the Body & Blood of Christ; or are the Bread & Wine, in Virtue of the Words of Consecration, Truly Transubstantiated into the Very Body & Blood of Christ, the External Species Only of the Bread & Wine Remaining?  We Deny Against the Romanists.’  488-505

Q. 28, ‘Is Christ Corporeally Present in the Eucharist, and is He Eaten with the Mouth by Believers?  We Deny Against the Romanists & Lutherans.  505-19

Q. 29, ‘Is an External, Real & Properly so Called Sacrifice Offered to God in the Eucharist; Not Only of Praise, Thanksgiving & Commemoration, but a Truly Propitiatory Sacrifice for the Sins of the Living & the Dead?  We Deny Against the Romanists.’  519-38

Q. 30, ‘Is the Worship of Latria (or Adoration) Due to the Sacrament of the Eucharist?  We Deny Against the Romanists.’  538-48

Q. 31, ‘Are Confirmation, Penance, Orders, Marriage & Extreme Unction True Sacraments?  We Deny Against the Romanists.’  548-61

20th Topic, ‘The Last Things’

Q. 8, ‘Will Eternal Life Consist in the Vision of God or in the Love & Enjoyment of Him? [Both]  And Under What Symbols is it Usually Described & Why?  608-17

Q. 12, ‘What is the Difference Between the Church Militant & the Church Triumphant?  632-35  [Also refutes Purgatory & the Limbo of the Fathers]



Books  Against the System of Romanism


Bradford, John – An Exhortation to the Carrying of Christ’s Cross with a True & Brief Confutation of False & Papistical Doctrine  ([Wesel?, 1555?])  153 pp.  ToC

Bradford (c.1510-1555) was an English reformer who was burned at the stake under the Romanist, Bloody Mary.

Knewstub, John – An Answer unto Certain Assertions Tending to Maintain the Church of Rome to be the True & Catholic Church  (London, 1579)  220 pp.

Knewstub (1544–1624) was an English presbyterian and puritan.

Cooper, Thomas – Certain Sermons wherein is Contained the Defense of the Gospel, now preached against such cavils and false accusations as are objected both against the doctrine itself and the preachers and professors thereof by the friends and favorers of the Church of Rome  (London, 1580)

Cooper (c.1517-1594) was a reformed Anglican bishop, lexicographer, theologian, and writer who wrote against the puritan, satirical tracts of Martin Mar-Prelate.

Lupton, Thomas

A Persuasion from Papistry, Written Chiefly to the Obstinate, Determined & Disobedient English Papists, who are herein Named & Proved English Enemies & Extreme enemies to England. Which Persuasion All the Queen’s Majesty’s Subjects Favoring the Pope or his Religion Will Read or Hear Advisedly  (London, 1581)  316 pp.

The Christian Against the Jesuit, wherein the Secret or Nameless Writer of a Pernicious Book, entitled, A Discovery of I. Nicols minister etc. privily printed, covertly cast abroad & secretly sold, is not only justly reproved: but also a book…  called, A Persuasion from Papistry [by Lupton] [is] therein derided and falsified, is Defended…  (London, 1582)

Rogers, Thomas – An Historical Dialogue Touching Antichrist & Popery, Drawn & Published for the Common Benefit & Comfort of our Church in these Dangerous Days, & Against the Desperate Attempts of the Vowed Adversaries of Jesus Christ, his Gospel & this Flourishing State  (London, 1589)  115 pp.

Rogers (1553-1616) was a reformed Anglican clergyman, known as a theologian, controversialist and translator.

Willet, Andrew

* Synopsis Papismi, that is, ‘A General View of Papistry’, wherein the Whole Mystery of Iniquity & Sum of Anti-Christian Doctrine is Set Down, which is Maintained this Day by the Synagogue of Rome Against the Church of Christ, together with an Antithesis of the True Christian Faith, and an antidote or counter-poison out of the Scriptures, against the Whore of Babylon’s Filthy Cup of Abominations: divided into three books or centuries, that is, so many hundreds of Popish Heresies & Errors  (1592)  626 pp.

Willet (1562–1621) was a reformed, conforming Anglican clergyman, controversialist and prolific writer.  He was known for his anti-papal works.

Tetrastylon Papisticum, that is, The Four Principal Pillars of Papistry, the First containing their railings, slanders, forgeries, untruths: the Second their blasphemies, flat contradictions to scripture, heresies, absurdities: the Third their loose arguments, weak solutions, subtle distinctions: the Fourth and last the repugnant opinions of new papists with the old; of the new one with another; of the same writers with themselves: yea of Popish Religion with and in itself. Compiled as a necessary supplement or fit appertinance to the Author’s Former Work, Entitled, Synopsis Papismi  ([London] 1593)

Abbot, Robert – A Mirror of Popish Subtilties, Discovering Sundry Wretched & Miserable Evasions & Shifts which a Secret, Cavilling Papist in the behalf of one Paul Spence, Priest, yet living and lately prisoner in the castle of Worcester, hath gathered out of Sanders, Bellarmine, and others, for the avoiding and discrediting of sundry allegations of Scriptures & Fathers against the Doctrine of the Church of Rome, concerning Sacraments, the Sacrifice of the Mass, Transubstantiation, Justification, etc.  (London, 1594)

Abbot (1560-1617) was a reformed Anglican and a professor of divinity at Oxford.

Bell, Thomas

Thomas Bel’s Motives Concerning Romish Faith & Religion  (Cambridge, 1593)  2nd ed. 1605

Bell (fl. 1573–1610) was an Anglican clergyman who converted to Romanism and was imprisoned in 1573.  He converted back to protestantism in 1592; shortly thereafter he commenced writing numerous publications contra Romanism.

The Survey of Popery, wherein the Reader may Clearly Behold, not Only the Original and Daily Increments of Papistry, with an Evident Confutation of the Same; but also a Succinct and Profitable Enarration of the State of God’s Church from Adam until Christ’s Ascension, contained in the first and second part thereof: and throughout the third part Popery is turned upside down  (London, 1596)

Hunting of the Romish Fox  (1598)

This work is entered on the Stationers’ Register, 8 April 1598, and Bell himself claims the authorship in his Counterblast. Another work with the same title had been published by William Turner in 1543 (Basle).

The Anatomie of Popish Tyrannie, wherein is conteyned a Plain Declaration … of the Libels, Letters, Edictes, Pamphlets, and Bookes lately published by the Secular Priests, and English Hispanized Jesuites  (London, 1603)

The Golden Balance of Tryall  (London, 1603)  annexed to this is A Counterblast against the Vaine Blast of a Masked Companion, who termeth Himself E. O., but thought to be Robert Parsons, the Trayterous Jesuite

The Downfall of Popery, Proposed by way of a New Challenge to all English Jesuits and Jesuited or Italianized Papists: Daring them all Jointly, and every one of them severally, to make answer thereunto if they can, or have any truth on their side; knowing for a truth that otherwise all the world will cry with open mouths, fie upon them and their patched hotch-potch religion  (London, 1604)  This was reprinted as The Fall of Papistrie in 1628.

This was responded to by a Romanist under the name Richard Smith, An Answer to Thomas Bel’s late challenge, named by him, The Downfall of Popery…  (Doway, 1605).  Bell says that this person was Robert Parsons, and responded below.  The work was also responded to by the Jesuit, Francis Walsingham.

The Pope’s Funeral, Containing a Plain, Succinct & Pithy Reply to a Pretensed Answer of a Shameless & Foolish libel entitled, ‘The Forerunner of Bel’s Downfall’…  (London, 1605)

The Woeful Cry of Rome, Containing a Defiance to Popery. With Thomas Bell’s Second Challenge to all Favorites of that Romish Faction. Succinctly comprehending much variety of matter…  (London, 1605)  ToC  77 pp.  This is a systematic work against Popery.

The Jesuits’ Antepast, containing a reply against a pretensed answer to The Downfall of Popery [by Bell], lately published by a masked Jesuit, Robert Parsons by name, though he hide himself covertly under the letters of S.R….  (London, 1608)

A Christian Dialogue Between Theophilus, a Deformed Catholic in Rome, and Remigius, a Reformed Catholic in the Church of England, Containing a plain and succinct resolution of sundry very intricate and important points of religion which do mightily assail the weak consciences of the vulgar sort of people, penned for the utter confusion of all seditious Jesuits & Jesuited Popelings in England  (London, 1609)

The Catholic Triumph, Containing a Reply to the Pretensed Answer of B.C. (a masked Jesuit) lately published against the Trial of the New Religion [by Bell, below]. Wherein is evidently proved that Popery and the Doctrine now professed in the Romish Church is the New Religion: and that the faith which the Church of England now maintains is the ancient Roman Religion  (London, 1610)

* Perkins, William – A Reformed Catholic: or a Declaration Showing how Near we may Come to the Present Church of Rome in Sundry Points of Religion: and wherein we must forever depart from them with an advertisement to all favorers of the Roman Religion, showing that the said Religion is Against the Catholic Principles & Grounds of the Catechism  ([Cambridge] 1598)

Perkins (1558-1602) was a father of puritanism in England.

Stoughton, Thomas – A General Treatise Against Popery and in Defence of the Religion by Public Authority Professed in England and Other Churches Reformed  (Cambridge, 1598)  Abstract   with An Addition of Certain Dainties of Poperie, collected partly out of their Popish Service Books, & partly out of the writings of some principal Doctors of special account in the Popish Church, when Popery itself was at the highest  319 pp.

Stoughton (fl.1598-1622) was a reformed Anglican clergyman and was ‘one not conforming to the Anglican formulae’, which was typical of puritans.

Dillingham, Francis – A Dissuasive From Popery, containing Twelve Effectual Reasons by which every Papist, not Willfully Blinded, may be brought to the Truth, and every Protestant confirmed in the same…  (Cambridge, 1599)

Dillingham (d. 1625) was a reformed Anglian cleric, scholar and King James Version translator.

Trigge, Francis

A Touchstone, whereby may be Easily Discerned which is the True Catholic Faith of all them that Profess the Name of Catholics in the Church of England, that they be not deceived, taken out of the Catholic Epistle of St. Jude  (London, 1599)  ToC  360 pp.

Trigge (c.1547-1606) was reformed.

The True Catholic Formed According to the Truth of the Scriptures and the shape of the Ancient Fathers & Best Sort of the Latter Catholics, which seem to Favor the Church of Rome  (London, 1602)



Welsh, John – Popery Anatomized, or a Learned, Pious & Elaborate Treatise wherein many of the Greatest & Weightiest Points of Controversy Between us and Papists are Handled, & the Truth of our Doctrine Clearly Proved: & the Falsehood of their Religion & Doctrine Anatomized, & Laid Open, & Most Evidently Convicted & Confuted by Scripture, Fathers & also by Some of their own Popes, Doctors, Cardinals, and of their own Writers: in Answer to Mr. Gilbert Brown, Priest  (1st ed. Edinburgh, 1602; d. 1622; rep. Glasgow, 1672)

Welsh of Ayr (c. 1570–1622) was a Scottish presbyterian minister.

Nichols, Josias – Abraham’s Faith: that is, The Old Religion, wherein is taught that the religion now publicly taught and defended by order in the Church of England is the only true Catholic, Ancient & Unchangeable Faith of God’s Elect; & the pretensed religion of the Sea of Rome is a False, Bastard, New, Upstart, Heretical & Variable Superstitious Device of Man  (London, 1602)  316 pp.

Nichols (1555?-1639) was a minister.

Abbot, George – The Reasons which Doctor Hill has Brought for the Upholding of Papistry, which is Falsely Termed the Catholic Religion: Unmasked & Showed to be very weak and upon examination most insufficient for that purpose…  the First Part  (Oxford, 1604)

Abbot (1562-1633) was a reformed, Anglican divine and archbishop of Canterbury.  An older brother of his was Robert Abbot (also with writings against Romanism on this webpage).

Udall, Thomas

A Brief View of the Weak Grounds of Popery as it was Propounded to D. Norrice, Priest, by T.U. gent., and returned without answer  (London, 1606)  101 pp.  Abstract

A Brief Reply of Thomas Udall, Gent. to a Short Memorandum, or show of answer against his book entitled, A Brief View of the Weak Grounds of Popery, by B.C., Student in Divinity  (London [1609])  47 pp.

Wotton, Anthony

A Defence of Mr. Perkins’ book, called, A Reformed Catholic, Against the Cavils of a Popish Writer, one D.B.P., or W.B., in his Deformed Reformation  (London, 1606)

Wotton (c.1561-1626) was a reformed puritan and a professor of theology in Gresham College, England.

A Trial of the Romish Clergy’s Title to the Church, by Way of Answer to a Popish Pamphlet written by one A.D. [John Fisher] and entitled, A Treatise of Faith  (London, 1608)  Subject Index

This work responds to the work of the Romanist, John Fisher (i.e. John Percy), A Treatise of Faith, wherein is briefly…  ([St. Omer: English College Press] 1605).  Percy’s way of resolving and settling one’s faith against all doubts, questions and controversies is to simply believe that the doctrine and teaching of the true Church (that is Roman) is the rule of faith, and not Scripture alone.

Percy, also known as A.D., responded to this work of Wotten’s in ‘A Reply Made unto Mr. Anthony Wotton and Mr. John White’ (1612).

Sutcliffe, Matthew

An Abridgment or Survey of Popery, Containing a Compendious Declaration of the Grounds, Doctrines, Beginnings, Proceedings, Impieties, Falsities, Contradictions, Absurdities, Fooleries, and other manifold abuses of that Religion, which the Pope and his Complices do now Maintain, and wherewith they have corrupted and deformed the True Christian Faith, opposed unto Matthew Kellison’s Survey of the New Religion, as he calls it, and all his malicious invectives and lies  (London, 1606)

Sutcliffe (1550-1629) was an English clergyman, academic, lawyer and chaplain to king James I.

The Subversion of [the Romanist] Robert Parsons, his Confused & Worthless Work entitled, A Treatise of Three Conversions of England from Paganism to Christian Religion  (London, 1606)  Abstract

The Blessings on Mount Gerizzim & the Curses on Mount Ebal, or the Happy Estate of Protestants compared with the miserable estate of Papists under the Pope’s Tyranny  (London, 1625)  This is the same as his, A True Relation of England’s Happiness…  (1629)

Whetenhall, Thomas – A Discourse of the Abuses now in Question in the Churches of Christ of their Creeping in, Growing up & Flourishing in the Babylonish Church of Rome; how they are spoken against not only by the Scriptures, but also by the ancient fathers as long as there remained any face of a true Church maintained by public authority, and likewise by the lights of the Gospel and blessed martyrs of late in the midst of the antichristian darkness  ([England] 1606)  192 pp.  Subject Index  printed secretly

Middleton, William – Papisto-Mastix, or The Protestants’ Religion Defended. Showing briefly when the great compound heresy of Popery First Sprange; how it grew piece by piece till Antichrist was disclosed; how it has been consumed by the breath of God’s Mouth: and when it shall be cut down and withered  (London, 1606)  This work was also titled, A Brief Answer to a Popish Dialogue Between Two Gentlemen; the one a Papist, the other a Protestant.  The work is a dialogue; the dialogue it answered is not extant.

Middleton (d. 1613) was an English churchman, academic and Protestant controversialist.  He was Master of Corpus Christi College, Cambridge for a brief period in 1603.

Abbot, Robert

A Defense of The Reformed Catholic of Mr. William Perkins, Lately Deceased, Against the Bastard Counter-Catholic of Dr. Bishop, Seminary Priest: the First Part, for Answer to his Calumniations Generally Framed Against the Same & Against the Whole Religion & State of our Church in his Epistle Dedicatory…  (London, 1606)  260 pp.  ToC

Abbot (1560-1617) was a reformed Anglican and a professor of divinity at Oxford.  George Abbot was his younger brother.

The True Ancient Roman Catholic, being an Apology, or Counter-Proof, Against Doctor Bishop’s Reproof of The Defense of the Reformed Catholic [above]. The first part. Wherein the name of Catholics is vindicated from Popish Abuse, and thence is showed that the faith of the Church of Rome, as now it is, is not the Catholic faith…  (London, 1611)  ToC

The Second Part of the Defense of The Reformed Catholic, wherein the Religion Established in our Church of England (for the Points Here Handled) is Apparently Justified by Authority of Scripture, & Testimony of the Ancient Church, Against the Vain Cavillations Collected…  Out of…  Popish writers…  (London, 1607)  ToC

Perkins’s Reformed Catholic had 21 chapters.  This work of Abbot refutes Dr. Bishop point-by-point through the first 9 chapters:

1. Free Will, 2. Original Sin, 3. Certainty of Salvation, 4. Justification, 5. Merits, 6. Satisfaction, 7. Traditions, 8. Vows & 9. Images.

The Third Part of The Defense of the Reformed Catholic against Dr. Bishop’s Second Part of The Reformation of a Catholic  (London, 1609)

I.H. – The Peace of Rome Proclaimed to All the World, by her Famous Cardinal Bellarmine, and the No Less Famous Casuist Navarre.  Whereof the One Acknowledges & Numbers up Above Three Hundred Differences of Opinion, Maintained in the Popish Church.  The Other Confesses near Threescore Differences Amongst their own Doctors in One-Only Point of their Religion. Gathered Faithfully out of their Writings in their own Words, and Divided into Four Books, and those into several Decades. Whereto is prefixed a Serious Dissuasive from Popery  (London, 1609)

Du Moulin, Pierre

A Defence of the Catholic Faith Contained in the Book of the Most Mighty, and most gracious King James the First, King of Great Britain, France & Ireland…  Against the Answer of N. Coeffeteau, Dr. of Divinity, and Vicar-General of the Dominican Preaching Friars  (1610)

Du Moulin (1568-1658) was a reformed, Huguenot minister in France who also resided in England for some years.  He was involved extensively in combatting Romanism in print.

* The Buckler of the Faith: or a Defense of the Confession of Faith of the Reformed Churches in France, Against the Objections of M. Arnoux the Jesuit, wherein All the Principal Controversies between the Reformed Churches & the Church of Rome are Decided  (London, 1620)

Copley, John – Doctrinal and Moral Observations Concerning Religion, wherein the Author declares the Reasons of his late un-enforced departure from the Church of Rome, and of his incorporation to the present Church of England: teaching, maintaining and defending the true Christian Catholic and apostolic faith, professed by the ancient primitive church, most conspicuous in the outward virtues and constant sufferings of many holy bishops and other good Christians, glorious in the crown of martyrdom  (London, 1612)

Copley (1577–1662) was the youngest son of Sir Thomas Copley, a prominent Romanist politician.  John became a Roman priest, but converted to Anglicanism in 1611.

White, John

The Way to the True Church, wherein the Principal Motives Persuading According to Romanism, & Questions Touching the Nature & Authority of the Church & Scriptures are Familiarly Disputed & Driven to their Issues, where this day they Stick between the Papists and Us: contrived into an Answer to a Popish Discourse concerning the Rule of Faith & the Marks of the Church. And published to admonish such as decline to Papistry of the Weak & Uncertain Grounds, whereupon they have ventured their souls…  (London, 1608, 1610, 1612, 1616)  ToC  Digressions

White (1570-1615) was a reformed, doctor of divinity from Cambridge, an Anglican royal chaplain and controversialist.

The work is a response to the A Treatise of Faith, wherein is briefly…  ([St. Omer: English College Press] 1605) by the Jesuit, John Percy (a.k.a. John Fisher), which was then being circulated in manuscript.  Percy, also known as A.D., responded to this work of White’s in ‘A Reply Made unto Mr. Anthony Wotton and Mr. John White’ (1612).  White’s A Defense of the Way to the True Church (below) responds to it.

White’s The Way to the True Church was also responded to by  Thomas Worthington, Whyte Dyed Black, or a Discovery of many most Foule Blemishes, Impostures and Deceipts which D. Whyte hath practysed in his Book (1615).  This was answered by White’s brother, Francis White, below.

“A third reply to White’s original book was A Treatise of the Church, in which it is proved Mr. J. W. his Way to the True Church to be indeed no Way at all to any Church (1616).  This work was also by [William] Wright, who turned to translations from Leonard Lessius to dispute the possibility of salvation outside the Catholic church.” – Wikipedia

A Defense of the Way to the True Church Against A.D., his Reply, Wherein the Motives Leading to Papistry, and questions touching the Rule of Faith, the Authority of the Church, the succession of the Truth and the Beginning of Romish Innovations are Handled & Fully Disputed  (London, 1614)  ToC  Subject Index

This was responded to by the Jesuit, William Wright, A Discovery of Certain Notorious Shifts, Evasions & Untruths Uttered by M. J. White…  By W. G.  (London, 1619).

Ainsworth, Henry

The Trying out of the Truth Begun & Prosecuted in Certain Letters & Passages between John Ainsworth & Henry Ainsworth; the one pleading for, the other against the present religion of the Church of Rome. The chief things to be handled, are: 1. Of God’s Word & Scriptures, whether they be a sufficient rule of our faith. 2. Of the Scriptures expounded by the Church; and of unwritten traditions. 3. Of the Church of Rome, whether it be the true Catholic Church and [whether] her sentence [is] to be received as the certain truth  ([Amsterdam] 1615)  190 pp.

Henry Ainsworth (1571–1622) was a separatist divine & scholar in England and later in Amsterdam, Netherlands.

A Reply to a Pretended Christian Plea for the Anti-Christian Church of Rome: published by Mr. Francis Johnson, 1617, Wherein the weakness of the said plea is manifested, and arguments alleged for the Church of Rome, and baptism therein, are refuted  ([Amsterdam] 1620)

As a Separatist, Ainsworth argues that the Roman Church is not a Church, nor has a valid baptism, contrary to the dominant reformed view of the era.

White, Francis

The Orthodox Faith & Way to the Church Explained & Justified, in Answer to a Popish Treatise Entitled, White Died Black, wherein T.W.P. [Thomas Worthington] in his Triple Accusation of Dr. [John] White for impostures, untruths, & absurd illations, is proved a Trifler: and the present Controversies Between Us & the Romanists are more Fully Delivered & Cleared  (London, 1617)

White (c.1564-1638) was an Arminian Anglican bishop, doctor of divinity, controversialist and the older brother of John White (above).

A Reply to Jesuit Fisher’s Answer to Certain Questions Propounded by his most Gracious Majesty, King James…  Hereunto is Annexed, a Conference of the Right: R:B: of St. David’s with the Same Jesuit  (London, 1624)

“Early in 1622 he [White] was employed by James I as a disputant against John Percy alias Fisher (1569–1641), to stay the Roman Catholic tendencies of Mary, Countess of Buckingham.  He held two conferences; the third (24 May 1622) was entrusted to William Laud.  White’s Replie to Fisher (1624) was dedicated to James I.” – Wikipedia

Fowns, Richard – Trisagion, or the Three Holy Offices of Jesus Christ…  Priestly, Prophetical & Regal, how they Ought of all his Church to be Received, with a Declaration of the Violence & Injuries Offered unto the Same, by the Spiritual & Romish Babylon…  Revealing many Blasphemous Mysteries Unknown to the Vulgar  (London, 1618)

Fowns (c.1561-1625) was reformed Anglican chaplain and clergyman.

Taylor, Thomas – A Map of Rome, Lively Exhibiting her Merciless Meekness & Cruel Mercies to the Church of God: preached in Five Sermons, on occasion of the Gunpowder Treason…  1. The Romish Furnace. 2. The Romish Edom. 3. The Romish Fowler. 4. The Romish Conception. To which is added, 5. The English Gratulation  (London, 1620)

Taylor (1576-1632) was an English puritan, of whom it was said that he was ‘as a brazen wall against popery.’

* Ussher, James – Answer to a Jesuit, with Other Tracts on Popery  (Dublin, 1624)  ToC & ToC to Answer to a Jesuit

In his very helpful, Answer to a Jesuit, Ussher, on 12 chapter-subjects, gives a chronological survey of many early & medieval citations which are contrary to Romanism, which defend the Church of Ireland/England’s dominant views and practices (which are not always right, or fully reformed).

Mayer, John – An Antidote Against Popery, Confected out of Scriptures, Fathers, Councils & Histories. Wherein Dialogue-Wise are Showed the Points, Grounds & Antiquity of the Protestant Religion & the First Springing up of the points of Popery: Together with the Antichristianism Thereof…  (London, 1625)  81 pp.  ToC

Mayer (1583-1664) was an Anglican divine who wrote a whole Bible commentary, which he was known for.

Forbes, Patrick – Wherein a Rugged Romish Rhyme (inscribed, Catholic Questions to the Protestant) is Confuted and the Questions Thereof Answered  (1564-1635)  166 pp.

Forbes (1564-1635) was a puritanical Scottish bishop.

Guild, William

* A Compend of the Controversies of Religion, wherein the Truth is Confirmed & Error Convinced by [the] Authority of Scripture, Witnessing of Antiquity & Confession of Party…  (Aberdeen, 1627)  The whole work is a systematic refutation of Rome’s doctrines.

Guild (1586–1657) was an episcopal Scottish divine who made a qualified acceptance of the National Covenant (1638) and conformed to presbyterianism at that time.

Popish Glorying in Antiquity Turned to Their Shame, whereby is Showed how they Wrong, Villify & Disgrace that whereunto they Pretend to Carry Greatest Reverence: and are most guilty of that which they upbraid unto others.  Collected & proved out of themselves, for the singular profit both of pastors & professors [laymen]  (London, 1627)

* The Old Roman Catholic, as at First he was taught by Paul, in Opposition to the New Roman Catholic, as of Latter he is Taught by the Pope, the One being Apostolical, the other Apostatical: derived and proven only out of the Epistle of Paul to the Romans: whereunto is added a clear probation that the same also was the doctrine of the Primitive Bishops of Rome…  discovering to all clearly the apostasy of that Church from the Ancient Roman faith and purity thereof to the novelty of gross heresy and idolatry, and sufficient to convince, if not convert, any Papist that is not willfully obdured  ([Aberdeen], 1649)  This is a systematic refutation of Romanism’s doctrines.

An Answer to a Popish Pamphlet Called, ‘The Touch-Stone of the Reformed Gospel’, Made Specially out of Themselves  (Aberdeen, 1656)  This is a systematic refutation of Romanism.

An Antidote Against Popery: Most Necessary for all in this Backsliding Age.  Wherein 1. The Truth is Confirmed by Authority of Scriptures, Witnessing of Antiquity, and confession of the Popish Party. 2. Popish Scriptural Arguments are Answered by the Exposition both of Father[s] and of their own Doctors  (Aberdeen, 1656)

The Novelty of Popery Discovered & Chiefly Proven by Romanists out of Themselves  (Aberdeen, 1656)

Lynde, Humphrey (a Knight) – Via Tuta, the Safe Way.  Leading all Christians, by the Testimonies and Confessions of our Best, Learned [Roman] Adversaries, to the True, Ancient & Catholic faith, now professed in the Church of England   (London, 1628)

Lynde (1579–1636) was an English lay Puritan controversialist and politician who sat in the House of Commons in 1626.

Potter, Christopher – Want of Charity Justly Charged on All Such Romanists as Dare (without Truth or Modesty) Affirm that Protestancy Destroys Salvation, in Answer to a Late Popish Pamphlet Entitled, ‘Charity Mistaken etc.’  (Oxford, 1633)  120 pp.

Potter (1591-1646) was an Arminian, Anglican clergyman, Oxford academic, controversialist and prominent supporter of William Laud.

* Davenant, John – The Determinations, or Resolutions of Certain Theological Questions, Publicly Discussed in the University of Cambridge  trans. Josiah Allport  (1634; 1846)  ToC  bound at the end of John Davenant, A Treatise on Justification, or the Disputatio de Justitia...  trans. Josiah Allport  (1631; London, 1846), vol. 2

Most of the theses determined in this work are contra Romanism.  Some of them show Davenant’s episcopal, Anglican leanings.

Pagett, Ephraim – Christianography, or the Description of the Multitude & Sundry Sorts of Christians in the World, not Subject to the Pope: with their Unity & how they Agree with the Protestants in the Principal Points of Difference Between them and the Church of Rome  (London, 1636)  ToC  405 pp.

Pagett (1574-1646) was a reformed Anglican clergyman, heresiographer, royalist and supporter of the Solemn League & Covenant and presbyterianism.

Chillingworth, William – The Religion of Protestants a Safe Way to Salvation  (1637; rep. London, 1870)  520 pp.  ToC

Chillingworth (1602-1644) was an Arminian Anglican, anti-Sabbatarian controversialist who disagreed with a part of the Athanasian Creed.  He became persuaded initially of Romanism by the Jesuit John Percy (alias, John Fisher) in 1630, though began to dispute against Romanism in 1631.

“His major work was an intervention in another controversy, undertaken in defence of Christopher Potter, Provost of The Queen’s College, Oxford, against the Jesuit Edward Knott.  Potter had replied in 1633 to Knott’s ‘Charity Mistaken’ (1630), and Knott retaliated with ‘Mercy and Truth’, which Chillingworth attempted to answer.  Knott brought out a preemptive pamphlet tending to show that Chillingworth was a Socinian.  Chillingworth wrote The Religion of Protestants while staying at Great Tew…  [William] Laud, now Archbishop of Canterbury, was anxious about Chillingworth’s reply to Knott, and at his request it was examined by Richard Baily, John Prideaux, and Samuel Fell, and published with their approval in 1637, with the title The Religion of Protestants a Safe Way to Salvation.

The main argument is a vindication of the sole authority of the Bible in spiritual matters, and of the free right of the individual conscience to interpret it.” – Wikipedia

Rous, Francis – Catholic Charity Complaining & Maintaining that Rome is Uncharitable to Sundry Eminent Parts of the Catholic Church, & Especially to Protestants, and is Therefore Uncatholic: and so, a Romish book, called Charity Mistaken, though undertaken by a second, is itself a mistaking  (London, 1641)

Rous (1579-1659) was a English, puritan politician and Westminster divine.

C.D.R. – Rome’s Destruction, or, Express Texts and Necessary Consequences drawn out of the Word of God for the condemning of the Doctrine of the Roman Church and justifying of that of the reformed Churches…  (London, 1641)  ToC

C.D.R. was a French nobleman.

Swadlin, Thomas – The Scripture’s Vindicated from the Unsound Conclusions of Cardinal Bellarmine, & the Controverted Points Betwixt the Church of Rome & the Reformed Church, Stated According to the Opinions of Both Sides  (no place, 1643)

Swadlin (1600–1670) was an Anglican minister, divine and royalist.  During the puritan revolution he was considered one of ‘Laud’s creatures’ and a malignant.

Laud, William – A Relation of the Conference Between William Laud, Late Lord Archbishop of Canterbury, and Mr. [John] Fisher, the Jesuit: by the Command of King James…  with an Answer to such Exceptions as A.C. takes against it  4th ed. (d. 1645; London, 1686)  253 pp.

Laud (1573-1645) was an Anglican Archbishop of Canterbury, a firm believer in episcopalianism, sought unity between the Church of England and the Scottish Church in worship, and was accused of Arminianism, covertly favoring Roman Catholic doctrines and opposing Calvinism.

Baxter, Richard

The Safe Religion, or Three Disputations for the Reformed Catholic Religion against Popery, Proving that Popery is Against the Holy Scriptures, the Unity of the Catholic Church, the consent of the ancient doctors, the plainest reason and common judgment of sense itself  (London, 1657)  455 pp.  with the appendix: A Translation of Bishop [George] Downame’s Catalogue of [78] Popish Errors, bk. 3 of The Antichrist, ch. 7

Baxter was an Independent English puritan.

A Key for Catholics to open the juggling of the Jesuits and satisfy all that are but truly willing to understand, whether the cause of the Roman or Reformed Churches be of God…  containing some arguments by which the meanest may see the vanity of Popery & 40 Detections of their Fraud, with directions and materials sufficient for the confutation of their voluminous deceits…  The Second Part Shows (especially against the French & Grotians) that the Catholic Church is not united in any merely human head, either Pope or council  (London, 1659)  ToC pt. 1, ToC pt. 2

The True Catholic, and Catholic Church Described, and the Vanity of the Papists and all other schismatics that confine the Catholic Church to their Sect, Discovered & Shamed…  (London, 1660)  ToC

The Certainty of Christianity Without Popery, or whether the Catholic-Protestant or the Papist have the surer faith, being an answer to one of the oft canted questions and challenges of the papists, sent to one who desired this…  (London, 1672)  ToC

Full & Easy Satisfaction which is the True & Safe Religion, in a Conference between D., a Doubter, P., a Papist and R., a reformed Catholic Christian: in Four Parts  (London, 1674)  ToC  189 pp.

Naked Popery, or the Naked Falsehood of a book called, The Catholic Naked Truth, or the Puritan Convert to Apostolical Christianity, written by W.H., opening their fundamental error of unwritten tradition and their unjust description of the Puritans, the prelatical Protestant and the Papist and their differences, and better acquainting the ignorant of the same difference, especially what a Puritan and what a Papist is  (London, 1677)  ToC

Which is the True Church?  The Whole Christian World, as Headed Only by Christ, or the Pope of Rome and his Subjects as such?  in Three Parts  (London, 1679)

Featley, Daniel

The Romish Fisher Caught & Held in his Own Net. Or, A True Relation of the Protestant Conference & Popish Difference. A Justification of the One & Refutation of the Other. In matter of Fact, Faith  Buy fascimile  1624

A True Relation of that which Passed in a Conference at the end of Paternoster-Rowe, called Amen, Touching Transubstantiation, April 18, 1623  1624

The Grand Sacrilege of the Church of Rome, in Taking Away the Sacred Cup from the Laity at the Lord’s Table: Detected & Convinced by the Evidence of Holy Scripture & Testimonies of All Ages Successively, from the First Propagation of the Catholic Christian Faith to this Present: Together with Two Conferences; the Former at Paris with D. Smith, now styled by the Romanists B. of Calcedon; the Latter at London with M. Euerard, Priest  1630

Transubstantiation Exploded: or an Encounter with Richard the Titulary Bishop of Chalcedon concerning Christ his Presence at his Holy Table. Faithfully Related in a Letter Sent to D. Smith, the Sorbonist, Styled by the Pope, Ordinary of England & Scotland, Whereunto is Annexed a Public & Solemn Disputation Held at Paris with Christopher Bagshaw, D. in Theology & Rector of Ave Marie College  1638

Virtumnus Romanus, or, a Discourse Penned by a Romish Priest, Wherein he Endeavors to Prove that it is Lawful for a Papist in England to go to the Protestant Church to Receive the Communion & to take the Oaths, both of [Civil] Allegiance & Supremacy, to which are Adjoined Animadversions in the Margin by Way of Antidote Against those Places where the Rankest Poison is Couched  1642

The Ancient Doctrine of the Church of England Maintained in its Primitive Purity.  Containing a Justification of the 39 Articles of the Church of England Against Papists & Schismatics: the Similitude & Harmony Betwixt the Roman Catholic & the Heretic, with a Discovery of their Abuses of the Fathers, in the first 16 Ages [Centuries], and the many heresies Introduced by the Roman Church. Together with a vindication of the antiquity and universality of the ancient Protestant Faith  (London, 1660)

Featley (1582–1645) was a reformed Anglican, episcopalian, divine, controversialist and Westminster divine.

Tombes, John – Romanism Discussed, or, an Answer to the Nine First Articles of H.T. [a Papist], his Manual of Controversies.  Whereby is manifested that H.T. has not (as he pretends) clearly demonstrated the truth of the Roman Religion, by him falsely called Catholic, by Texts of Holy Scripture, Councils of All Ages, Fathers of the First Five Hundred Years, Common Sense and Experience, nor fully answered the Principal Objections of Protestants, whom he unjustly terms Sectaries…  Commended to the World by Mr. Richard Baxter  (London, 1660)  ToC

Tombes (c.1603?–1676) was a conforming Anglican, Erastian baptist.  Baxter was a congregationalist.

Owen, John – A Vindication of the Animadversions on Fiat Lux [‘Let there be Light’, a Romanist publication], wherein the Principles of the Roman Church, as to Moderation, Unity & Truth are Examined & Sundry Important Controversies Concerning the Rule of Faith, Papal Supremacy, the Mass, Images, etc. Discussed  (London, 1664)  564 pp.

Owen was an English, congregationalist puritan.

This work was responded to by John Vincent Canes, Three Letters Declaring the Strange, odd proceedings of Protestant Divines when they write against Catholics: by the example of Dr. Taylor’s Dissuasive against Popery, Mr. Whitby’s Reply in the Behalf of Dr. Pierce against Cressy, and Dr. Owen’s Animadversions on Fiat Lux  ([Douay?] 1671)

Taylor, Jeremy

A Dissuasive from Popery  (London, 1664)  294 pp.

Taylor (1613–1667) was an Arminian, Anglican cleric who achieved fame as an author during the Protectorate of Oliver Cromwell.

Counter-responses to this work included: A.L., A Letter to a Friend, Touching Dr. Jeremy Taylor’s Dissuasive from Popery… (1665) & Edward Worsley, Truth Will Out, or, A Discovery of some Untruths Smoothly told by Dr. Jeremy Taylor…  (1665)

The Second Part of the Dissuasive from Popery, in Vindication of the First Part & Further Reproof & Conviction of the Roman Errors  (London, 1667)

This was responded to by John Vincent Canes, Three Letters Declaring the Strange, odd proceedings of Protestant Divines when they write against Catholics: by the example of Dr. Taylor’s Dissuasive against Popery, Mr. Whitby’s Reply in the Behalf of Dr. Pierce against Cressy, and Dr. Owen’s Animadversions on Fiat Lux  ([Douay?] 1671)

Ferne, Henry – An Appeal to Scripture & Antiquity in the Questions of 1. the Worship & Invocation of Saints & Angels, 2. the Worship of Images, 3. Justification by and Merit of Good Works, 4. Purgatory, 5. Real presence & Half-Communion: Against the Romanists  (London, 1665)

Ferne (1602–1662) was an Anglican bishop, a doctor of divinity, an academic and a chaplain to Charles I.

Poole, Matthew

* The Nullity of the Romish Faith, or a Blow at the Root of the Romish Church, being an Examination of that Fundamental Doctrine of the Church of Rome Concerning the Church’s Infallibility, & of all those several methods which their most famous and approved writers have used for the defense thereof: together with an appendix tending to the demonstration of the solidity of the Protestant faith, wherein the reader will find all the material objections & cavils of their most considerable writers…  discussed & answered  (Oxford, 1666)  244 pp.  ToC

Poole (1624–1679) was an English puritan who was likely assasinated through poison by Romanists.  See also, Thomas Harley, Matthew Poole: His Life, His Times, His Contributions Along with His Argument Against The Infallibility of the Roman Catholic Church (2009)  Buy

* A Dialogue Between a Popish Priest & an English Protestant, Wherein the Principal Points & Arguments of both Religions are Truly Proposed & Fully Examined  EEBO  (London, 1672)

Rait, William – A Vindication of the Reformed Religion from the Reflections of a Romanist, Written for the Information of all who will Receive the Truth in Love  (Aberdeen, 1671)  287 pp.

Rait was a Scottish minister at Dundee.

Mather, Samuel – A Defence of the Protestant Christian Religion Against Popery: in Answer to a Discourse of a Roman Catholic. Wherein the Manifold Apostasies, Heresies & Schisms of the Church of Rome, as also the Weakness of her pretensions from the Scriptures and the Fathers, are briefly Laid Open  (Dublin, 1672)

Mather (1626 –1671) was an Independent minister who was born in England, lived in New England, came back to England during the Commonwealth, went to Scotland after a period at Oxford, and became a Fellow of Trinity College, Dublin.  After 1662 he was a nonconformist minister in Ireland.

* The Anatomy of Popery, or a Catalogue of Popish Errors in Doctrine & Corruptions in Worship, Together with the Agreement between Paganism, Pharisaism & Popery  (London, 1673)  216 pp.

Hughes, William – The Man of Sin, or a Discourse of Popery, wherein the Numerous & Monstrous Abomination, in doctrine and practice, of the Romish Church are by their own hands Exposed so to Open Light that the very blind may see them, and Antichrist in capital letters engraven on them, particularly in the infinite drove of their adored but lying wonders and miracles, by no Roman, but a Reformed Catholic  (London ,1677)  ToC

Hughes (b. 1624 or 25)

Des Ecotais, Louis – Memoirs of Mr. Des-Ecotais: formerly styled in the Church of Rome the most venerable Father Cassianus of Paris, priest and preacher of the Order of the Capucins. Or, The motives of his Conversion. Divided into two parts. I. That the doctrine of the now Roman church is not grounded neither upon the Holy Scripture; neither upon the belief of the primitive church or the authority of the Holy Fathers, which is more particularly and more evidently verified in the examination of the belief of Rome concerning the Eucharist. II. That the church of Rome is not the true Church; that it does not enjoy, as absolutely its own, out-shutting all other Churches, neither the antiquity of the belief, neither the multitude of the people, neither the true and lawful succession of the bishops; that the authority thereof is not infallible, and that it is full of errors and corruptions  (London, 1677)

Des Ecotais was a French convert from Romanism to the reformed Church; he gives his reasons for this change in this book.

Fleming, Robert – The Truth & Certainty of the Protestant Faith, with a Short & Plain Account of the Doctrine of the Romish Church in its Visible Opposition to Scripture and the Very Being of Christianity: to which is adjoined some serious considerations anent Popery & the state of that controversy  ([Rotterdam] 1678)

Fleming (1630-1694) was a Church of Scotland minister who was deposed at the Great Ejection of 1662 and later imprisoned.  He also served at the Scots Kirk in Rotterdam in the Netherlands and later visited London.

* Ness, Christopher – A Protestant Antidote Against the Poison of Popery, clearly proving the Religion of the Church of Rome to be 1. Superstitious, 2. Idolatrous, 3. Damnable, 4. Bloody, 5. Novel, 6. Inconsistent with the Public Peace, 7. Irreconciliable to True Christianity  (London, 1679)

Ness (1621-1705) was an English puritan minister who was ejected in the Great Ejection of 1662.  Ness took the 2nd Indulgence in 1672 as a congregationalist minister, and was subsequently excommunicated four time.  John Owen recommended his book against Arminianism.

Abercromby, David

Protestancy to be Embraced, or a New & Infallible Method to Reduce Romanists from Popery to Protestancy, a Treatise of Great Use to all His Majesty’s Subjects, and necessary to prevent error and Popery  (London, 1682)  ToC  This was republished in 1686 under the title, Protestancy Proved Safer than Popery.

Abercromby (d. 1701 or 1702) was a Scottish physician and writer.  He was brought up at Douai as a Roman Catholic by Jesuit priests.  As a Romanist he wrote, Scolding no Scholarship in the Abyss, or, Groundless Grounds of the Protestant Religion… (1669).  He was converted to Protestantism in 1682 and came to abjure popery.

The first half of the above book highlights the advantages of Protestantism towards salvation; the second half enumerates some of the principle obstacles towards salvation in Romanism.  A Romanist, Alexander Con, replied to this work with, An Answer to a little book called, Protestancy to be Embraced…  ([Aberdeen?] 1686).

Reasons Why A Protestant Should not Turn Papist  (1687)  This has sometimes been wrongly attributed to Robert Boyle

Jurieu, Pierre – A Preservative Against the Change of Religion, or a Just and True Idea of the Roman Catholic Religion, opposed to the flattering portraitures made thereof…  (London, 1683)

Jurieu (1637-1713) was a French reformed minister.  He was called ‘the Goliath of the Protestants’ by Romanists.

Clagett, William

The Difference of the Case Between the Separation of Protestants from the Church of Rome and the Separation of Dissenters from the Church of England  (London, 1683)  71 pp.

Clagett (1646–1688) was an Anglican minister, controversialist, and a chaplain both to King Charles II and King James II.  Clagett disputed in print certain parts of John Owen’s work on the Holy Spirit.

A Discourse Concerning the Worship of the Blessed Virgin and the Saints: with an account of the beginnings and rise of it amongst Christians, in answer to M. de Meaux’s appeal to the Fourth Age, in his Exposition and Pastoral Letter  (London, 1686)

A Paraphrase with Notes, and a Preface upon the Sixth Chapter of St. John: showing that there is neither good reason, nor sufficient authority to suppose that the Eucharist is discoursed of in that chapter, much less to infer the doctrine of transubstantiation from it (London, 1686)

A View of the Whole Controversy between the Representer & the Answerer: with an Answer to the Representer’s Last Reply: in which are laid open some of the methods by which Protestants are misrepresented by Papists  (London, 1687)

Rawlet, John – A Dialogue betwixt Two Protestants, in Answer to a Popish Catechism Called, ‘A Short Catechism Against All Sectaries’: plainly showing that the members of the Church of England are no sectaries but true Catholics and that our Church is a sound part of Christ’s holy Catholic Church in whose communion therefore the people of this nation are most strictly bound in conscience to remain: in two parts  (London, 1685)  262 pp.  ToC

Rawlet (1642-1686) was an Anglican clergyman with close sympathy with presbyterians.  He was known as a preacher and writer of religious literature.

Burnet, Gilbert

An Impartial Survey and Comparison of the Protestant Religion as by Law Established, with the Main Doctrines of Popery, wherein is shown that Popery is Contrary to Scripture, Primitive Fathers & Councils  (London, 1685)

Burnet (1643-1715) was a Scottish philosopher and historian, and later a latitudinarian, Arminian, Anglican Bishop of Salisbury in England.  He was fluent in Dutch, French, Latin, Greek, and Hebrew.  Burnet was highly respected as a cleric, a preacher, an academic, a writer and a historian. He was always closely associated with the Whig party, and was one of the few close friends in whom King William III confided.

A Collection of Papers Against Popery & Arbitrary Government, written by G. Burnet  (Amsterdam, 1689)

* ed. Annesley, Samuel – Puritan Sermons at Cripplegate, vol. 5, Against Popery, Sermons 1-6, pp. 547-700 & vol. 6, Sermons 7-25, whole

This is a series of practical, but substantial, puritan sermons refuting Romanism systematically topic by topic.

* Clarkson, David – The Practical Divinity of the Papists Discovered to be Destructive of Christianity & Men’s Souls  (d. 1686)  ToC  in Practical Works, vol. 3

Clarkson (1622-1686) was a congregationalist puritan and successor of John Owen.  This work is eye-opening; skim the table of contents.

Care, Henry – The Last Legacy of Henry Care…  containing a Brief Sum of Christian Doctrine, by Way of Question & Answer: Particularly Relating to Several of the Most Important Points Controverted between us & the Romanists: decided by express Testimonies of the Holy Scripture & Evident Reason: published for the use of such as are unable to purchase, or comprehend larger & more elaborate tracts  (London, 1688)  79 pp.  ToC

Care (1646-1688) was an English gentleman.

La Placette, Jean – Of the Incurable Scepticism of the Church of Rome  (London, 1688)

La Placette (1629-1718) was a French reformed minister.

Wake, William – A Collection of Several Discourses against Popery  (London [1688])

Wake (1657-1737) was the Archbishop of Canterbury in the Anglican Church.

Sherlock, William

An Answer to a Discourse entitled, Papists Protesting Against Protestant-Popery…  and containing a particular examination of Monsieur de Meaux, late Bishop of Condom, his Exposition of the doctrine of the Church of Rome in the articles of invocation of saints, and the worship of images occasioned by that discourse  (London, 1686)

Sherlock (1641-1707) was a prominent Anglican clergyman.  During the reign of the Romanist, king James II (1685-88), in 1686, he was reproved for his antipapal preaching and his controversy with the king’s chaplain; his pension was taken away.

A Preservative Against Popery [Parts 1-2], being some plain Directions to Unlearned Protestants how to Dispute with Romish Priests…  (London, 1688)

A Vindication of Both Parts of the Preservative Against Popery in an Answer to the Cavils of Lewis Sabran, Jesuit  (London, 1688)

Bull, Digby – The Contrariety of Popery to the Blessed Word of God, wherein may be seen that the doctrine & practice of the Church of Rome are not consistent with the sacred oracles of the Old and New Testament  (London, 1695)  71 pp.

Bull was an Anglican clergyman.

Nary, Cornelius – A Modest & True Account of the Chief Points in Controversy between the Roman Catholics & the Protestants, Together with Some Considerations upon the Sermons of a Divine of the Church of England  (Antwerp, 1696)

Nary (1660-1738) was a protestant.



Anon. – The Case Restated, or an Account of a Conversation with a Papist, Concerning a Book Entitled, The Case Stated Between the Church of Rome and the Church of England, etc., in a Letter from a Gentleman in the Country to his [Romanist] Friend in London…  2nd ed.  (1714)  100 pp.

* Pictet, Benedict – The Roman Catholic Religion Examined, & its Errors Refuted  (d. 1724; London)  ToC  81 pp.

Pictet (1655–1724) was the professor of theology at Geneva after Francis Turretin.

Several Ministers – Sermons Against Popery, Preached at Salters-Hall, in the year 1735, vol. 1, 2  (London, 1735)   These were English, non-conformist ministers.

Bell, Thomas – The Standard of the Spirit Lifted up Against the Enemy Coming in Like a Flood, being the Substance of Several Sermons Preached from Isa. 59:19, on the Late Alarming Progress of Popery  (Glasgow, 1780)

Bell was a Scottish Relief minister in Glasgow, a translator and was opposed to hymn singing in corporate worship.  He also wrote, A View of the Covenants of Works and Grace…

Shuttleworth, Humphrey – Lectures on the Creed of Pope Pius IV: or the Trent Confession of Faith: wherein the Arguments of Cardinal Bellarmine & Other Approved Writers of the Roman Church, in Vindication of the Principal Tenets of Popery, as Distinguished from Primitive Christianity, are Examined & Confuted  (London, 1785)  ToC

Shuttleworth appears to have been an Anglican.



Cuninghame, William – The Apostasy of the Church of Rome, and the Identity of the Papal Power, with the Man of Sin and Son of Perdition of St. Paul’s Prophecy…  Proved from the Testimony of Scripture and History  (Glasgow, 1818)  190 pp.  This was recommended by Davenant’s editors, here.

O’Sullivan, Mortimer – A Guide to an Irish Gentleman in his Search for a Religion  (Dublin, 1833)  This was recommended by the editors of Davenent, here.

* Ministers in Glasgow, Scotland – The Doctrines & Practices of Popery Examined, in a Course of Lectures by Ministers in Glasgow  (183?) 354 pp.  Authors: John Forbes, John Muir, Thomas Brown, Alexander Turner, James Henderson, Robert Buchanan, J.G. Lorimer, John Smyth, Michael Willis, James Gibson, Nathaniel Patterson

Brown, John Henry – An Inquiry into the Predicted Character of Antichrist, or, The Antichristianism of the Church of Rome Investigated  Ref  (London, 1844)  This was recommended by the editors of Davenant, here.

Brown was an Archdeacon.

Gaussen, Louis – Geneva & Rome: Rome Papal as Portrayed by Prophecy and History  (1844)  66 pp.

Gaussen was a Swiss reformed minister known for his work on the Inspiration of the Bible.

* Digby, William – Appeal to the Roman Catholic Priesthood of Ireland, with a Prefatory Address to the Laity of the Same Communion  Ref  (Dublin: Longman, Brown, 1845)  This is highly commended by the editors of Davenant in a footnote, here.

Digby was an Archdeacon of Elphin, Ireland.

Gibson, Edmund & John Cumming – A Preservative Against Popery, in Several Select Discourses upon the Principal Heads of Controversy Between Protestants & Papists, being written & Published by the Most Eminent Divines of the Church of England, Chiefly in the Reign of King James II [1685-88]  (London, 1848)  ToC  Subject Index to all the vols.

Gibson (1669–1748) was an Anglican bishop, divine, jurist and antiquary.  Cumming (1807-1881) was a Church of Scotland minister pastoring a Church of Scotland church in London, and a virulent opponent of Romanism.  He was also a prolific religious and devotional author.

King James II [reigned 1685-88] was a Romanist, it appeared that his child, apparent heir to throne, would be raised Romanist.  In 1687, the king enacted a toleration of Romanism in England and Scotland.  Hence the prolific output of literature against Romanism during that time.


1  English Reformation, Schism?
2  Schism?, Novelty?, Calling?, Clerical Marriage
3  Papal Supremacy, Nature of catholic Church, Notes of
4  Notes of the Church, Salvation, Infallibility
5  Infallibility, General Councils, Tradition, Rule of Faith,
.         Private Judgment, Authority of Scripture
6  Authority of Scripture, Idolatry, Mass, Unknown Tongue
7  Prayers, Images & Relics
8  Images & Relics, Worship, Sacraments
9  One Kind, Transubstantiation
10  Transubstantiation, Auricular Confession
11  Purgatory, Prayer for the Dead, General, Trent
12  Confutation of Roman Doctrine, Defense of Anglican Doctrine
13  Defense of Anglican Doctrines
14  Separation, Creed of Pius IV, Church Before Luther
15  General Councils, Forgeries, Virgin Mary
16  Virgin Mary, Deceitful Missionary Work, Roman Skepticism
17  Jesuits, General
18  Indices

Blakeney, R.P. – Supplement to Gibson’s Preservative from Popery, being Important Treatises on the Roman Controversy  (London, 1849-50)


Barrow on the Pope’s Supremacy
Serces, Popery an Enemy to Scripture; Mussard, Religious Rites
.         of Ancient & Modern Rome; Barrow, Unity of the Church
Foye, Romish Rites, Offices & Legends: Authorized Superstitions
4  Lynde, Via Tuta & Via Devia
Birckbek, Protestant’s Evidence for 1500 years after Christ
Edwards, Doctrines Controverted Between Papists & Protestants

* Begg, James – A Handbook of Popery, or, Text-Book of Missions for the Conversion of Romanists: Being, Papal Rome Tested by Scripture, History & its Recent Workings  (1852)  349 pp.

Cumming, John

The Romish Church a Dumb Church, or a Challenge to Cardinal Wiseman to give his Church’s Interpretation of Any One Chapter in the Bible, etc.  Ref  (Arthur Hall, 1853)

Lectures on Romanism: Being Illustrations & Refutations of the Errors of Romanism & [Anglican] Tractarianism  (1854)  728 pp.  ToC

Ritualism, the Highway to Rome, 12 Lectures  (James Nisbet & Co., 1867)  ToC

Cunningham, William – chs. 1-5  of Discussions on Church Principles: Popish, Erastian and Presbyterian  Buy  (1863)  565 pp., see Chapters 1-5, 163 pp.

Cunningham was a minister and professor in the Free Church of Scotland.

Thornwell, James H. – Part 2, the Papal Controversy  in The Collected Writings of James Henley Thornwell...  ed. Adger & Girardeau  (Richmond, VA: Presbyterian Committee of Publication), vol. 3 (Theological & Controversial), pp. 279-805

Thornwell was a major Southern presbyterian figure.  This work only deals with the Canon, inspiration, infallibility and the apocrypha.



Poetry & Songs


A Collection of the Newest and Most Ingenious Poems, Songs, Catches, etc., Against Popery, Relating to the Times  (London, 1689)

King James II [reigned 1685-88] was a Romanist and it appeared that his child, apparent heir to throne, would be raised Romanist.  In 1687, the king enacted a toleration of Romanism in England and Scotland.  Hence the prolific output of literature against Romanism during that time.

The Glorious Revolution occured in 1688-89 with the newly enthroned William and Mary of Orange, who were Protestants.  Hence, there was a great expression of thankfulness at this time for this deliverance from subjugation to Popery.

A Second Collection of the Newest and Most Ingenious Poems, Satyrs, Songs, etc. against Popery & Tyranny Relating to the Times: most of which never before printed  (London, 1689)

Husnance, Stephen – England’s Faithful Monitor, being the Works of that Suffering Protestant, Mr. Stephen Husnance, when under exile and confinement in the years 1685 and 1686: wherein Popery is briefly demonstrated to be a Wicked Religion…  (London, 1689)

W.V. – Popery Plain Foppery: or the Excellency of the Protestant Religion in Opposition to Popery.  A Poem  (London, 1689)  6 pp.

Popery Routed, or Father Petres’s Farewell to London City, to the tune of, Hark how the thundering cannons roar  (London, 1689)

‘Petre’ is Spanish for Peter, and ‘Pope’ means ‘father’.

The Protestant’s Sweet Orange, or Sour Sauce for Popery, to a Pleasant New Tune, or Fuddle Boys  (London, 1689)

The new king, William of the house of Orange, brought in a Protestant dynasty in 1689, delivering England, Scotland & Ireland from fears of a Romanist dynasty.

The Protestant’s Thanks for the Downfall of Popery, or Madam Popery Rocked to Sleep  (London, 1689)

The Muse’s Farewell to Popery & Slavery, or a Collection of Miscellany Poems, Satyrs, Songs, etc. made by the most eminent wits of the nation, as the shams, intrigues and plots of Priests and Jesuits gave occasion  (London, 1690)



The History of Romanism


A Chronology of the Rise & Growth of Popery from Vanity to Superstition, thence to Worse than Heathen Idolatry: and Also the Time When and Who Brought it in, Contrary to the Apostolical Canon…  (London, 1680)  4 pp.




Cunningham, William – ‘The Rise of the Papal Supremacy in the Early Church’  (1863), p. 207, 19 pp. from his Historical Theology, vol. 1

Cunningham was a minister and professor in the Free Church of Scotland.




Wagstaffe, John – Historical Reflections on the Bishop of Rome: Chiefly Discovering Those Events of Human Affairs which Most Advanced the Papal Usurpation  (Oxford, 1660)

Foulis, Henry – The History of Romish Treasons & Usurpations, Together with a Particular Account of Many Gross Corruptions and Impostures in the Church of Rome, highly dishonourable and injurious to Christian religion: to which is prefixed a large preface to the Romanists, carefully collected out of a great number of their own approved authors  (London, 1671)


With Regard to England  (in chronological order of the time covered)


Du Moulin, Pierre

The Papal Tyranny, as it was Exercised Over England for Some Ages…  and Reflections upon some Provocations Given Him by the Papists about Matters of Fact Objected to them in his Vindication of the Protestant Religion, as also Two Sermons upon Rev. 18:4-5…  (London, 1674)

Du Moulin (1568-1658) was a reformed, Huguenot minister in France who also resided in England for some years.  He was involved extensively in combatting Romanism in print.

A Reply to a Person of Honor, his Pretended Answer to the Vindication of the Protestant Religion in the Point of Obedience to Sovereigns and to the Book of Papal Tyranny  (London, 1675)

England’s Remembrancer, Setting Forth the Beginning of Papal Tyrannies, Bloody Persecutions, Plots & Inhuman Butcheries Exercised on the Professors of the Gospel in England Dissenting from the Church of Rome: with an Account of All, or Most of the Martyrs that were put to death by the Cruel Papists in this Kingdom until the Reformation in the reign of King Edward VI & Queen Elizabeth: also the First Rise of the Writ de Heretico Comburendo, for Burning of Heretics…  (London, 1682)



Brown, Charles – The Future Development of the Roman Catholic Church in Great Britain, and her Position Towards that of England  (1851)  55 pp.



On the Antiquity of Protestantism & the Late Rise & Novelty of Romanism


Joahnn H. Heidegger

The History of the Papacy…  (Amsterdam, 1698), Preface  trans. Paul Barth & Travis Fentiman

“A List of the Seven Periods of the Roman Church:

I. The history of the Roman Church, in more pure doctrine and government, even from the beginning of that Church to the time of Constantine the Great, or until about the year 314.

II. The history of the same in relatively retaining more pure doctrine, as far as principal matters, yet in government, aspiring for domination, from Constantine the Great, or the year 314, up to [Flavius?] Phocas and Boniface III, or 607.

III. The history of the same in attaining, more or less, despotism in spiritual matters, Phocas permitting, and relatively degenerating in doctrine and rites, from Boniface III up to Gregory VII, or 1073.

IV. The history of the same striving for despotism even in temporal things, and turning worse with time in doctrine and rites, from Gregory VII, or around 1073 up to Boniface VIII, or 1294.

V. The history of the same attaining to a greater degree of despotism in temporal things, even unto an Imperial-Papacy, and the same shamefully driving harder an overthrow of all pure doctrine, from Boniface VIII, or 1294, to Leo X, or 1517.

VI. The history of the same through the Reformation, or the separation of the faithful, suffering a most heavy injury in their despotism in spiritual and temporal things, from Leo X, or 1517, up to the end of the Council of Trent, or 1563.

VII. The history of the same being hardened in error through the decrees of a false faith and Tridentine anathemas, while continually fighting the true Church of Christ through deceit and force, from the end of the Council of Trent, or 1563, up to our time [late-1600’s].”




Bedford, Thomas – ‘Luther’s Predecessors: or an Answer to the Question of the Papists: Where was your Church before Luther?’  (London, 1624)  28 pp.

Bedford (d. 1653) was reformed.

Cooke, Alexander – Saint Austin’s Religion, wherein is manifestly Proved out of the Works of that Learned Father that he Dissented from Popery and Agreed with the Religion of the Protestants in all the Main Points of Faith & Doctrine…  (London, 1624)  The work lists 62 teachings & practices of Romanism and contrasts them, one by one, with Austin’s protestant teachings.

Cooke (1564-1632) was an English puritan.

* Rutherford, Samuel – pp. 229-235  of The Due Right of Presbyteries (1644), pt. 1, Question 5, ‘From whence had Luther, Calvin & our Blessed Refor­mers their Calling to the Pastoral Charge?’

London Provincial Assembly – ‘The Gospel Ministry During the Reign of Antichrist’  in Jus Divinum Ministerii Evangelici, Or The Divine Right of the Gospel-Ministry  (1654), excerpt from ch. 3

Dodwell, Henry – Q. 3, ‘Where was the Church of England before Luther’s Time?’  appended to Two short discourses against the Romanists  (London, 1676), pp. 48-80

Dodwell (1641-1711) was an Anglican-Irish scholar, theologian and controversial writer (who defended the non-juring bishops).  Edward Gibbon spoke of his learning as ‘immense’ and that his ‘skill in employing facts is equal to his learning,’ although he severely criticized his method and style.

Hascard, Gregory – ‘A Discourse about the Charge of Novelty upon the Reformed Church of England made by the Papists asking of us the Question, Where was our Religion before Luther?’  (London, 1683)  36 pp.

Hascard (d. 1708) was an Anglican clergyman and chaplain to the king.

* Turretin, Francis – Institutes, vol. 3, 18th Topic, Q. 10, ‘Where was our Church Before Luther and Zwingli, & how was it Preserved?’, pp. 57-69




Creswell, George – The Harmony of the Law & the Gospel, Wherein is plainly showed, that howsoever they differ in time and some other circumstances, yet in Substance they are One & the Same. And by Way of Application, the Pretended Antiquity of Popery is Discovered & Found to be a Mere Novelty: Delivered in a Sermon…  (London, 1607)

Creswell was a minister.

Bell, Thomas – The Trial of the New Religion, Containing a Plain Demonstration that the late Faith & Doctrine of the Church of Rome is Indeed the New Religion  (London, 1608)

Bell (fl. 1573–1610) was an Anglican clergyman who converted to Romanism and was imprisoned in 1573.  He converted back to protestantism in 1592; shortly thereafter he commenced writing numerous publications contra Romanism.

Panke, John – Collectanea [Collections]. Out of St. Gregory the Great [d. 604] & St. Bernard the devout [d. 1153] against the Papists who adhere to the doctrine of the present Church of Rome, in the most fundamental points between them and us  (Oxford, 1618)

This work gives 100 citations out of Gregory the Great supporting Protestantism under 21 subjects; citations from Bernard of Clairvaux follow under 11 subjects.

Perrin, Jean Paul – Luther’s Fore-Runners: or a Cloud of Witnesses Deposing for the Protestant Faith. Gathered together in the history of the Waldenses: who for diverse hundred years before Luther successively opposed Popery, professed the Truth of the Gospel, and Sealed it with their blood…  (London, 1624)

Perrin (fl.1603-1626) was a French reformed minister.

Bernard, Richard – Look Beyond Luther: or an Answer to that Question Proposed by our Adversaries, where our Religion was Before Luther’s Time…  (London, 1624)  55 pp.

Bernard was a puritan within the Anglican Church.

Logie, Andrew – Cum Bono Deo. Rain from the Clouds upon a choice Angel: or, A Returned Answer to that Common Quæritur of our Adversaries, Where was your Church before Luther?  Digested into Several Meditations, according to the Difference of Points. Extorted Off the Author for Stilling the Incessent, and no Less Clamorous Coassation of Some Patmicke Frogs, Against the Lawfulness of our Calling  (Aberdeen, 1634)  77 pp.

Logie was an arch-dean in Aberdeen, Scotland.

Birckbek, Simon – The Protestants’ Evidence taken out of Good Records; Showing that for Fifteen Hundred Years next after Christ, Diverse Worthy Guides of God’s Church, have in sundry weighty points of religion, taught as the Church of England now does: distributed into Several Centuries & Opened  (London, 1635)  Timeline

Birckbek (1584-1656).  This work lays out ancient protestant sentiments century by century through Church history, starting with the first century up to the Reformation.

Guild, William – The Novelty of Popery Discovered & Chiefly Proven by Romanists out of Themselves  (Aberdeen, 1656)

Guild (1586–1657) was an episcopal Scottish divine who made a qualified acceptance of the National Covenant (1638) and conformed to presbyterianism at that time.

Featley, Daniel

Rome’s Ruin: being a Succinct Answer to a Popish Challenge Concerning the Antiquity, Unity, Universality, Succession & Perpetual Visibility of the True Church, even in the Most Obscure Times, when it Seemed to be Totally Eclipsed in the Immediate Ages before Luther  1644

The Ancient Doctrine of the Church of England Maintained in its Primitive Purity. Containing a justification of the 39 Articles of the Church of England against Papists and schismatics: The Similitude & Harmony betwixt the Roman Catholic and the heretic, with a discovery of their abuses of the fathers in the first 16 ages [centuries], and the many heresies introduced by the Roman Church. Together with a vindication of the Antiquity & Universality of the Ancient Protestant faith…  (London, 1660)

Featley (1582–1645) was a reformed Anglican, episcopalian, divine, controversialist and Westminster divine.

Du Moulin, Pierre – The Novelty of Popery, Opposed to the Antiquity of True Christianity, Against the Book of Cardinal Du Perron, entitled, A Reply to the Answer of the Most Serene James, King of Great Britain  (London, 1662)  Subject Index

Du Moulin (1568-1658) was a reformed, Huguenot minister in France who also resided in England for some years.  He was involved extensively in combatting Romanism in print.

Whitby, Daniel – Romish Doctrines not from the Beginning, or, A Reply to what S.C. (or Serenus Cressy), a Roman Catholic, has returned to Dr. Pierce’s Sermon preached before His Majesty at Whitehall, Feb. 1 1662 in vindication of our Church Against the
Novelties of Rome  (London, 1664)

Whitby (c.1637-1726) was an Arminian Anglican minister.

This was responded to by John Vincent Canes, Three Letters Declaring the Strange, odd proceedings of Protestant Divines when they write against Catholics: by the example of Dr. Taylor’s Dissuasive against Popery, Mr. Whitby’s Reply in the Behalf of Dr. Pierce against Cressy, and Dr. Owen’s Animadversions on Fiat Lux  ([Douay?] 1671)

Shaw, John – Origo Protestantium, or an Answer to a Popish Manuscript (of N.N.’s) that would Fain make the Protestant Catholic Religion bear date at the very time when the Roman Popish Commenced in the World, wherein Protestancy is Demonstrated to be Elder than Popery: to which is added a Jesuit’s letter with the answer thereunto annexed  (London, 1677)

Shaw (1608-1672) was an English puritan minister.


Another Quote

John Owen

A Short & Plain Answer to Two Questions I. Where was your Religion Before Luther? II. How Know you the Scriuptures to be the Word of God?  By a Protestant.  (London, 1682), pp. 1-2

“Where was your Religion before Luther?

To this the answer will be very short and easy…  I say then, that our religion, as to the rules and principles of it, was before Lu­ther, where it has been ever since, in the Scriptures: And as to the profession of it, it has been owned and maintained by the faithful in all ages, namely, such as have been kept by the power of God through faith unto salvation, against whom the gates of hell and Rome have not been able to prevail.  The Protestant Religion we contend for is nothing else but Chri­stianity uncorrupted, which was in its greatest pu­rity before ever the Pope was heard of in the World.

And Popery, that we oppose, is Christianity adulte­rated, or rather paganism Christianized, which was in the cradle when the mystery of iniquity began to work, and grew up to be the Man of Sin, when Popes had gulled the world into so much slavery as to en­dure their trampling upon princes.  And this truth, as it appears in great measure from the Fathers and historians of the Church, and from all antiquity, that has had the good fortune to escape the Expur­gatory Index [of Romanism]; so it is more especially, and most evi­dently manifest from the Scriptures…”


Latin Article

Gernler, Lucas – A Theological Disputation, which is of the Question:  Where was the True Church, According to Us, Before Zwingli & Luther?  (Basil: Werenfelsius, 1673)

Gernler (1625-1675) was a reformed professor of theology at Basil, Switzerland.



Roman Forgeries & Misrepresentations



James, Thomas – A Treatise of the Corruption of Scripture, Councils & Fathers by the Prelates, Pastors & Pillars of the Church of Rome for Maintenance of Popery: Together with a Sufficient Answer Unto James Gretser and Anthony Possevine, Jesuits…  in Five Parts  (d. 1629; London, 1688)

James (c.1572-1629) was an English librarian and reformed Anglican clergyman.  He was the first librarian of the Bodleian Library, Oxford.

Crakanthorpe, Richard – Vigilius Dormitans, Rome’s Seer Overseen, or a Treatise of the Fifth General Council held at Constantinople, anno 553, under Justinian the Emperor, in the time of Pope Vigilius: the occasion being those Tria Capitula, which for many years troubled the whole Church. Wherein is proved that the Pope’s Apostolical Constitution & Definitive Sentence in Matter of Faith was Condemned as Heretical by the Synod. And the Exceeding Frauds of Cardinal Baronius & Binius are Clearly Discovered  (London [1631])

Crakanthorpe (bap.1568-1624) was a reformed Anglican minister, a logician, and a controversialist.  Anthony Wood said that he was “a great canonist, and so familiar and exact in the fathers, councils, and schoolmen, that none in his time scarce went before him.”

Mercurius, Hibernicus – A Pacquet [Hideaway] of Popish Delusions, False Miracles & Lying Wonders, together with many grand divisions among papists: far exceeding both in quality and quantity those among Protestants: notwithstanding their seeming unity. Exposed to the shame of popery…  (London, 1681)

Comber, Thomas – The Church History Cleared from the Roman Forgeries & Corruptions found in the Councils & Baronius, in Four Parts: from the beginning of Christianity, to the end of the Fifth General Council, 553  (London, 1695)  reprinted in Gibson’s Preservative.

Comber (1645-1699) was an Anglican and the Dean of Durham.  In the troubled reign of James II he became conspicuous as a champion of the cause of protestantism.



On the Jesuits


Bagshaw, Christopher – A Sparing Discovery of our English Jesuits, and of Father Parson’s Proceedings under Pretense of Promoting the Catholic Faith in England, for a caveat to all true Catholics, our very loving brethren and friends, how they embrace such very uncatholic, though Jesuitical designments  (London, 1601)  70 pp.

Bagshshaw (d. 1625)

Anon. – The Reformed Catholic, against the Deformed Jesuit, or a Discovering of the Treachery of the Jesuits against the Reformed Churches of France, and other Parts  ([Netherlands?] 1621)  14 pp.

The author was an inhabitant of La Rochelle, France.

Davenant, John – Question 17, ‘The Papal Jesuits Cannot be Good Subjects’  in The Determinations, or Resolutions of Certain Theological Questions, Publicly Discussed in the University of Cambridge  trans. Josiah Allport  (1634; 1846), pp. 307-312  bound at the end of John Davenant, A Treatise on Justification, or the Disputatio de Justitia...  trans. Josiah Allport  (1631; London, 1846), vol. 2



Wadsworth, James – The English Spanish Pilgrim, or a New Discovery of Spanish Popery & Jesuitical Stratagems, with the Estate of the English Pentioners & Fugitives under the King of Spain’s Dominions, and elsewhere at this present. Also Laying Open the New Order of the Jesuitrices & Preaching Nuns.  Composed by James Wadsworth, Gentleman, newly Converted into his True Mother’s Bosom, the Church of England, with the motives why he Left the Sea of Rome, a Late Pentioner to his Majesty of Spain…  (London, 1629)  95 pp.

Wadsworth (1604-1656?) was born of an English Jesuit father.  In 1625 he professed himself a convert from Romanism to Protestantism, becoming involved with the Church of England.

Anti-Papist – Fair Warning to Take Heed of Popery, or a Short & True History of the Jesuits’ Fiery Practices & Powder-plots to destroy kings, ruin kingdoms & lay cities waste  ([London, 1674-79?])  136 pp.



On the Origins of the Rosary

Koyzis, David – ‘The Decline of Psalm-Singing: the Rosary’  2011  at The Genevan Psalter



On Apostolic Succession


* Rutherford, Samuel – pt. 1, pp. 185-189  under ‘3rd Question. Whether or not Ordination of Elders may be by the Church of Believers Wanting all Elders or Officers’ under Ch. 8, section 8, ‘Of Election of Officers’  in The Due Right of Presbyteries  (1644)



On an Indelible Mark in Ordination

Samuel Rutherford

The Due Right of Presbyteries  (1644), pt. 1, p. 199

“2. We see no indelible character because a pastor is always a called pastor: if the man commit scandals, the Church may call all his character from him and turn him into a mere private man.”



Roman Miracles



Sheldon, Richard – A Survey of the Miracles of the Church of Rome, proving them to be Antichristian. Wherein are Examined & Refuted the Six Fundamental Reasons of John Flood, Ignatian, published by him in Defence of Popish Miracles  (London, 1616)

Sheldon (d. 1642?) had been previously a Roman priest and colleague of his opponent, Flood.

Hughes, William – The Man of Sin, or a Discourse of Popery, wherein the Numerous & Monstrous Abomination, in doctrine and practice, of the Romish Church are by their own hands Exposed so to Open Light that the very blind may see them, and Antichrist in capital letters engraven on them, particularly in the infinite drove of their adored but lying wonders and miracles, by no Roman, but a Reformed Catholic  (London ,1677)  ToC

Hughes (b. 1624 or 25)

Mercurius, Hibernicus – A Pacquet [Hideaway] of Popish Delusions, False Miracles & Lying Wonders, together with many grand divisions among papists: far exceeding both in quality and quantity those among Protestants: notwithstanding their seeming unity. Exposed to the shame of popery…  (London, 1681)



On Relics



Polyander, Johannes – A Disputation against the Adoration of the Relics of Saints Departed, wherein Nine Palpable Abuses are Discovered, committed by the Popish Priests in the Veneration thereof.  Together with the Refutation of a Jesuitical Epistle, and an Index of the Relics which every seventh year, are shown at Avvcon in Germany…  trans. Henry Heham from French  (Dort, 1611)  156 pp.

Polyander was a Dutch reformed professor.



Against the Council of Trent


Fabricius Montanus, Johannes – An Oration…  whereby he teaches that Christian Men Cannot Resort to the Council of Trent without Committing an Heinous Offence  ([London] 1562)

Fabricius (1527-1566) was a German reformed minister, neo-Latin poet and a polymath.  When the plague broke out in Chur, he refused to abandon his community; eventually he became a victim of the plague himself.

Jewel, John – ‘An Epistle Written…  to Seignior Scipeo, a Venetian Gentleman, in Answer to a Letter of his in which he complains of the Kingdom of England for their not appearing in the Council of Trent, nor excusing their Absence by Letters’  in Jewel, The Apology of the Church of England…  (d. 1571; London, 1685), pp. 147-196

Jewel (1522-1571) was an important, reformed bishop in the Church of England and controversialist.

* Chemnitz, Martin – A Discovery & Battery of the Great Fort of Unwritten Traditions, Otherwise an Examination of the Council of Trent Touching the Decree of Traditions  (London, 1582)

Chemnitz (1522-1586) was a major second generation, German, Lutheran theologian.

Ramsay, William – The Tridentine-Gospel, or, Papal Creed made at Trent, and Promulgated at Rome, by Pope Pius IV: Exhibited and Demonstrated to be New, Heterodox, and Antichristian: in a Sermon  (London, 1672)

Ramsay was previously a Romanist priest, professor of philosophy, a missionary preacher of the Franciscans, but then converted and became a minister in the Church of England.

Goodman, John – A Discourse Concerning Auricular Confession as it is Prescribed by the Council of Trent, and Practiced in the Church of Rome: with a Post-Script on Occasion of a Book lately Printed in France, called Historia Confessionis auricularis [The History of Auricular Confession]  (London, 1684)  56 pp.

Goodman (c.1625-1690) was an Anglican.

* Turretin, Francis – Institutes, vol. 3, 18th Topic, ‘The Church’, Q. 33, ‘Does it Belong to the Roman Pontiff to Proclaim & Gather Church Councils, to Preside Over Them & to Confer Upon Them Infallible Authority in Doctrines of Faith & Religion?  And is the Council of Trent to be Accepted?  We Deny Against the Romanists.  306-316




de Vargas Mejia, Francisco, et al – The Council of Trent No Free Assembly, More Fully Discovered by a Collection of Letters and Papers of the Learned Dr. Vargas and other Great Ministers who assisted at the Said Synod in Considerable Posts: Published from the Original Manuscripts in Spanish…  with an Introductory Discourse Concerning Councils, showing how they were brought under Bondage to the Pope  trans. Michael Geddes  (d. 1560; London, 1697)

de Vargas Meija (1484-1560)

Flacius Illyricus, Matthias – A Godly & Necessary Admonition of the Decrees & Canons of the Counsel of Trent, Celebrated under Pius IV, Bishop of Rome, in the years of our Lord, 1562 and 1563, Written for those godly disposed persons’ sakes, which look for amendment of doctrine and ceremonies to be made by general counsels  (London [1564])

Flacius (1520-1575) was a Lutheran theologian who held to the error of utter depravity (contra the total depravity of reformed theology).



Burton, Henry – Truth’s Triumph Over Trent: or, the Great Gulf Between Sion and Babylon, That is, the Unreconcileable Opposition Between the Apostolic Church of Christ and the Apostate Synagogue of Antichrist, in the Main & Fundamental Doctrine of Justification, for which the Church of England, Christ’s Spouse, has Justly, Through God’s Mercy, for these Many Years, According to Christ’s Voice, Separated Herself from Babylon, with whom from henceforth she must Hold No Communion  (London, 1629)

Burton (bap.1578-1648) was an English, Independent puritan.

Ranchin, Guillaume – A Review of the Council of Trent, wherein are contained the several nullities of it: with the many grievances and prejudices done by it to Christian Kings & Princes: as also to all Catholic Churches in the world; and more particularly to the Gallican [French] Church. First writ in French by a Learned Roman-Catholic  (Oxford [1638])

Ranchin (1560-1605)

De Luzancy, Hippolyte du Chastelet – Reflections on the Council of Trent in Three Discourses  (Oxford, 1679)

De Luzancy (d. 1713) was an Oxford scholar.

Jurieu, Pierre – The History of the Council of Trent is Eight Books: whereunto is prefixed a discourse containing historical reflections on councils, and particularly on the conduct of the Council of Trent, proving that the Protestants are not obliged to submit thereto  (London, 1684)

Jurieu (1637-1713) was a French reformed minister.  He was called ‘the Goliath of the Protestants’ by Romanists.

Stratford, Nicholas – The Necessity of Reformation with Respect to the Errors and Corruptions of the Church of Rome, the Second Part: wherein is showed the Vanity of the Pretended Reformation of the Council of Trent, and of R.H.’s Vindication of it in his Fifth Discourse Concerning the Guide in Controversies  (London, 1686)  ToC

Stratford (1633-1707)

Whitby, Daniel

The Fallibility of the Roman Church Demonstrated from the Manifest Error of the 2nd Nicene & Trent Councils, which assert that the Veneration and Honorary Worship of Images is a Tradition Primitive and Apostolical  (London, 1687)

Whitby (c.1637-1726) was an Arminian Anglican minister.

A Demonstration that the Church of Rome and her Councils have Erred by Showing that the Councils of Constance, Basil, and Trent have, in all their Decrees Touching Communion in One Kind, Contradicted the Received Doctrine of the Church of Christ. With an appendix, in answer to the 21st Chapter of the Author of A Papist Misrepresented and Represented  (London [1688])

Stillingfleet, Edward – The Council of Trent Examined and Disproved by Catholic Tradition in the Main Points in Controversy Between us and the Church of Rome with a Particular Account of the Times and Occasions of Introducing Them: Part 1: to which a Preface is Prefixed Concerning the True Sense of the Council of Trent and the Notion of Transubstantiation  (London, 1688)

Stillingfleet (1635-1699) was an Anglican apologist, bishop, theologian and scholar.  He was considered an outstanding preacher.



Shuttleworth, Humphrey – Lectures on the Creed of Pope Pius IV: or the Trent Confession of Faith: wherein the Arguments of Cardinal Bellarmine & Other Approved Writers of the Roman Church, in Vindication of the Principal Tenets of Popery, as Distinguished from Primitive Christianity, are Examined & Confuted  (London, 1785)  ToC

Shuttleworth appears to have been an Anglican.



On the History of the Council of Trent


Sarpi, Paolo – The History of the Council of Trent, Containing Eight Books. In which (besides the ordinary acts of the Council) are Declared Many Notable Occurrences which Happened in Christendom during the space of Forty Years and More. And particularly the practices of the Court of Rome to hinder the Reformation of their Errors and to Maintain their Greatness  (London, 1629)

Sarpi (1552-1623) was a Romanist, Venetian historian, prelate, scientist, canon lawyer and statesman active on behalf of the Venetian Republic during the period of its successful defiance of the papal interdict (1605–1607) and its war (1615–1617) with Austria over the Uskok pirates.  His writings, frankly polemical and highly critical of the Catholic Church and its Scholastic tradition, “inspired both Hobbes and Edward Gibbon in their own historical debunkings of priestcraft.”



* Cunningham, William – ‘The Council of Trent’, p. 483 ff. 12 pp. from his Historical Theology, vol. 1

Cunningham was a minister and professor in the Free Church of Scotland.



Letters to Romanists


Hungerford, Anthony – The Advise of a Son, now Professing the Religion Established in the Present Church of England, to his Dear Mother, yet a Roman Catholic  (Oxford, 1616)  38 pp.

Du Moulin, Pierre

A Letter unto them of the Romish Church…  Together with a True Jubilee, or General Pardon of Indulgence…  (London, 1621)

Du Moulin (1568-1658) was a reformed, Huguenot minister in France who also resided in England for some years.  He was involved extensively in combatting Romanism in print.

A Short View of the Chief Points in Controversy Between the Reformed Churches & the Church of Rome in Two Letters to the Duke of Bouillon, upon his Turning Papist…  (London, 1680)

Bastwick, John – A Learned, Useful & Seasonable Discourse Concerning the Church of England & the Church of Rome, Addressed by Way of Letter to M. St. John, a Romish Priest  (London, 1643)  12 pp.

Bastwick (1593-1654) was a puritan.

Earl of Clarendon, Edward Hyde – Two Letters Written by the Right Honourable Edward, Earl of Clarendon, Late Lord High Chancellour of England, one to his Royal Highness the Duke of York, the other to the Dutchess, Occasioned by her Embracing the Roman Catholic Religion  ([London, 1680?])

Taylor, James – A Letter of Inquiry to The Reverend Fathers of the Society of Jesus [the Jesuits], Written in the Person of a Dissatisfied Roman Catholic  (London, 1689)  44 pp.

Taylor (fl. 1687-1689) was of the Church of England and wrote as a dissatisfied Romanist for effect.



Testimonies of Converts from Romanism to Protestantism



The Voluntary Conversion & Several Recantations of Four Great Learned Men, Professed Friars in Sundry Monasteries of France, from the Errors of Idolatry & Popery to the True Religion Established in the Reformed Church…  All Converted this last year, 1603, as their Several Discourses Following at Large do Testify, under their own Hands…  (London, 1604)  44 pp.

Duchess of Tremoille, Charlotte Brabantina – The Conversion of a Most Noble Lady of France in June Last Past, 1608. Madame Gratiana, Wife to the high and mighty lord, Claudius, Lord of Tremoille, Duke of Thouars, Peer of France and Prince of Talmonde.  A most Christian Epistle written by her to the Ladies of France, to Resolve them in the Cause of her Conversion from Popery to the Profession of God’s Gospel: and advising them to imitate her Religious Example  (London, 1608)  50 pp.

Countess Charlotte Brabantina of Nassau (1580-1631)

Harding, John – A Recantation Sermon…  by John Harding, late Priest & Dominican Friar. Wherein he has declared his just motives which have moved him to leave the Church of Rome & to unite Himself with the Reformed Church of England, whose faith and doctrine, the ancient fathers & holy martyrs have confirmed both by blood and writing. Showing herein the gross errors of Rome in matters of faith, their corrupting the Fathers & their present declining to some strange and future ruin  (London, 1620)

Harding (fl. 1620)

de Tejeda, Fernando – Texeda Retextus: or The Spanish Monk, his bill of Divorce Against the Church of Rome, together with other Remarkable Occurrances  (London, 1623)  34 pp.

de Tejeda (fl. 1623)

Truth Triumphant, or the Late Conversion of a Learned Doctor of Sorbonne, D. Francis Cupif, Dr. of Divinity, from Popery to the Profession of the True Religion, With the Degradation of the Fore-Named Doctor for the Cause Foresaid by the Faculty of Divinity at Paris, in July Last, 1637. And the said D. Francis, his Answer to the Decree Thereof…  trans. William Guild  (Aberdeen, 1637)

Cupif (ca. 1552-1638)

Abernethie, Thomas – Abjuration of Popery, by Thomas Abernethie, Sometime Jesuit, but now Penitent Sinner & an Unworthy Member of the True Reformed Church of God in Scotland, at Edinburgh…  (Edinburgh, 1638)

Abernethie (fl. 1638-1641)

Harris, Walter – A Farewell to Popery, in a Letter to Dr. Nicholas, Vice-Chancellor of Oxford & Warden of New-College, from W. H., M. D., lately Fellow of the same College, Showing the True Motives that Withdrew Him to the Romish Religion & the Reasons of his Return to the Church of England: Concluding with some short Reflections concerning the Great Duty of Charity  (London, 1679)

Harris (1647-1732)

Brocardo, Francisco – Francis Broccard (Secretary to Pope Clement the Eighth), his Alarm to all Protestant Princes with a Discovery of Popish Plots and Conspiracies, after his Conversion from Popery to the Protestant Religion  (London, 1679)

The Declaration of Several Eminent Roman Catholics In this Kingdom of England who did Embrace the Protestant Religion, with their Reasons for their Change, delivered in their own Words at their Embracing the Protestant Religion, to which is Added a Catalogue of sundry great Persons of the Roman-Catholic Religion that are now turned to the true Protestant-Religion of the Church of England  (London, 1688)  8 pp.  The list of great persons that turned from Romanism to Protestantism starts on p. 8.

The French Convert: being a True Relation of the Happy Conversion of a Noble French Lady from the Errors and Superstitions of Popery to the Reformed Religion, by means of a Protestant Gardener, her servant. Wherein is showed her great and unparalleled sufferings on the account of her said conversion; as also her wonderful deliverance from two assassins hired by a popish priest to murder her: and of her miraculous preservation in a wood for two years; and how she was at last providentially found by her husband, who (together with her parents) was brought over by her means to the embracing of the True Religion, as were diverse others also. To which is added, a Brief Account of the Present Severe Persecutions of the French Protestant[s]  (London, 1699)



Balbani, Niccolo – The Italian Convert, News from Italy of a Second Moses, or, The Life of Galeacius Caracciolus, the Noble Marquesse of Vico. Containing the Story of his Admirable Conversion from Popery and Forsaking of a Rich Marquesdom for the Gospel’s Sake  trans. Theodore Beza  (d. 1587; London, 1677)  180 pp.

Balbani (1522-87) was reformed.  This work was published by William Crawshaw (bap.1572-1626), a puritan Anglican clergyman, academic and poet.

The Confession & Public Recantation of Thirteen Learned Personages Lately Converted in France, Germany & the Low-Countries from Popery to the Churches Reformed: wherein they have zealously and learnedly set down the reasons that moved them thereunto…  (London, 1602)

Copley, John – Doctrinal and Moral Observations Concerning Religion, wherein the Author Declares the Reasons of his Late Un-enforced Departure from the Church of Rome, and of his incorporation to the present Church of England: teaching, maintaining and defending the true Christian Catholic and apostolic faith, professed by the ancient primitive church, most conspicuous in the outward virtues and constant sufferings of many holy bishops and other good Christians, glorious in the crown of martyrdom  (London, 1612)

Copley (1577–1662) was the youngest son of Sir Thomas Copley, a prominent Romanist politician.  John became a Roman priest, but converted to Anglicanism in 1611.

Crawfurd, Patrick – The Declaration of Mr. Patrik Crawfurd, his return from Popery to the True Religion which is According to the Word of God in Holy Scripture  (Edinburgh, 1627)  59 pp.





Anon. – The Lineage of Locusts, or the Pope’s Pedigree, Beginning with his Prime Ancestor, the Devil, plainly set forth to be noted of all good Christians and true Catholics, for the avoiding of those subtle snares continually laid for them by his insinuating agents  (London, 1641)  4 pp.

I.B. – The Last Will & Testament of Superstition:: Eldest Daughter to Antichrist, the Eldest Son to Lucifer, the Prince of this World, of the family of Popery, in the Kingdom of Idolatry: being fallen into a grievous fit of sickness, without all hopes of recovery…  (London, 1642)  4 pp.

J.G. – Little-Wit’s Protestation to Defend Popery, Since the Decease of his Sister Superstition…  (London, 1642)  4 pp.

S.V. – News from Hell: or the Devil’s Court in an Uproar, his Devilships Falling Sick upon the News of the Pope and Popery’s likely downfall, His Last Will and Testament, His Legacies to the Pope and Jesuits and to other Sinners in Particular  (London, 1673)

A Consultation Between the Pope & a Jesuit Concerning the Way how to introduce Popery into England  (London, 1679)

News from the Session’s-House: the Trial, Conviction, Condemnation and Execution of Popery for High-Treason for betraying the Kingdom and Conspiring the Ruin, Subversion & Death of the Protestant Religion: with her Last Speech & Confession at Tyburn  (London, 1689)  4 pp.

St. Ignatius’s Ghost, Appearing to the Jesuits upon the King’s Signing the Act Against the Growth of Popery. A Satire  (London, 1700)  13 pp.  in the form of a poem





de Souligné – The Political Mischiefs of Popery, or Arguments Demonstrating I. that the Romish Religion Ruins All those Countries where ’tis Established, II. that it occasions the loss of above 200 millions of livres to France in particular, III. that if popery were abolished in France, that kingdom would become incomparably more rich and populous, IV. that it is impossible that France should ever be re-established whilst popery is their national religion  (London, 1698)  148 pp.



Weber, Max – The Protestant Ethic & the Spirit of Capitalism  trans. Parsons  (1904-05; NY: 1930)  HTML

This foundational sociological work argues the deleterious effects of Romanism on economic prosperity, along with the superior Protestant tendency towards the same.  See the article at Wikipedia for more.



Bibliographies of Polemics Against Rome


Wake, William

The Present State of the Controversy between the Church of England & the Church of Rome: or an Account of the Books Written on Both Sides, in a Letter to a Friend  (London, 1687)  36 pp.  William Clagett saw this work through the press while Wake was in hiding; it has sometimes been attributed to Clagett.

Wake (1657–1737) was an archbishop of Canterbury in the Anglican Church.

A Continuation of the Present State of the Controversy Between the Church of England & the Church of Rome…  2nd ed.  (London, 1680)  80 pp.  ToC  Note that the 1st ed. of this was published in the same year, and is smaller by page numbers.

Gee, Edward – The Catalogue of All the Discourses Published Against Popery During the Reign of King James II [1685-88] by the Members of the Church of England & by the Non-Conformists…  (London, 1689)  34 pp.  228 entries, plus others

King James II [reigned 1685-88] was a Romanist, it appeared that his child, apparent heir to the throne, would be raised Romanist.  In 1687, the king enacted a toleration of Romanism in England and Scotland.  Hence the prolific output of literature against Romanism during that time.



Dodd, Charles – Certamen Utriusque Ecclessiae: or a List of All the Eminent Writers of Controversy, Catholics & Protestants, since the Reformation…  (1724)  17 pp.

The true name of the author was Hugh Tootell.  The main part of the work consists of a table of 200 writers from the 1500’s through the 1600’s, with the name of their main treatise and the name of their principal adversay, in order of the date of their death.  The pages alternate with Romanist writers and Protestant writers, with a political summary and commentary at the bottom of the pages.  Most of the polemical works are between Romanism and Protestantism, though a few are not.

See Smith, p. 12 for a place where this work has been reprinted.



* Lowndes, William Thomas – British Librarian, or Book Collector’s Guide…  Class 1, Religion & its History, Parts 1-11  (1839-42)

‘Controversies Between Romanists & Protestants Abroad’  cols. 1007-1025

Lowndes (c. 1798–1843) was an English bibliographer.

‘Popish Controversy in England’  cols. 1025-1109

Lists over 900 works in English in chronological order, with some annotations.

ed. Jones, Thomas – A Catalogue of the Collection of Tracts for & Against Popery (Published in or About the Reign of James II) in the Manchester Library…  in which is Incorporated, with Large Additions & Bibliographical Notes, the Whole of Peck’s List of the Tracts in that Controversy…  vols. 1, 2  (Chetham Society, 1859/65)  ToC-1, ToC-2  The chapters of vol. 2 are topical upon specific Romanists doctrines and practices.

* Malcom, Howard – ‘Popery – Con’  in Theological Index: References to the Principal Works in Every Department of Religious Literature…  (Boston, 1868), pp. 366-370  About 100+ foreign language entries & 230+ English entries.  Works for Romanism precede this section.

Malcom was a conservative presbyterian but lists anything that has value.  His references are brief to the point of not always being fully helpful.



Latin Order of Contents

Articles  10+
Collections of Articles  3
Books  7



Latin Articles Against the System of Romanism


Bullinger, Henry – An Antithesis & Compendium of Evangelical & Papist Doctrine  (1551)  28 pp.  In each chapter first the doctrines of Scripture are asserted, and then following, the doctrines of the Papacy are enumerated on the same subject.

Bullinger (1504-75)

Table of Contents

1. On Sacred Scripture  2
2. On God & the Worship of God  4
3. On Christ Jesus, who He is & what things are brought to us by Him  8
4. On the Church & Ministers of Christ, & of its doctrine  10
5. On the Rites & Sacraments of the Church of Christ  18-28

Beza, Theodore – ch. 7, ‘A Brief Antithesis of the Papacy & Christianity’  in  1. ‘A Confession of the Christian Faith, & a Collation of the Same with Papal Heresies’  in Theological Tracts, in which many of the Doctrines of the Christian Religion are Restored to Whole and Defended from the Word of God Against the Heretical Sects of our Times, vol. 1  (Geneva, 1570), pp. 56-79  ToC

Beza (1519-1605)

Aretius, Benedict – in Examination of Theology: A Brief and Clear, Written Out Method  (Morgiis, 1584)

Table of Contents

Out of the Following Class of Places are Some Places that are Controverted between Us & the Papists

The First Place, of Justification  92
.        Nine Arguments  98
The Second Place, of Good Works  102
The Third Place, of Original Sin  105
.        Four Arguments  107
The Fourth Place, of the Church  109
The Fifth Place, of the Marriage of Priests  113
The Sixth Place, of the Number of the Sacraments  115
The Seventh Place, Of the Invocation of the Saints  119
The Eight Place, of Purgatory  123

Szegedin Pannonius, Stephan – Common Places of Pure Theology, of God & Man, Explained in Continuous Tables & the Dogma of the Schools Illustrated  (Basil, 1585/93)  The work is in the form of outlines.

Szegedin (1515-1572) also was known as Stephan Kis.

Table of Contents

3. Of Popish Doctrine

Angels 468
Man 470
Predestination 471
Free-Will 471
Sin in General 472
Original Sin 473
Actual Mortal Sin 473
Actual Venial Sin 474
Law 476
Gospel 477
Faith 477
Justification 478
Works 480
Merit 481
Sacraments in General 481
Discrimination & Division of Sacraments 482
Baptism 483
Mass, or the Supper 484
Confirmation 485
Extreme Unction 485
Priesthood, or Ordination 486
Penance 489
Contrition 490
Oral Confession 491
Satisfaction 491
Marriage 492
Indulgences 492
Church 493
Keys, or Ecclesiastical Power 494
Prayer 495
Fasting 495
Councils 495
Human Traditions 495
Pope, or the Roman Pontiff 496
Excommunication 498
Celibacy of Priests 499
Burial 499
Eternal Life 500
Absolution 500
Worship of God and of the Saints 501
Vow 502
State of Perfection, or Monasticism 505
Evangelical Councils 505
Purgatory 506
Votings 506

Tossanus, Daniel

Theological Theses on the Papacy, Which is Averse to the Evangelical Church (Heidelberg, 1598)  75 Theses

Tossanus Sr. (1541-1602) was a French Reformed theologian and professor of New Testament at Heidelberg.

Theological Assertions which Briefly Display the Roman Church (Heidelberg, 1601)  19 Theses



Junius, Franciscus – 15. ‘An Oration Against the Jesuits, a Sermon translated out of the French Idiom into Latin’  1545  in The Theological Works, vol. 2  (d. 1602; Heidelberg, 1607; 1608)  For Junius’s lengthy systematic work against Bellarmine in the same volume, see our page against Bellarmine.

Chamier, Daniel – ‘Jesuit Epistles’  in 2 parts  (To & From)  appended to A Body of Theology, or Theological Common Places  (Geneva, 1653)

Hoornbeek, Johannes – 4. ‘Of Papalism’  in A Sum of Controversies in Religion with Infidels, Heretics and Schismatics  (Utrecht, 1653; 1676), pp. 192-329

Du Moulin, Peter – 24. ‘Mortal & Venial Sin’  in Molina, Cappel, Ramburtio, Maresio, Calvino, Le Blanc, Le Vasseur, Alpaeo, A Collection of the Theological Disputations held at Various Times in the Academy of Sedan, vol. 1  (Geneva, 1661), pp. 212-217



Van Til, Salomon – ‘A Very Brief Description of the Origin of the Errors of Papists’  in A Compendium of Theology (Bern, 1703), pp. 233-41

Van Til (1643-1713)

Stapfer, Johann – Ch. 14. ‘Of Papalism’  in Institutes of Universal Polemical Theology, Ordered in a Scientific Arrangement  (Zurich, 1756), vol. 4, pp. 67-335

Stapfer (1708-1775) was a professor of theology at Bern.  He was influenced by the philosophical rationalism of Christian Wolff, though, by him “the orthodox reformed tradition was continued with little overt alteration of the doctrinal loci and their basic definitions.” – Richard Muller



Collections of Articles Against the System of Romanism from Rutherford, Voet & Turretin

Rutherford, Samuel

Apologetic Exercises for Divine Grace  (Amsterdam, 1636; 1651)

Exercise 1 – Of the Divine Decrees and the Agreeable Union of Divine Will with Human Liberty

4 – Contrary to Suarez, Vasquez, Molina, Lessius and
.       Fonseca, and above all Contrary to Jacob Arminius,
.       this [that contingencies are subject to God’s
.       Absolute Decree] is Explained by the Union of
.       Contingency and the Absolute Decree   105

5 – Contrary to the Same Jesuits and Arminians, the New
.       Fiction of a Middle or Conditional Knowledge of God
.       is Overthrown   187

Exercise 3 – Of the Temporal Actions of God in Human Liberty   363

2 – Of the Efficacy of Grace, contrary to the Jesuits and
.        Arminians   395
3 – The Jesuits’ and Arminians’ Arguments against the
.        Predeterminate Efficacy of Grace are Countered
.        477
4 – The Monstrous Fiction of Congruent Calling is
.        Rejected, contrary to Suarez, Pedro da Fonseca
.        & Bellarmine  502

* An Examination of Arminianism  (c. 1639-42; Utrecht, 1668)  The sections below labeled with an * have been translated into English here.

Ch. 1, On the Scriptures and Fundamental Articles

13. Whether it follows from this necessity that the Scriptures are obscure in themselves, as the Papists assert?  We deny against the same.  87

* 17. Whether, not only all the traditions of the Papists, but even new offices, such as the domineering bishop, etc, human ceremonies, and whatsoever is of positive observance in divine worship contrived by the Antichrist or the bishops and prelates, conflicts with the completeness and perfection of the Scriptures?  We affirm against the Arminians.  97

Ch. 2, On God

Heading 4:  On God’s Knowledge [Scientia]

11. Whether there is a middle knowledge in God.  We deny against the Jesuits and Arminians.  162

Heading 5:  On God’s Will and its Execution

23. Whether the dominion of his providence in free acts, according to the view of the Jesuits and Arminians, consists with God?  We deny against them.  196

24. Whether such a dominion consists with God as that He be able to effect things so that a free act be rather than not be, according to the Scriptures?  We affirm against the Remonstrants and Jesuits.  197

25. Whether God’s dominion requires that all free acts of creatures be principally and determinately from Himself?  We affirm against the Remonstrants and Jesuits.  200

27. Whether God wills sin as it is a penalty for sinning? We affirm against the Remonstrants and Jesuits. 210

36. Whether God concurs with material acts of sin by a universal, indifferent, and determinate concurrence through secondary causes?  We deny against the Jesuits and Remonstrants. 221

37. Whether an obligation as first cause excuses God so that an evil action be not imputed to Him, even though He gives a general concurrence to it? We deny against the Jesuits and Arminians.  224

43. Whether all acts of good and evil are particularized and determined by God even as far as the numerical singleness and unity of acts [generally]?  We affirm against the Jesuits and Arminians.  234

44. Whether [God’s] permission is a bare, non-efficient one, and a dereliction of will, the nature of it being indifferent?  We deny against the Jesuits and Arminians.  235

Ch. 6, On Original Sin

4. Whether concupiscence is sin, particularly after baptism and regeneration?  We affirm against the Remonstrants and Papists.  314 & 321

5. Whether concupiscence is formally prohibited by the law of God?  We affirm against the Remonstrants and Papists.  316

Ch. 7, Of the State of Fallen Man

6. Whether God, by any law founded in the merits of Christ, confers a prevenient [antecedent] grace for doing what is in it? We deny against the Papists. 336

7. Whether God gives grace of conversion to man because he is better disposed, or from any mode of equity and congruency? We deny with a distinction against the Papists and Remonstrants. 337

Ch. 8, On the State of Grace

6. Whether the grace of God efficaciously determines the will? We affirm against the Remonstrants and Jesuits.  371

Ch. 11, On the Manner of Conversion

1. Whether grace irresistibly brings about conversion? We affirm against the Remonstrants and Jesuits.  453

14. Whether the efficacy of grace depends upon a congruent calling? We deny against the Jesuits and Remonstrants.  497

Ch. 12, Of the Justification of Sinners

1. Whether we are justified by faith alone, not by our works? We affirm against the Jesuits and Remonstrants.  498

2. Whether God justly imputes the righteousness of Christ to us? We affirm against the Remonstrants, Papists, and Socinians.  506

* 3. Whether the act of believing is imputed to the believer properly, so that it is therefore his righteousness formally before God?  We deny against the Remonstrants and Jesuits.  510

4. Whether, by the grace of God which is granted to the faithful in this life, the law can be fulfilled perfectly? We deny against the Remonstrants, Papists, and Socinians.  511

5. Whether a distinction should be made between mortal and venial sin? We respond with a distinction.  516

6. Whether there is any sin under the New Covenant which is by its nature venial? We deny against the Remonstants and Papists.  517

7. Whether the most excellent works of the regenerate are polluted with sin? We affirm against the Remonstrants and Papists.  520

9. Whether the Apostle speaks of the regenerate man in Rom. 7? We affirm against the Remonstrants and Papists.  527

10. Whether good works are necessary as causes of justification, and therefore also of salvation? We deny against the Remonstrants and Papists.  530

Ch. 13, Of the Perseverance of the Saints

1. Whether (1) adults (2) who are truly regenerate, (3) not for reason of their infirmity, and (4) notwithstanding the intercession of Christ, the principle of a lively faith, the immutable covenant of God, election, and the care and power of God, can so fall away that (i) they part with all right unto the kingdom of God that they once had in Christ, (ii) fall away from the favor and grace of a gratuitous election, and (iii) totally and finally fall away? We deny against the Papists, Pseudo-Lutherans, Socinians, and Remonstrants.  553

Ch. 14, On the Certainty of Salvation

1. Whether any can be certain that he himself is truly justified, in the grace of God, and will continue to be saved?  We affirm against the Papists and Remonstrants.  625, 630

Ch. 17, On Synods

1. Respecting synods, how much is to be attributed to the authority of them? Explained and proven against the Papists, Remonstrants, and Separatists. 692


A Scholastic Disputation on Divine Providence   (Edinburgh, 1649)

ch. 3 – Concerning the new fiction of Middle Knowledge. Whether Middle Knowledge rescues the Providence of God when it comes to the control of contingent things: the flights of
the Jesuits Hieronymus Fasolus, Rodrigo de Arriaga, Diego Ruiz de Montoya, Petrus de Arubal (d. 1608), Gabriel Vázquez, Philipe de Gamaches (d. 1625), and others are examined. 12

ch. 5 – The arguments of Diego Ruiz, Fasolus, Petrus de Arubal, Alexander Pesantius, and others contending for the Middle Knowledge are extracted in parts. 50

ch. 7, Quest. 1, Whether permission is merely non-violentation or non-necessitation of will; as the Jesuits Penotto, Pesantius & Ruiz and the Arminians would have it?  73

ch. 9, Quest. 4-7 – Whether permission of sin is absolutely dependent on the free good pleasure of God, or whether it arises conditionally for the determination of a created will
that is alleging said permission? Gabriele Penotto, Diego Ruiz de Montoya, Theodorus Smising, Jacob Arminius, and others are invoked for their part.  86

14 – The reasons in favor of Middle Knowledge which are poorly understood from the Scriptures by the Jesuit François Annat, opponent of Doctor William Twisse, are explained. That matters move from the state of possibilities to the state of futurition only by means of the will of God from eternity; that created will is not the cause of secret and most high Election and Reprobation; and that the matter is not explained by means of a Middle Knowledge.  164

18 – Whether, supposing that God had stored up the damned unto the day of destruction and had permissively ordained them unto sin, it would then follow that God would be the Author of sin?  The passage Prov. 16:4 (“The LORD hath made all things for himself…”) is judged and vindicated.  Likewise the passage Rom. 9:17 (“Even for this same purpose have I raised thee up…”). Also, the passage 1 Pet. 2:8 is judged and vindicated.
Bellarmino, Ruiz, Louis le Mairat (d. 1664), Arubal, Fasolus, and the Arminians are invoked in parts.  211

20 – Whether sin is the penalty of sin?Whether GOD wills sin insofar as it is the penalty of sin?  Bellarmino, Diego Ruiz, Leonardus Lessius, Gabriele Penotto, Louis le Mairat, Philipe de Gemache, and also the Arminians are invoked in parts.  261

21 – That God does not harden men by bare permission. Regarding the method of hardening, the Jesuits and Arminians are invoked in parts.  287

25 – First, of Durandus and Ludovicus a Dola, deniers of God’s non-mediated concurrence with all secondary causes.  Second,the idea is overthrown which argues for a general concurrence of GOD delimited by secondary cause.  371

26 – Whether physical predetermination, by which GOD preordains wills unto entitative physical acts of sin, makes God to be the Author of sin?Whether this is fate? Whether Manaechism? Whether, according to the doctrine of the Jesuits and the Arminians, the general and indifferent concurrence of God truly absolves God from copartnership with crime? Diego Ruiz, Arriaga, Suarez, Raynaud, Jacob Arminius, etc., are invoked in parts.  383

27 – The reasons which Rodrigo de Arriaga, Suarez, Théophile Raynaud, and Guillaume Gibieuf give against God’s predetermination unto material acts of sin are discussed.
The reasons given by Jacob Arminius, Nicolaas Grevinchoven,
and Diego Ruiz, insofar as they contend that the act of sin itself is distinguished from malice, are noted with censure.  434

28 – First, that the special Providence of God which is determinative of acts of sin and individuates them, would stand out. Second,that the “general concurrence” of the Arminians and the Jesuits, out of their Doctrine, entangles GOD with a bond of crimes.  Third, the distinction is defended by which malice of actions is exposed to have its origin from a created will, not from God.  478

29 – First, that Calvin, Beza, and our own authors use formulas of speech that agree with the Scriptures, and with quite an orthodox understanding; and that they do not sound in
unison with the Libertines. Second, the chapter answers the objections of Jacob Arminius and the Jesuits.  478

30 – That the Patristics, the Doctors, and the Scholastics stand with us regarding God’s active Providence in sin.  523

Metaphysical Inquiries

Whether creatures are able to act without a concurrent primary cause?  Whether God moves a secondary cause by a previous concurrence or a simultaneous one?  Concerning the insanity of the Jesuits in this matter.  592


* Voet, Gisbert

Select Theological Disputations, vol. 12345  (Utrecht, 1648-1667)

Vol. 1

2. Of Scholastic Theology  12

6. Of the Fathers, or the Doctors of the Ancient Church, Part 1  74

7. Part 2  87

8. The New Jesuit Skepticism about the Principles of the Christian Faith  108

14. Of the Knowledge [Scientia] of God  246

30. Of the Question: Is Christ to be Worshipped as Mediator?  520
31. Of the Same, Appendix Part 1  536

46. Of the Heavenly Hierarchy & of Guardian Angels  882

Vol. 2

11. Of the Same, a Short Appendix on the Descent to Inferos [Grave, Nether World, Hell]  188

14. Problems about the Merit of Christ  228
15. Of the Same, Part 2  238
16. Of the Same, Part 3  255
17. Of the Same, Part 4  268
18. Of the Same, Part 5  277

19. Of Indulgences  286
20. Of the Same, Part 2  291

21. Of the Person of Christ the Mediator  304
22. Of the Same, Part 2  313
23. Of the Same, Part 3  324
24. Of the Same, an Appendix of Some Questions  341

31. Of the Same [Regeneration], an Appendix on [secundo?] the Moment of Conversion  465

42. An Inventory of the Roman Church, or the Papacy  684

43. The Discerning Note of the Papacy  687

44. Of the Evolution[?] [Translatione] of the Papacy from Peter to the Pope  698

45. An Orderly Presentation [Method] Warding Off the Presumption, Succession, Antiquity & Catholicity of the Papacy  724
46. Of the Same, a Short Appendix, a an Orderly Presentation Demonstrating the Novelty of the Papacy  724

[?] 47. The Papacy itself Throws out the Force of Truth for the Assertion of the Fundamentals of Christianity, and of Salvation Through the Mercy of God Alone in Christ  726
48. Of the Same, Part 2  742
49. Of the Same, Part 3  756

50. A Query on the Faith of Papists: Is it Saving or Damning?  776

51. An Inventory of Controversies, of the Temporal Power of the Pope  791
52. Of the Same, Part 2  807

53. Question: Is the Roman Throne Compatible with Reformed Governments?  827
54. Of the Same, an Appendix of Some Problems  856

55. Of the Donation of Constantine  868

56. A Historical-Theological Query on the Official [Imperii] Translation from Greek into French  882

72. ‘A Narration of the Wonderful Acts of the Spirit ad Posonium Gestae‘ [a RC book from 1643, on WorldCat & GB]  1141

73. An Exercitation[?] on Thomas, Part 1, Question 12, Article 1, ‘Of the Vision of God, According to the Essence’  1193
74. Of the Same, Part 2  1203

75. Exercitation on Thomas, Part 1, Part 2 [?], Question 3, Article 4, ‘Of the Subject of Blessedness and of [its?] the Formal Act’  1217
76. Of the Same, Part 2  1228

77. Of the Purgatory of the Papists  1240

Vol. 3

12. Added Unto the Disputation on Superstition, where is Treated of Genuflection at the Name of Jesus and unto the Table, or Altar  139
13. Part 2  163
14. Part 3  179
15. Part 4  201
16. Part 5  214

18. Of Indirect Idolatry and of Participating in Idolatry  234
19. Of the Same, Part 2  245

20. A Short Appendix on Prayer to the East  269
21. Of the Same, Part 3  278

23. A Question Proposed from the Classis [Presbytery] of Gorinchem to the Theological Faculty of Utrecht [with an answer, regarding whether reformed persons may be joined with Papists under certain conditions] 358

24. Notes & Observations of Albaspinus on Canons 2-4, 40, 55, 56, 59 of the Council of Eliberin [on Indirect Idolatry]  368

25. Of the Canonization of Saints  386
26. Of the Same, Part 2, 393
27. Of the Same, Part 3, 400

32. Of the Deities[?] or Some Chimerical Saints, the First, which is of Ursula [d. 383], etc.  472
33. Of the Same, Part 2 of the First  482
34. Of the Same, Part 3 of the First  492

35. An Index of the Chimerical Saints  503
36. Of the Same, Part 3  509

37. Appendix to the Disputations on Superstition and Idolatry  532

45. Of Being [?] Taught Ignorance  668
46. Of the Same, Part 2  681

56. Of Faith, Conscience & Dubious Theology  825
57. Of the Same, Part 2  834

59. The Status of the Inficialis [Staining?] Question of the Worship of Images in the Papacy  870

60. Of Cross-Worship, or the Worship and Abuse of the Cross  884
61. Of the Same, Part 2  893
62. Of the Same, Part 3  900

63. An Addition to the Disputations on Cross-Worship and Indirect Idolatry  931

65. Of the Pseudo-Mortifications of the Papacy  946

66. Of Processions  960

67. Of Pilgrimages Compostellanis [?]  987

68. First Short Appendix on Pilgrimages to Jerusalem  999

69. Second Short Appendix on Relics  1002

70. Third Short Appendix on Pilgrimages to the Blood of Boxtelensa [?]  1003

71. Of Pseudo-Prayers, Rosaries, Litanies, Canonical Hours & the Offices of the Roman Church  1013

72. Of Little-Bead[?] Prayers  1023

73. Of Pseudo-Prayers, etc., Part 2  1037

74. Of Litanies  1049

75.   Of Pseudo-Prayers, etc., Part 3  1056

76. Appendix on the Office, or the Canonical Hours of Blessed Mary  1068

77. Of Benedictions, Consecrations & Sacraments  1076

79. Of a Religious Vow  1100
80. Of the Same, Part 2  1113
81. Of the Same, Part 3  1123

82. Of Exorcism  1135
83. Of the Same, Part 2  1150
84. Appendix on the Exorcism of Baptized Infants  1173
85. Second Appendix  1188

86. Of Divination and Other Abuses of the Divine Name  1194

93. Of the Sabbath Day and Festival Days  1227
94. Of the Same, Part 2  1252

96. Appendix of Festivals and the Extra Quasi-Festivals the Papacy Observes  1314

97. A Short Appendix on Ecclesiastical Computation and the Correction of the Gregorian Calendar  1346

98. On the [Roman Catholic] Jubilee [involving a release from Purgatory, etc.] 1354
99. A Short Appendix on the Jesuit Jubilee  1381

Vol. 4

2. Of the Law and Gospel, Part 1  17
3. Of the Same, Part 2  30
4. Of the Same, Part 3  47

16. Of the Blind Obedience of the Papists, Part 1  182
17. Of the Same, Part 2  194

21. Of the Murder and Hurting of Oneself, even of Voluntary Flagellation  244

26. Of the Same [Vanities of this world], Third Disputation, which is of Abuses in Food & Feasts  385
27. Of the Same, Fourth Disputation, which is of Luxury and Vanity in Clothes, Houses and Goods[?]  403

41. Some Problems about the Ninth Commandment of the Decalogue, of Lying, a False Appearance and of Disguising, Part 1  631
42. Of the Same, Part 2, of Deceit, Equivocation & Mental Reservation  640

47. Disquisition on Thomas, Part 2, Part 1, Questions 68-70, of Blessed Gifts and the Fruits of the Spirit  729

Vol. 5

 3.  Is Christ’s Saving the Elect by the Special Grace of Regeneration and Faith Meritorious?  270

1-6  Of Justification  277

1  Of the Roman Proteus [the god of ‘elusive sea change’, according to the constantly changing nature of the sea; Proteus comes from the adjective protean, with the general meaning of “versatile”, “mutable”, “capable of assuming many forms”], or a Setting Forth [Defensio] of the Reasons [Causae] that Rome is Always Changing [Mutata Mutanda]   435

1  A Gleaning unto a Historical Discussion of the Popess Joan [Ioannes Anglicus, A.D. 855-857]  444

1  Of the State of Souls After Death  533

1  Of the Soul of Trajan Liberated from Hell [Inferno]  538

1-12  Of the Gestures of Praying  550

1-5  Of Subsequent Grace  716


Ecclesiastical Politics, vol. 1 (1st part of the 1st part), 2 (2nd part of the 1st part), 3 (2nd part), 4 (3rd part)  (Amsterdam, 1663-1676)  There is a table of contents at the beginning of each volume.


vol. 1

Book 1, Of the Object of Ecclesiastical Polity
Tract 1, Of the Instituted Church

5. Containing the Fourth Class of Questions about Divisions of the Instituted Church, where is treated of the Parochial, Village or Rural, Domestic, Princely, Camp, Nautical, Scholastic and Provincial Church.

[?] 6. Of Ecclesiastical Colleges, Cathedrals or Dioceses, Archbishops or Metropolitans, Patriarchs and Ecumenics.

Book 1, Tract 2
Of the Power, Polity & Canons of the Churches

5. Some Particular Questions are Determined about the Subject of Ecclesiastical Power [Who may Hold and Exercise it]:  Is it of the Magistrate and other Political Confederations?  At Least During a Corrupt or Turbulent State of the Church?  [Is it held by] The Pope, Bishops, etc. Courts of them, Cathedrals of the Church, Councils; or of Solely the Ministry, a Court of Them, or an Ecumentical or Catholic Church; or the Populus?

8. Of Ecclesiastical Canons, Decrees, Ordinances and Custom.

9. Some Thesis Questions about Ecclesiastical Canons are Explained.

10. Contains Chronicles of Some Questions, even General and Particular.

11. Contains Questions on Ecclesiastical Decrees and on Custom.

12. Ecclesiastical Law or Canon in General and Historical Explained.

13. An Explication of the Historical Body of Canon Law.

14. Of the Judgment of the Body of Canons, or of the Pontifical Right, and of the Study of Them.

15. Some Questions on Canon Law.

Part 1, Book 2

Of Ecclesiastical Things, or Acts and Exercises

Tract 1

Of Formularies, or Liturgies and Rituals

4. The Controversy which Comes Between us and the Papacy on the Same Ceremonies, in General

8. Questions on Some Rituals in Particular: on the Laying on of Hands, the [Holy] Kiss, Abstinence from Things Strangled and Blood, the Marriage Rite, Anointing, Shaking the Feet of Dust, Love Feasts, the Rite of Covenanting and of the Washing of Feet.

Tract 2, Section 4

Of the Administration of the Lord’s Supper

2. Of the Consecration of the Symbols

5. Of the Rites of Breaking, Receiving, Genuflection and Elevation

Book 2, Tract 4

Of Extraordinary, Public Practices: of Fastings and Thanksgivings

1. A Description and Distinguishing of Religious Fastings, with a Censure of Roman-Papist Pseudo-Fastings

vol. 3

Part 1, Book 3

Of Occasional Practices and Pseudo-Practices

Tract 1, of Marrying

Section 2, of Marriage

1. Of the Causes and Conditions being Required unto Marriage, and of the Impediments of the Same  41

5. Of Marriages Following, or Remarriage; of the Marriage of Cousins and Certain others which Human Law has Prohibited, though in Conscience they are not Unlawful  95

6. Of the Profession of Betrothals, Proclamations, of the Matrimonial Benediction, the Confirmation of the Same, Rituals, and of the Wedding Feast

Section 3, Of that which is Against Marriage

1. Of Lawful and Unlawful Celibacy 149

3. Of Rejections and Divorces, which, of Themselves Release the Bond of Marriage  170

4. Of Malicious Desertion  188

5. Of Various Marriage Incompatibilities, the Contempt and Condemnation of Marriage, of Having Multiple Wives, a Changing [Giving, Selling, etc.] of the Same, a Barren Marriage, Incest, an Abominable Confusion of the Sexes, Polygamy, a Rendering of Service, Concubinage, Promiscuous Desire [Vaga Libidine], Perfidious Repudiations, Divorces, Desertions and of Marriages and Promiscuous Desire in the Future World  197

Part 1, Book 4

Of the External Adjuncts of Ecclesiastical Practices

Tract 1

Of the Liberty, Immunity and Dignity of the Church

7. Is Liberty for Papal Exercise[s] to be Conceded in Civil States which have been Reformed?  490

8. At this time, is Liberty for the Exercise[s] of Papists in the Belgic Federation to be Conceded for Political or Ecclesiastical Reasons?  497

11. Of the Liberty of Exemption, or of Ecclesiastical Immunity  584

12. Of the Dignity of the Church  584

Book 4, Tract 2

Of the Property of the Church, or of Ecclesiastical Goods

1. Of the Name, Definition and Division of Ecclesiastical Goods  595

3. The Next Issue to be Considered [Questio] is General, on the Origin and Acquisition of Ecclesiastical Goods, where these Six Distinct Points Ought to be Considered: 1. Who, and by Whom, are they Acquired?  2. Among Whom?  3. by what Means, or in what Manner?  4. of what Kind?  5. How Much?  6. For what End and Effect?  665

7. Shameful Things, Having been Hidden, are Exposed, along with the Defense of Wastefulness.  1. A Brief Argument is Shaken off from a Particular, which is Entirely and Only as an Argument to the Man [Ad Hominem] in this Matter, to be Able to Make one Absolved. An Exception about the Agreement of the Magistrate is Rejected. 722

8. Eight Escapes of Usurpers and Wasters are Taken Up  733

11. Clouds of Testimonies on the Use and Abuse of Goods are Adduced.  791

Book 4, Tract 3
Of the Stipends of Ministers

6. Of Ecclesiastical Benefits in the Papacy  838

Book 4, Tract 4

Of the External Requisites and Adjuncts of Sacred Practices

1. Of the Temporalities of Sacred Practices

Tract 4, Section 2

Of Church-Buildings

1. Of Church-Buildings and Places of Holy Things under the Old and New Testament  851

2. Of the Church-Buildings of Papists  862

3. Questions on Church-Buildings are Pressed Hard in the Controversy Between us and the Pontiffs  868

4. Textual Problems, and the History of Church-Buildings is Delineated  872

5. A Delineation of Some More Dogmatic Problems on Church-Buildings  881

6. A Delineation of Some Other Problems, More Moral and Practical, on Church-Buildings  887

Tract 4, Section 3

Of Utensils and Other Adjuncts of Church-Buildings

1. Of Bells  894

2. Of Vessels and other Sacred Utensils which themselves are of an Active Church-Building, They Being Kept in the Chancel [Choro Continentur]

3. Of Altars

4. Of 1. Candlesticks, Candles, Lamps; 2. Censers; 3. Books; 4. Sacred Vestments.  936

5. Of Cemetaries  939

6. Of Dedications [of Church-Buildings and Anniversary Feasts]  960

vol. 3

Part 2, Book 1, Of the People of the Church

Tract 1

1. Of the People of the Church in General  1

2. Of the Relations, Quantity, Liberty, Power, Dignity, Equality and Obedience of the People of the Church  14

3. A Doubt and Objections Against the Equality and Obedience of Members of the Church are Taken Up  31

Book 1, Tract 2

Of that which is in Them, which are Reckoned amongst the People

1. Of the Distinction[s] of those Numbered Among the People by Internal and Ecclesiastical Qualities  85

2. Of the Division of the People by External and Secular Qualities  86

Book 1, Tract 3

Of Confessors and Martyrs

1. Of Confessors  89

2. Objections Against the Necessity of a Confession of Faith are Solved and Related Questions are Determined  96

3. Of Persecution and Persecutors  112

4. Of Martyrdom and Martyrs in General  121

5. Of Various Distinctions and Divisions About Martyrs  126

A Short Appendix on the History of Martyrs  137

Part 2, Book 2

Which is of Ministers and the Ecclesiastical Ministry

Tract 1

Of the Necessity, Difficulty, etc. of a Minister

1. Of the Necessity of a Minister  213

2. Objections Against the Necessity of a Minister are Responded to  223

4. Of the Authority or Power of a Minister  247

5. Objections Against the Divinely Collated Authority of Ministers are Orderly Responded to  253

6. Some Questions about the Authority of a Minister are Explained, of which Some Concern the Nature and Properties of Power and Authority in Itself; Others, the Exercise of Them.  263

10. Of the Efficacy and Power of a Minister  336

Book 2, Tract 2

Of the Classes, Orders and Grades of Sacred Ministers

1. Of the Division of Ministers into Ordinary and Extraordinary; and of the Extraordinary Ministers of the Old Testament: the Patriarchs and Prophets  337

2. Of the Extraordinary Ministers Under the New Testament, and First, of the Apostles  351

3. Of the Evangelists and Prophets of the New Testament  364

4. Of the Extraordinary Ministry of John the Baptist  372

Book 2, Tract 3

Of the Ordinary Ministers of the Old and New Testament

2. Of the Ordinary Ministers of the New Testament, and of Pastors, or Preachers  401

3. Of the Functions of Pastors Negatively, or of Neglect, that is, of non-Attention to Himself and to the Church  405

4. Of Elders and Presbyters Governing  436

5. Objections Against the Order of Elders Responded to  462

6. Some of the Problems About Elders are Responded to  471

7. Of Doctors  479

8. Of Deacons  496

Book 2, Tract 4

Of Assisting Helpers to the Sacred Minister and Ministers

1. Of Deaconesses  508

2. Of the Visitors of the Sick, Announcers [Proponentibus], Catechists, Readers, Precentors, Custodians, Porters or Messengers  514

3. Of Visitors, Examiners, Deputies or Ambassadors, Correspondents, Presidents, Assessors and Registrars  527

Book 3, Tract 2

Of the Opposites to Calling

1. Of the History of the Law of Patronage  580

2. The Law of Patronage is Indicted  595

5. The Consensus of Antiquity on Ecclesiastical Elections  617

6. Objections and Exceptions are Responded to  612

7. Some Particular Questions about the Usurpation of the Law of Patronage are Responded to  632

8. Of the Use of a Clerical Patron of Patrons, whether of the Heterodox or the Orthodox  637

9. Those are Examined which are Against our Sentiment and Diatribe on the Law of Patronage; They are Added from Some.  644

Part 2, Book 4

Of the Roman Heirarchy

Book 4, Tract 1

Of Governing Clerics

1. Of the Greatest Pontiff [the Pope]  775

Appendix  784

A Compendium of Some Principal Things Contained in the Ceremonial of Gregory XV, and of the Election of the Roman Pontiff  785

2. Of Cardinals  793

3. Of Patriarchs, Primates, Archbishops, Bishops, Deans  816

4. A Delineation of a Brief Controversy about Episcopacy  832

5. Containing a Disquisition on Presbytery and Episcopacy  850
.           Part 1  851
.           Part 2  859
.           [Four] Consequences 869

6. Of Ecclesiastical Governments According to Ordinaries[?], Those put Forward[?], Archdeacons, Archpresbyters, Vicars, Counselors 869

Appendix to Ch. 6 876

Book 4, Tract 2

Of Ecclesiastical Attendants [Ministrantibus]

1. Of Pastors [Parochis] and Priests [Sacerdotibus]  879

2. Of Deacons, Sub-deacons, Acolytes, Exorcists, Readers, Porters  885

3. Of Ecclesiastical Attendants, Canons and House-Rules [Oeconomis]  895

Table of [the Titles of] Majesty and Power of the Sacred Monastery of Casinum  897

Book 4, Tract 3

Of Ecclesiastical Assistants

2. Of Doctors and Professors of Cannonical Law  918

Book 4, Tract 4

Of Ecclesiastical Supererogators

Section 1, Of Monasticism in General

1. Of the Suppositions and Fundamentals of Monasticism  925

2. Of the Efficient, Fundamental and Occasional Causes of Monasticism  929

3. Of Examples of Monasticism, which are Produced out of Scripture and Antiquity  940

Section 2, Of Monastics in General

1. A Description of a Common Monk.  A General Description and Subject Theses [Quaestionibus], and the Note of a Monk is Exhibited.  950

2. Doctrinal Issues, Moral Suppositions  and the Foundation of Monasticism  964

3. Explications of Textual Questions about the Suppositions and Foundation  976

4. Historical Questions about the Suppositions and Fundamentals of Monasticism  985

5. The Primary Divisions of Monastics from the Form, or Rules, and from the Subject  993

6. Of Monastics in Excess, etc.  997

7. Of Monastics in Defect  1002

8. Of Moderate Monasticism in-between Excess and Defect  1004

9. Some Problems on Rules and Examples [Analogiis] of Them, especially of Cloppe, are Explicated  1012

10. Of the Strictest [Religiosis], or the Monks of the Society of Jesus  1021

Tract 4, Section 3

Of Examples [? Analogis] and Relations of Monasticism, Brotherhoods and Holy Soldiers

1. Of Brotherhoods in General  1034

2. Of Brotherhoods of Mary  1048

3. Reasons for Brotherhoods are Attacked, Objections and Exceptions are Refuted and some Questions are Responded to  1067

4. Of the Holy War of the Pope, or the Religious Ordinances of Knights [Equitum] in the Roman Church  1080

5. Of the Johannites  1087

6. Questions are Responded to About Holy Soldiers  1095

7. Of the Ordinance of the Johannites in the Belgic Federation, Whether it ought to be Retained or Set Aside  1102

8. Reasons for Demanding the Recovery of the Johannites are Dissolved  1111

9. Some other Objections for the Recovery of the Johannites are Refuted  1118

10. Is the Order of the Equestrian Johannites Neutral?  1123

11. Hypothetical, or Historic-Theological Questions  1125

12. Questions of Controversy Between Papists  1128
.           Addenda  1129

Vol. 4

Book 1, Tract 2

Of the Government, Appointment and Maintenance of Examinations, Exercises, Elections and Visitations

1. Of Examinations  74

2. Of Ecclesiastical Visitations  92

3. Of the Appointing and Governing of Ecclesiastical Callings and all the Exercises and Actions in the Church  109

Book 1, Tract 3

Of the Assemblies, Gatherings [Collegiis] and Corresponding Relations of the Antecedents of Churches

7. Of the Persons present in Synod, or of the Persons Convened to the Synod  190

Book 1, Tract 4

Of Ecclesiastical Books, Records, Writings and Instruments

1. Of Ecclesiastical Books  272

2. Of Ecclesiastical Records and Writings  278

Part 3, Book 2

Considerations on the Governing and Ordering of the Church Respecting its being Erected

Tract 1, Of the First Planting and Collection of Churches

1. Of the Plantation and Planters of Churches  293

Appendix:  Of the Builders of Church Buildings, the Erectors of Colleges and the Founders of Revenues  316

3. Of the Missions and Missionaries of the Papacy  349

Book 2, Tract 2

Of the Government of the Church, which Ought to be Maintained and Augmented

1. Of the Augmentation and Multiplication of Exercises, Acts and Ecclesiastical Offices  355

Book 2, Tract 3

Of the Government of the Churches Less Conspicuous

3. Of the Means for the Propagation of Religion and the Augmenting of the Church by the Conversion of the Infidels, Heretics and Idolaters  404

Book 2, Tract 4

Of Churches by Analogy [Analogicis] which ought to be Raised, Encouraged and Governed

1. Of Churches in Courts and Academies  409

2. Of the Governance of Military Churches  4141

Tract 3, Section 2

Of the Joining With [Syncretismo] or Union of the Separatist Churches

5. All the Notable Deliberations and Endeavors about the Joining Together, or Union, of Protestants and the Reformed with the Roman Church are Referenced and Noted  615

Book 3, Tract 4

Containing a Disquisition on the Means to Reformation and to the Joining Together of the Churches which ought at some Point to be Adhered to or as are Usually Commended

Section 1

Of Colloquiums, Conferences [Collationibus] & Disputations

4. Containing an Index of Conferences and Disputations about Religion  667

Book 3, Tract 4, Section 3

Of Amnesty, Conciliation and Neutrality

1. Of Amnesty  741

Part 3, Book 4, Of Ecclesiastical Discipline

Book 4, Tract 1, Of Ecclesiastical Power

5. Of the Mandatory Power and Mandates [Greek] or [Greek] of the Churches  787

7. Of the Legislative Power of the Churches  795

8. Of the Jurisdiction or the Judicial Power of the Church  798

9. Of Ecclesiastical Punishment or Correction, and Censure  800

11. Whether the Ecclesiastical Power Imparted by Churches having been Reformed is a Papal Mastery [Imperium]?  805

12. Another Certain Mode is Shaken Off, of Another Method of Sacred Power and Government which Ought to be Refused, and of those Church Magistrates which Ought to be Allotted  806

13. Another Method to the Building of Caesaro-Papism is Examined  817

Book 4, Tract 2

Of the Keys to the Kingdom of Heaven

1. Of the Keys of the Kingdom of Heaven  841

2. Of the Key of Discipline, [with] a Handling [Tractatio] of Homonymous and Synonymous Terms  843

4. Of the Object of Ecclesiastical Discipline  848

7. Of Ecclesiastical Correction  857

9. Of Citation, Suspension, etc.  861

10. Of the Causes of Discipline: Impulsive or Meritorious  863

11. Of Distributing or Administering Causes of Discipline  865

12. Of Suspension  865

13. Of the Mode of the Administration of Discipline  869

14. Of the Ends or Effects of Discipline  872

15. A Consequence out of of the Doctrine on the Effects of Discipline is Deduced  875

16. On the Division of Discipline  879

17. On that which Follows upon Discipline  881

Book 4, Tract 3

Of Excommunication

1. The Term ‘Excommunication’ and the Thing itself is Explained through the Definition [of it]  882

2. Of the Efficient Causes of Excommunication  885

3. Of the Object, or Subject of Excommunication  889

4. Of the Mode of Excommunication  909

5. Of the Effects of Excommunication  922

6. Of the Ends and Uses of Excommunication  929

7. Of Repentance and the Restitution of [Recovering Persons From?] Excommunications  930

Book 4, Tract 4

Of the Opposites of Discipline

2. Of Some of the Repugnant Things in the Usurping of Discipline in the Papacy; First, of the Bodily Afflictions of the External Man  943

3. An Enumeration of the Many Abuses and Repugnant Things in the Ecclesiastical Discipline which has been Instituted in, or Observed by the Papacy  953

4. Various Abuses are Recounted which Ought to be Referred to the Power of the Church in General or to Censures in Specific  969


Turretin, Francis – Works, vol. 4, Disputations

On the Necessity of Our Secession from the Church of Rome

1. The State of the Question is Propounded: the Roman Church is Argued to be Heretics  3
2. First Part on Roman Idolatry  31
3. Second Part on Roman Idolatry  53
4. Third Part on Roman Idolatry  77
5. On Roman Tyranny  97
6. On the Romish Babylon  125
7. A Demonstration of the Antichrist  147
8. Objections are Solved  181



Latin Books


Pareus, David – Collection 9, ’40 Disputations on the Controversies of the Jesuit Cardinal, Robert Bellarmine’  in Theological Collections of Universal Orthodox Theology, where also All of the Present Theological Controversies are Clearly and Variously Explained, vol. 2  (1611/20)

Pareus (1548-1622)

1. The Canon of the Sacred Scriptures  389
2. The Editions, Versions & Readings of the Sacred
.      Scriptures  397
3. The Interpretations of the Sacred Scriptures  403
4. About Traditions  413
5. Of God, One & Three  421
6. Of the Incarnation of the Son of God  424
7. Of the Monarchical Church of the Apostle Peter  430
8. Of the Successors of the Roman Pontiff in the Monarchical
.      Church of the Apostle Peter  433
9. On the Antichrist  436
10. Continuation of the Antichrist  442
11. On the Power of the Roman Pontiff, Spiritual &
.       Temporal  447
12. On Ecclesiastical Councils  450
13. Of the Church & its Notes  455
14. Of Clerics  465
15. Of Monks  467
16. Of the Civil Power or Magistrate  470
17. About Purgatory  476
18. Of the Blessedness & Canonization of the Saints  482
19. Of the Veneration of Relics & Images  487
20. Of the Sacraments in General  492
21. Of the Effect, Difference & Number of the Sacraments  498
22. Of the Sacrament of Baptism & of Confirmation  503
23. Of the Eucharist  510
24. Of the Possibility of the Presence of the Body of
.       Christ under the Appearance of the Eucharist  515
25. Of the Substance, Rite, Effect, Integrity & Veneration of
.       the Sacrament of the Eucharist  520
26. Of the Mass  525
27. Of the Pseudo-Sacrament of Penitence  530
28. Of Indulgences, Extreme Unction, Ecclesiastical Order
.       & Matrimony  536
29. About the Grace of the First Man  540
30. Of the Cause of Sin  546
31. Of the First Sin & its Effects  550
32. Of Grace & Free-Will  557
33. Of Free-Will  562
34. Of Free-Will in Morals & Spirituals  568
35. Of the Nature & Proper Act of Justification by Faith  572
36. Of the Formal Cause of Justification & of Inherent
.       Righteousness  582
37. Of the Uncertainty, Immutability & Inequality of
.       Righteousness  590
38. Of the Necessity & Righteousness of Works  598
39. Of the Merits of Works  606
40. Of the Good Works in Particular: Prayer, Fasting &
.       Alms  613


Hommius, Festus – 70 Theological Disputations Against Papists  (Leiden, 1614)

Table of Contents

1. Books of Sacred Scripture  1
2. Authority of Sacred Scripture  5
3. Perfection of Sacred Scripture  9
4. Perspicuity of Sacred Scripture  13
5. Interpretation of Sacred Scripture, as to the Words: or, the Versions & Reading of Sacred Scripture  16
6. Interpretation of Sacred Scripture, as to the Sense: of the Judge of Controversies of Faith  20
7. Divinity of Christ, or Accordingly, is it Possible to Call Him, ‘Auto-Theos’?  26
8. Human Nature of Christ, or of the Body & Spirit of Christ  29
9. The Mediatorial Office of Christ  34
10. The Descent of Christ to ‘Inferos’ & the Limbo of the Fathers  37
11. Of the Ideal Church Government  43
12. Primacy of the Apostle Peter & of the Pontiff of Rome in his Succession  47
13. Antichrist  51
14. The Power of the Pope in Spiritual Matters  58
15. The Power of the Pope in Temporal Matters  64
16. The Necessity, Distribution & End of Councils  72
17. The Stipulations of a Legitimate Council  77
18. Authority of Councils  84
19. Essence of the Church  90
20. Is the Church Always Visible?  And is it Able to Utterly Fall Away?  98
21. Is it Possible for the Church to Err?  103
22. Notes of the True Church  107
23. Roman Church, or of the Pontificate & of the Reforming Church  115
24. Clerics, or of Ecclesiastical Ministers & their Calling  124
25. The Orders of Ecclesiastical Ministers  132
26. Celibacy of Church Ministers  140
27. Stipends & Immunities of Church Ministers  144
28. Monastics & Hermits  149
29. Monastic Vows, Evangelical Councils & Works of Supererogation  156
30. The Magistrate & his Office About Religion  168
31. The Peace of Religion, & of Heretics  180
32. Purgatory  187
33. Suffrages, or the Prayers of the Living for the Dead, & of the Burial of the Dead  196
34. Of the Blessedness & Canonization of Dead Saints  204
35. Of the Worship & Invocation of Dead Saints  209
36. Worship of Relics  216
37. Worship of Images & of the Sign of the Cross  221
38. Worship of Consecrated Things  231
39. Church Buildings  237
40. Pilgrimages & of Processions  244
41. Festivals of Christians  251
42. Nature of Sacraments  257
43. Number, Effects & Ceremonies of the Sacraments  262
44. Baptism  267
45. Baptismal Ceremony  273
46. Confirmation  277
47. Supper of the Lord  281
48. Right Use & Effects of the Lord’s Supper & the Communion Under Both Kinds  289
49. Mass  297
50. Penitence [Poenitentia]  305
51. Oral Confession & of Satisfaction  311
52. Indulgences & of Release [Iubilaeo]  318
53. Extreme Unction & of the Order  326
54. Marriage  332
55. State of Man Before the Fall & of Paradise  341
56. Sin & its Cause  349
57. Fall of Adam  358
58. Original Sin  364
59. Grace of God  373
60. Predestination  384
61. Free-Will of Man  392
62. Justifying Faith  406
63. Justification  412
64. Certainty of Salvation  422
65. Perseverance of the Saints  429
66. Perfection of Man in this Life  437
67. Good Works in General  444
68. Prayer  455
69. Fasting  466
70. Alms  472


Scharp, John – A Course of Theology, in which all the Dogmas & Controversies of Faith agitated in this generation between us and Papists are handled one by one and the arguments of Bellarmine are responded to, vol. 12 (Geneva, 1620)  Extended Latin Table of Contents

Sharp (1572-1648) was also influential in France.  Even though this work is against the Papists, Scharp handles most of the topics of theology in systematic order.

Brief Table of Contents

vol. 1

1. Of Theology  1
2. Of Sacred Scripture  8
3. Of God  170
4. Of the Trinity  208
5. Of Predestination  288
6. Of Creation  366
7. Of the Image of God in Man Before the Fall  367
8. Of Angels  388
9. Of the Providence of God  408
10. Of Sin  411
11. Of Original Sin  456
12. Of Actual Sin  506
13. Of the Sin Against the Holy Spirit  522
14. Of the Evil of Punishment  531
15. Of Free Choice  542
16. Of the Law of God  585
17. Of the Gospel  688
18. The Covenant & Testament  701
19. Of Christ the Mediator  703
20. Of the Office of Christ  817
21. Of Calling  898
22. Of Justification  921
23. Of Repentance  1152
24. Of the Christian Life  1230
25. Of Christian Liberty  1236
26. Of Fasting  1251
27. Of Scandal  1265
28. Of Prayer  1269
29. Of Glorification  1280
30. Of the Resurrection of the Body  1284
31. Of the Last Judgment  1291
32. Of Life Eternal  1294
33. Of the Sacraments  1301
34. Of Baptism  1345
35. Of the Lord’s Supper  1381
36.  Of the Five Spurious Sacraments  1555


Vol. 2

1. Of the Church  9
2. Of the Church Triumphant  19
3. Of the Church Militant  87
4. Of the Body of the Church Militant  273
5. Of Councils  385
6. Of Monastics  441
7. Of Vows  457
8. Of the Magistrate  488
9. Of Purgatory  521


Alsted, Johann Heinrich – Polemical Theology, Exhibiting the Principal Eternal Things of Religion in Navigating Controversies  (Hanau, 1620; 1627)

Alsted (1588-1638)

Extended Table of Contents

Brief Table of Contents

Part 4, Controversies with the Romanists

Sacred Scripture  349
Christ the Mediator  369
The Roman Pontiff  379
Councils  390
Of Controversies  394
Church  396
Clericis  406
Monastics  414
Laics [On the Civil Magistrate]  426
Church Striving in Purgatory  433
Burial  442
Church Triumphant in Heaven & of the Saints in Heaven  444
Relics, Images & the Worship of Things  451
Church Buildings & Feasts  461
Sacraments in General  465
Baptism & Confirmation  475
Sacrament of the Eucharist & the Sacrifice of the Mass  483
Repentance & Indulgences  502
The Three Other Sacraments: Extreme Unction, Ordination & Matrimony  513
Grace of the First Man in Paradise  520
The Loss of Grace & the State of Sin  526
Grace & the Predestination of God, & the Free-Will of Man  538
Justification & of Good Works in General  548
Of the Good Works in Specific: Prayer  566
.       Fasting  569
.       Alms  572


* Chamier, Daniel – Panstratiae Catholicae, or a Body of the Controversies of Religion Against the Papists, vols. 1 (Canon), 2 (God, Worship of God), 3 (Man), 4 (Sacraments), 5 (Church)  (Frankfurt, 1627-1629)

“The name of Chamier (d. 1621) is one of the greatest, not only among Calvinistic divines, but in all theological literature.  His Panstratiae Catholicae (1626) is the ablest work from a Calvinistic hand in in the great Roman Catholic Controversy, and takes its general rank with books like Chemnitz’s Examen and Gerhard’s Confessio Catholica.  It was prepared at the request of the Synod of Larochelle.  There is no difference of opinion among competent judges as to its distinguished merits, and it is justly regarded among all Calvinists as one of the highest authorities.” – Krauth, a Lutheran, p. 47


Table of Contents

Vol. 1

Locus 1, The Canon

Inquiry 1, What Should be the Rule [Canon]?

Book 1, Scripture  1
Book 2, Not the Church:  Papal Arguments  14
Book 3, Not the Pope:  Papal Arguments  24

Inquiry 2, Of the Parts of the Canon

Book 4, Of the Apocryphal Books:  Papal Arguments  45
Book 5, Catholic Arguments  52

Of the Nature of the Canon

Inquiry 1, From where is the Authority of the Canon?

Book 6, From Only Itself  72
Book 7, Papal Arguments  89

Inquiry 2, of the Perfection of Scripture

Book 8  101
Book 9  Papal Arguments  134

Of the Use of the Canon

Book 10, of Reading the Scriptures  178

Of Understanding Scripture

Book 11, of Translating the Scriptures  190
Book 12, of the Authority of the First Edition of the Sacred Books  207
Book 13, of the Septuagint Edition  224
Book 14, of the Vulgate Edition  242

Of the Interpretation of Scripture

Book 15, of Various Senses & the Perspicuity of Scripture  261
Book 16, of the Interpreters of Scripture  287


Vol. 2

Detailed Table of Contents

Locus 2, of God & the Worship of God

Part 1, of God

Book 1, of the Trinity  1
Book 2, of the Attributes of God: Omnipotence, Providence
.              Contingency & Necessity  19
Book 3, of the Author of Sin  36

Of the Incarnation

Book 4, of the Person, Human Nature, Nativity, the Soul of Christ  55
Book 5, Of the Descent to Inferos & the Resurrection of Christ  74
Book 6, of the Body of Christ  100

Of the Office of Mediator

Book 7, of the Mediation according to the Natures & the Mediator
.              for Whom?  121
Book 8, of the One Mediator  133

Of Ecumenicity

Book 9, Whether it is Anything?  146
Book 10, Catholic Arguments  171

Hypothesis 1

Book 11, of Peter the Apostle  192
Book 12, Papal Arguments  236

Hypothesis 2, of the Pope

Book 13, of the Authority of the Pope in the Church  251
Book 14, Catholic Arguments  287
Book 15, of the Authority of the Pope in the Republic  309
Book 16, of the Antichrist  318
Book 17, Papal Arguments  361


Part 2, Of Worship

Book 18, of the Calumnies of the Papists  378
Book 19, Inquiry 1, Whether Religious Worship is able to Consist with Creatures  391
Book 20, Inquiry 2, of the Invocation of the Saints; Inquiry 3, of Relics  401

Inquiry 4, of Images

Book 21, of Images of God & the Veneration of Images  413
Book 22, of the Cross & Images in Church Buildings  439


vol. 3

Of Man: Corrupt & Restored

Book 1, Inquiry 1, of Sin  1
Book 2, Question 2, of Free Choice, Human Choice & Controversy 1: the Power of Choice in Civil Things  9
Book 3, Controversy 2, of the Power of Choice unto Good, Theologically  20
Book 4, Catholic Arguments  42
Book 5, of the Original Sin of those born of the Faithful & of the Controversy about the Virgin Mary  55
Book 6, Question 3, of the Punishments of Sin, of the Punishment of Original Sin, & of Venial & Mortal Sin  79

Of the Restoration of Man, of the Chief Cause

Book 7, Of Predestination  98
Book 8, Of the Cause of Predestination & of the Cause of Reprobation  109

Of the Sub-alternate Cause of the Restoration by Christ

Book 9, Of the Merits of Christ by Compact & of the Efficacy of the Death of Christ  124

Of the Nature of the Restoration in Particular: of Sanctification & Justification

Book 10, Of Sanctification & Justification, & of Concupiscence  134
Book 11, of the Fulfillment of the Whole Law & of the Imperfection of Works  156

Of the Parts of Sanctification

Book 12, Of Faith, of the Knowledge of Faith, of the Tie of Faith & Works  183

Of the Object of Faith

Book 13, Of the Application of Justification, of the Certainty of Faith & of the Proper Faith of the Elect  197
Book 14, Of the Merit of Works  226
Book 15, Of the Necessity of Works, of Christian Liberty & of the Constitutions of the Church  252

Laws Concerning Marriages

Book 16, Of the Celibacy of Priests  271
Book 17, Papal Arguments  302
Book 18, Of the Grades of Impediments to Marriage, of Free-Persons & of Repudiations  324
Book 19, Laws of Fastings & of the Time of Fasting  350
Book 20, Of Vows, of Continency, of Councils  369

Part 2, of Justification

Book 21, What it is; Inquiry 1, of Inhering; of Imputation  418
Book 22, Of Faith Alone Justifying  455
Book 23, Of the Pardon of Punishments & Proper Satisfactions  478
Book 24, Of the Satisfactions of Others; Inquiry 1, Whether Some may Satisfy for Others; Inquiry 2, Of the Treasury of Indulgences  517
Book 25, Of the Effects of Restoration & the Limbo of the Fathers  545
Book 26, Of Purgatory  559


Vol. 4

Locus 4, Of the Sacraments

Book 1, Of the Sacraments in General  1
Book 2, Of the Efficacy of the Sacraments  25
Book 3, Of the Strength & Efficacy of the Old [Testament] Sacraments  54
Book 4, Of the Number of the Sacraments, of Confirmation, of Penance, of Extreme Unction, of Ordination, of Marriage  69
Book 5, Of Baptism  115
Book 6, Of the Eucharist & of the Elements  145
Book 7, Of the Adoration of the Eucharist  165
Book 8, Of Both Species: Catholic Arguments  197
Book 9, Papal Arguments  228

Of the Thing Signified

Book 10, Of the Enunciation of the Sacrament, & Firstly of the Boundaries [of the Words]; Then of the Interpretation of the Enunciation  253
Book 11, Of Corporal Chewing  289-332


vol. 5, Of the Church

Detailed Table of Contents
Subject Index
Scripture Index

Supplement to vol. 4

ch. 1, Of the Spiritual Presence of Christ in the Eucharist  1

Vol. 5, Of the Church

Bk. 1, Of the Nature & Privileges of the Church in this Earth  54
Bk. 2, Of the Notes of the Church  81
Bk. 3, Of Councils  117
Bk. 4, Of the Members of the Militant Church  151
Bk. 5, Of the Jurisdiction of the Militant Church, the Church
.          Triumphant & the False Church  185


Maresius, Samuel – A New Synopsis of Elenctic Theology, or an Index of the Controversies of Faith out of the Sacred Scriptures produced by the Jesuit Jacob Tirinus, & Augmented, Amended & Refuted by a Continuous Censure, vol. 12  (1646-7)

“Another of the greatest names, in high renown for ability and Calvinistic orthodoxy, is that of Maresius (d. 1673).  He has been called the Calvinistic Calovius [a Lutheran].  His life was a life of contest against the errors outside of Calvinism, and errors which tried to shelter themselves within it.  His greatest work is in his reply to Tirinus, the Jesuit, who had added to his Commentary (1632) an ” Index of Controversies on Matters of Faith.”  Maresius first gives Tirinus in full, in his own words, and then adds his own strictures.” – Krauth, a Lutheran, pp. 48-9

Clauberg, Johann & Martin Hund – Select Disputations, in which Controversies of Faith Against All Kinds of Adversaries (Principally the Socinians & Papists…) are Explicated  (Duisberg, 1665)

Clauberg (1622-1665) was a German theologian and philosopher.  Clauberg was the founding Rector of the first University of Duisburg, where he taught from 1655 to 1665.  He is known as a ‘scholastic Cartesian’.  Hund (1624-1666) was a professor of theology at Duisburg from 1655-†1666.

Table of Contents


Resurrection of the Flesh, 1-3  1
Trinity, 1-12  13


Word of God, 1-3  98
Power of the Word & Phrases of Sacred Scripture, 1-4  117
Consequences Deducted out of Sacred Scripture,1-11  145
Disputation on the Presupposition of Sacred Scripture  227


Of the Fundamental Truth of Faith, 1-12  242
Of the Novelty of Dogmas in Theology, 1-2  347
Of the End that Ought to be Aimed at in Theology  387
Of the Faith of Antichrist, 1-2  406


Of Oral Chewing, 1-6  424
Of the Multi-Presence of the Body of Christ, 1-3  452
Of the Nature of Liberty, 1-2  477
Of the Distinction of the Divine & Human Intellect  487


Of the Image of God, 1-7  491
Of the Election of Men to Salvation  530
Of the Testaments & Covenants of God  545
Of the Justification of Man Before God in All his Estate  550




“Because of the wrath of the Lord…  everyone that goeth by Babylon shall be astonished and hiss at all her plagues.  Put yourselves in array against Babylon round about: all ye that bend the bow, shoot at her, spare no arrows: for she hath sinned against the Lord.”

Jer. 50:13-14

“Come hither; I will shew unto thee… the great whore… with whom the kings of the earth have committed fornication, and the inhabitants of the earth have been made drunk with the wine of her fornication… and I saw a woman… full of names of blasphemy… and the woman was arrayed in purple and scarlet colour, and decked with gold and precious stones and pearls, having a golden cup in her hand full of abominations and filthiness of her fornication: and upon her forehead was a name written… The Mother Of Harlots And Abominations Of The Earth.  And I saw the woman drunken with the blood of the saints, and with the blood of the martyrs of Jesus.”

Rev. 17:1-6




Related Pages

The Antichrist


The Church