Lutheran Systematic Theologies


Order of Contents

Order of Theologians
.     1500’s
.     1600’s
.     1700’s
.     1800’s
.     1900’s
.     2000’s




Where does one go to read historic, orthodox Lutheranism?  Right here.

This collection of 45+ theologians covers most of the major Lutheran systematic theologies since the Reformation that are in English and are online.  Some works in Latin have been included.

First read the reformer Martin Luther’s Bondage of the Will, 1525 (preferably the modern J.I. Packer and Johnston translation) which is a theological and literary classic.  You will see how reformed Luther was in the doctrines of grace and wonder why later Lutheranism largely followed the synergistic distinctives of Philip Melanchthon.

To get a broader view, not just of the doctrine of salvation, but also of the whole gamut of Lutheran systematic theology, start with John Mueller’s one volume Christian Dogmatics (1934).  This textbook gives a concise, but adequate, view of all the major historic theological categories of conservative Lutheranism, their scriptural arguments for them and their view and critique of other theological systems.  This work is parallel in the reformed tradition to Louis Berkhof’s systematic theology.

Other volumes useful to being introduced to Lutheranism are by Chytraeus (1500’s), Jacobs (1800’s), and Voigt (1900’s).  For something that is contemporary and readable, but not small (793 pp.), try Lyle Lange’s God So Loved the World: A Study of Christian Doctrine (2005).  The Lutheran pastor, Rev. Jordan Cooper, says of it:

‘This book is extensive in its treatment, but written in a simple style, without extensive academic theological terminology.  This is, in my opinion, the best modern one volume treatment of systematic theology.’

Next, to hear what the older Lutheran writers had to say, open up Schmid’s Doctrinal Theology (1875).  It is an anthology of extended quotes from the older orthodox Lutheran theologians laid out in systematic form.  This is the classic textbook of Lutheran primary sources.

Then, to go further, buy Pieper’s 4 volume Christian Dogmatics (1924).  This massive and nearly exhaustive defense of orthodox Lutheranism will give you the most detailed Biblical and systematic arguments for the Lutheran positions and interpretations.  It is akin to the systematic theologies of Herman Bavink and Francis Turretin on the reformed side.  It is the most accessible definitive work of Lutheranism that has been translated into English.

Relatively few of the older Lutherans have been translated into English (most of them wrote in German and Latin).  The ones that are available in English online (besides the lengthy and numerous excerpts translated in Schmid’s work) are Hutter and Baier.  Melanchthon, Chemnitz, Gerhard, Quenstedt and some of the others can be purchased in print in English.  Open them up and see what they have to say.

While, you are reading all of this, be sure to carefully peruse Richard Muller’s Dictionary of Latin & Greek Theological Terms  Buy  (1985).  Muller, one of the world’s leading reformed historians, gives and precisely defines the primary theological terms and categories used during the 1500’s and 1600’s by Lutheran and Reformed theologians.  These very careful and impartial definitions are useful not only to clearly understanding the theological issues, but also in order to precisely understand where the point of difference lies between Lutheran theology and Reformed theology.

To understand why Reformed theology, after much thought, reflection and Biblical exegesis, still disagrees with their Lutheran brethren after fully hearing their case, see some of our recommended reformed Systematic Theologies.

Most of the authorities below were collected from the appended annotated bibliography of Schmid’s work and the recommendations of the Lutheran, Rev. Jordan Cooper.  See both of those articles for more background info on the authors and evaluations of their works.

Please enjoy.



Order of Theologians


Luther, Martin
Hamilton, Patrick
Melanchthon, Philip
Rhegius, Urbanus
Sarcerius, Erasmus
Spangenberg, Johann
Chytraeus, David
Hemmingsen, Niels
Chemnitz, Martin
Selnecker, Nicholas


Hafenreffer, Matthew
Hunnius, Aegidius
Hutter, Leonard
Gerhard, John
Gerhard, John Ernest
Arndt, Johann
Hunnius, Nikolaus
Brochmann, Caspar
Calovius, Abraham
Koenig, John
Binchius, Johannes
Scherzer, John
Quenstedt, John
Baier, John
von Pufendorf, Samuel
Breithaupt, Joachim
Nakskow, Petrus
Bechmann, Frederick
Pfeiffer, August


Hollaz, David
Buddeus, Johann
Pontoppidan, Erik


Knapp, Georg
Lohe, Johann
Krauth, Charles
Schmid, Heinrich
Luthardt, Christoph
Dorner, Isaak
Jacobs, Henry
Weidner, Revere


Voigt, Andrew
Lindberg, Conrad
Pieper, Francis
Stump, Joseph
Mueller, John
Muller, Richard
Preus, Robert
Hoenecke, Adolph

Since 2000

Lange, Lyle
Confessional Lutheran Dogmatics




Luther, Martin

95 Theses  1517

The Bondage of the Will  Buy  1525  trans. Henry Cole.  Various translations are available, the modern one by Johnston and Packer is the best.

This is not a complete systematic theology; it only covers soteriology, but it is Luther’s most systematic work.  Contrary to later Lutheranism (influenced by Melanchthon), Luther was very calvinistic, as is demonstrated throughout this book. 

Works, vols. 1-30 (Expositions of Scripture)  Buy  vols. 31-55 (Everything else)  Buy

Hamilton, Patrick  1504-1528

Diverse Fruitful Gatherings of Scripture and Declaring of Faith and Works of the Law

Hamilton was a proto-reformer and martyr in Scotland, being very much influenced by Luther’s teaching.  See Wiki.

A Most Excellent and Fruitful Treatise, called Patrick’s Places concerning the Doctrine of Faith, and the Doctrine of the Law: which being known, you have the pith of all divinity. With a brief collection or exposition of a sum of St. Paul’s doctrine touching Justification by Faith, in Jesus Christ: which is the only mark to shoot at, and the only means to obtain salvation  1598

Melanchthon, Philip  

Theological Common Places  Buy  1521

Melanchthon was something of the second-hand, younger man to Luther, though he was an independent theologian in his own right.  He greatly swayed the shape of Lutheran theology after him.

‘The foundation of Lutheran Systematic Theology…’ – H. Schmid

‘…the first Protestant dogmatics, as it is sometimes called, represents the work of a young man writing at the very beginning of the Lutheran Reformation.’ – W. Pauck

A Godly and Learned Assertion in Defense of the True Church of God, and of His Word  1541  

A Weighing and Considering of the Interim  1548

”Interim’ is a book which was at ye Emperour’s Majesty’s commandment, printed and put forth about the beginning of June in this year of our Savior’s birth, 1548, wherein is commanded that all the cities in Dutchland [Germany] that have received the Word of God and made a change of ceremonies according to the Word, shall reform their churches again and turn to the old popish ordinances, as a dog does to that he has spewed out, or a washen swine to the mire.’

The Justification of Man by Faith Only, and An Apology or Defense of the Word of God, declaring what a necessary thing it is [the Word of God] to be in all men’s hands, the want where of is the only cause of all ungodliness committed through the whole earth  ToC  1548

A Civil Nosgay [a bouquet of flowers], wherein is contained not only the office and duty of all magistrates and judges but also of all subjects, with a preface concerning the liberty of justice in this our time  1550

Rhegius, Urbanus

Formulae quaedam caute et citra scandalum loquendi de praecipuis Christianae doctrinae locis  1535/1658

Published before the death of Luther, this work was widely used beyond Germany.

An Instruction of Christian Faith how to be bold up on the promise of God and not to doubt of our Salvation  ToC  1548

A Declaration of the Twelve Articles of the Christian Faith with Annotations of the Holy Scripture, where they be grounded in.  And the right foundation and principal common places of the whole godly scripture  ToC  1548

A Necessary Instruction of Christian Faith and Hope for Christians to hold fast, and to be bold up on the promise of God, and not to doubt of their salvation in Christ  1579

Sarcerius, Erasmus – Common Places of Scripture Orderly and after a Compendious Form of Teaching  1538

Published before the death of Luther, this work was widely used beyond Germany.

Spangenberg, Johann

The Sum of Divinity Drawn out of the Holy Scripture  ToC  1548

Margarita Theologica Continens Praecipuos Locos Doctrinae Christianae, per Quaestiones, Breuiter & Ordine Explicatos  1557

Chytraeus, David 

Catechesis  1555/88

“A work modeled on Melanchthon’s Loci…” – Richard Muller

De Studio Theologiae Recte Inchoando  1561

A Summary of the Christian Faith  Buy  1568

‘Originally intended for the advanced instruction of young people…  Chytraeus (1531–1600), one of the authors of the Formula of Concord, ranks as one of the most significant Lutheran theologians of 16th century.  His Summary is not marked by the various synodical concerns of later lay dogmatics; it is truly what it claims to be: A Summary of the Christian Faith… Chytraeus’ Summary is one of the earliest examples of a Lutheran dogmatics following the loci model first set forth by Philip Melanchthon in 1521.  Unlike Chemnitz’s more extensive Loci Theologici, Chytraeus’ Summary was written for a lay audience.

The work consists of 10 chapters: (1) God, (2) Creation, (3) The Law of God, (4) On Sin, (5) On the Remission of Sins, (6) On the New Obedience, (7) On the Sacrament, (8) On Repentance, (9) On the Church, (10) On the Immortality of the Church, the Resurrection, and Eternal Life.  Chytraeus’ “Brief Explanation” of the Lord’s Prayer is also appended to the Summary.‘ – Repristination Press

On Sacrifice  Buy  1569

“Chytraeus’ work offers a biblical study of the concept of sacrifice, beginning with the Old Testament sacrifices and continuing with Christ’s sacrifice and finally explaining the nature of the eucharistic sacrifices of Christians [in the Lord’s Supper].” – Repristination Press

Hemmingsen, Niels

Enchiridion Theologicum Præcipva Veræ Religionis Capita Breviter et Simpliciter explicata continens  1557

The Way of Life, a Christian and Catholic Institution Comprehending Principal Points of Christian Religion, which are necessary to be known of all men, to the attaining of salvation  1578

Chemnitz, Martin

Theological Places, 2 vols.  Buy  1591  The version for sale is in English though the title, Loci Theologici, is in Latin.  See the Amazon ‘Look Inside’ feature for the Table of Contents. 

Chemnitz (1522-1586) was one of the authors of the Formula of Concord.

“Chemnitz… known also as Lutheranism’s ‘second Martin’, defined by his writings and labors for second-generation Lutherans the heart and substance of Lutheran theology.” – Robert L. Reymond

“Gerhard frequently refers to him as ‘the incomparable theologian;’ Quenstedt styles him, ‘without doubt the prince of the theologians of the Augsburg Confession;’ and Buddeus, ‘that great theologian of our Church whom no one will refuse to assign the chief place after Luther among the defenders of the Gospel truth.’  His Loci Theologici (1591) is a commentary upon the Loci Communes of his teacher, Melachthon, the outgrowth of theological lectures begun at Wittenberg…” – H. Schmid

The Two Natures of Christ  Buy  1570

The Lord’s Supper  Buy  1560

The Lord’s Prayer  Buy

Justification  Buy

Examination of the Council of Trent  Buy  1565-73

‘The Examen Concilli Tridentini… is the ablest defense of Protestantism ever published.’ – H. Schmid

Church Order  Buy

Apology [Defense] of the Book of Concord  Buy  

Selnecker, Nicholas  

Institutes of the Christian Religion  1563

Selnecker was one of the authors of the Formula of Concord.  This work ‘introduced the practice of prefacing works on systematic theology with prolegomena [discussion of introductory issues].’ (H. Schmid)

Of the Supper  1561

An Exegesis of the Personal Union [of the 2 natures of Christ]  1571

Neander, Michael

In Latin

The Christian Theology of Sacred Scripture & the Greek and Latin Fathers in the Greek & Latin Script, also with the Sayings & Testimonies of Luther Illustrated and Exposited  (Leipzig, 1595)

Neander (1529-81) was a German teacher, mathematician, medical academic and astronomer.  The crater Neander on the Moon is named after him.




Hafenreffer, Matthew – Theological Places, or a Compendium of Theology  1600

‘His chief work… was especially esteemed in Wurtenburg, Sweden, and Denmark, where it was generally used as a text-book.’ – H. Schmid

Hunnius, Aegidius –  Theses Opposed to Huberianism: A Defense of the Lutheran Doctrine of Justification  Buy  d. 1603  72 pp. 

‘Aegidius Hunnius (1550–1603) was among the “Champions of Lutheran Orthodoxy” who served on the faculty of the University of Wittenberg and was one of the early signers of the Formula of Concord…  In this work, Hunnius contends with the theology of Samuel Huber (1547–1624), a former Calvinist who was called to the University of Wittenberg in 1592. After arriving in Wittenberg, Huber introduced his own novel terminology and theology which put him at odds with the Formula of Concord and his fellow professors. Huber made the situation worse by accusing his colleagues of Calvinism when they did not assent to his theological opinions. 

In this book, Hunnius refutes Huber’s errors regarding the doctrine of justification; as Hunnius wrote in the dedication to this work, “we propose … not only to wash away the charges he has made, but especially to refute his shameful errors concerning the eternal election and predestination to eternal life, not only of the children of God, but also of the children of the devil (that is, all the impenitent); similarly, his errors concerning the universal justification of all men—of unbelievers no less than believers; concerning also the regeneration of hypocrites in Baptism, which is said to be conferred on them in that very act of treachery and impiety.” – Repristination Press

Hutter, Leonard 

Compend of Lutheran Theology : a Summary of Christian Doctrine, derived from the Word of God and the symbolical books of the Evangelical Lutheran Church  1610  266 pp.

‘His best known work… for nearly a century almost universally used as a text-book in the Church-schools of Germany.   It… has formed the basis of at least seven commentaries [see Bechmann, 1696, below for an example].  It is characterized by conciseness, precision, and almost entire reliance upon the Symbolical Books and the older theologians (Chemnitz, Aegidius Hunnius) for its definitions.’ – H. Schmid  

Theological Common Places  1619

‘His posthumous work… is a development of the Compendium, or a commentary upon it.  See Preface to English translation of the Compendium for further details.’ – H. Schmid

Gerhard, John   

Theological Places  Buy  1621

Gerhard was a pupil of Hutter.  He ‘combined rare learning, great acuteness, wonderful industry, sound judgment, and practical ability with ardent piety.’ – Luthardt

‘Gerhard’s advance beyond Chemnitz and Hutter consists not so much in a more systematic arrangement, or in a deeper speculative basis for his doctrines, or a more subtle formal development of them, as in an erudite thoroughness, transparent clearness, and comprehensiveness.’ – Tholuck

‘Some indeed, accuse him of re-introducing scholastic theology into the Church, as the treatment of his Loci Theologici is after the scholastic mode; yet the same persons must admit that he was more cautious than those who followed him, and that he was careful not to mingle philosophy with theology…’ – Buddeus

‘…of all the Protestants, shedding the greatest light upon the arguments on which he touched… Bellarmine [a Roman Catholic apologist] had no adversary more to be dreaded than Gerhard.’ – Du Pin (a Roman Catholic)

‘Bossuet is said to be the author of the often-quoted remark that Gerhard is the third (Luther, Chemnitz, Gerhard) in that series of Lutheran theologians in which there is no fourth.’ – H. Schmid

A Comprehensive Explanation of Holy Baptism and the Lord’s Supper  Buy  1610

Annotations on the First Six Chapters of St. Paul’s Epistle to the Romans  Buy  n.d.

An Explanation of the History of the Suffering and Death of our Lord Jesus Christ  Buy  1622

Gerhard’s concern as a theologian was, above all, pastoral… ‘An Explanation’ leads the reader through many types and prophecies in the Old Testament pointing forward to Christ’s suffering and death.  The work is divided into two introductory sermons and five ‘acts’ (I. In the Garden, II. At the Home of Caiaphas, III. Before Pilate, IV. Christ’s Crucifixion, and V. Christ’s Burial) for a total of 24 sermons.‘ – Repristination Press

A Golden Chain of Divine Aphorisms  1632  389 pp.

These aphorisms over most of the topics of systematic theology.

Sacred Meditations  Buy  1606  302 pp.

‘Johann Gerhard is widely-recognized as having been the 17th century’s greatest Lutheran theologian.  In addition to his many weighty theological tomes, Gerhard was renowned as an author of devotional materials, the most popular of which was his ‘Sacred Meditations’ (1606).  Gerhard’s 51 meditations are among the most profound devotional material ever produced within the Church, leading the reader through most of the articles of Christian doctrine.’ – Repristination Press

Gerhard’s Prayers, or, a Daily Practice of Piety  Buy  1638

Gerhard, John Ernest  

Isagoge of Theological Places  

This Gerhard was the son of the previous John Gerhard.  His work ‘is a very full and satisfactory compendium of his father’s great work.’ (H. Schmid) 

Confessio Catholica 

‘The Confessio Catholica, showing the harmony of the Lutheran Church with the purer Church of all ages, and the Harmony of the Gospels, begun by Chemnitz, continued by Lyser, and completed by Gerhard, also contain valuable material belonging to the department of Dogmatics.’ – H. Schmid

Calixt, George

In Latin

Epitome of Theology  (1619; Helmestad, 1661)

Epitome of Moral Theology, Part 1  (1634; Helmestad, 1662)  We have not been able to find Part 2, if it was ever published

Calixt (1586-1656) was a German, Lutheran syncretist, desiring to remove all unimportant differences and unify all Christendom (including Romanism) around the Apostles’ Creed.  He remained a professor of theology at the University of Helmstedt till his death. 

Arndt, Johann – True Christianity: a Treatise on Sincere Repentance, True Faith, the Holy Walk of the True Christian  d. 1625  558 pp.

‘Arndt here dwells upon the mystical union between the believer and Christ, and endeavors, by drawing attention to Christ’s life in His people, to correct the purely forensic side of the reformation theology, which paid almost exclusive attention to Christ’s death for His people.

Arndt has always been held in very high repute by the German Pietists. The founder of Pietism, Philipp Jakob Spener, repeatedly called attention to him and his writings…  So important was Arndt’s influence on the early Pietists that some scholars have even called him the true founder of the movement.’ – Wiki

Hunnius, Nikolaus – Diaskepsis Theologica: A Theological Examination of the Fundamental Difference between Evangelical Lutheran Doctrine and Calvinist or Reformed Teaching  Buy  1626

‘Hunnius’ Diaskepsis Theologica was profoundly influential in the formation of Lutheran dogmatics.  In an age when Calvinists were attempting to convince Lutherans that there were no church-divisive doctrinal differences between the two confessions, Hunnius set out to refute the unionistic efforts of the Reformed.’ – Repristination Press

Brochmann, Caspar 

In Latin

A System of Universal Theology, vol. 1, 2  1633/58  Index of subjects for both volumes

Brochmann (1585-1652) was a Danish, Lutheran theologian and a professor of theology at Copenhagen.

Calovius, Abraham

In Latin

A System of Theological Places, vol. 1 (Proleg), 2 (God), 3 (Trinity, Creation, Proidence), 4 (Angels, Evil, Image, Free-Will), 5-6 (Sin, Law, Good Works, OT & NT), 7 (Christ: Person, Office, States), 8 (Church, Family, State), 9 (Word of God, Sacraments), 10 (Ordo Salutis, Predestination), 11 (Decalogue), 12 (Last Things)  (Wittenberg, 1655-77)  This set is complete, but is comprised of 3 different editions.

On Calov, see Timothy Schmeling, ‘Strenus Christ Athleta: Abraham Calov (1612-1686): Sainted Doctor and Defender of the Church’ in  Lutheran Synod Quarterly, 44:4 (Dec. 2004). 

“The most voluminous of our theologians, distinguished by his wonderful industry, untiring zeal in controversy, unyielding firmness and severity, vast and varied learning, and critical power of the first rank.  He represents the strictest school of orthodoxy, and wrote on all departments of theological science.” – H. Schmid

Introduction to Sacred Scripture, in Two Books: of the Nature of Theology, the Method of Theological Study, Piety, Dextre, and How I May Find Blessedness, with an Examination of the Method of Calixt  (Wittenberg, 1666)

Koenig, John Frederick – Theologia Positiva Acroamatica  1664 

‘His compend of theology… was widely used as a text-book.  It differs from Hutter’s work, in being scientific rather than popular.’ – H. Schmid

‘The author comprehended much in a few words and nervously; but by an excessive desire of brevity and accuracy, produced a mere skeleton, destitute of all sap and blood.’ – Buddeus

Binchius, Johannes

In Latin

Honey-Sweet Theology, vol. 1 (Scripture, God, Trinity), 2 (Creation-Free-Will), 3 (OT, NT, Law, Gospel), 4 (Repentance, Justification, Renovation, Good Works, Church), 5 (Ministry-Eternal Life)  (Amsterdam, 1658)

“Comprises the marrow of the orthodox writers of his day.” – Howard Malcom

Scherzer, John Adam

A Brief Theology  1678

System of Theology: 29 Absolute Definitions  1680

Quenstedt, John Andrew

Didactic [Instructive] and Polemical [Controversial] Theology  Buy  1685  

Quenstedt was the nephew of John Gerhard.  ‘His Theologia Didactico-Polemica (1685), because of its exhaustive collection and its accurate classification of dogmatic material, is one of the most important works of Lutheran theology.  It possesses little originality and follows closely the outline of Koenig, but manifests the greatest erudition in its citations of authorities, and skill in rendering the work of reference easy.  From this characteristic, its author is often styled the ‘book-keeper’ of the Wittenberg Orthodoxy, and is conceded to be ‘next to Gerhard the most  instructive representative of the Orthodox Dogmatik.’ (Luthardt)  The objection, however, is often presented against Quenstedt, that his excessive attention to the details of his system has deprived Dogmatic theology of its life, by reducing its doctrines to the shape of mathematical formulae.’ – H. Schmid

The Church  Buy  1685, 154 pp.  being Part 4, Ch. 15 of his Didactic and Polemical Theology

‘Quenstedt offers clarity and a crucial exposition of Lutheran teaching concerning the nature of the Church.  Quenstedt’s explanation of the marks of the Church, the attributes of the Church, the role of Church Councils, the visibility and invisibility of the Church, etc. are required reading in an age of ‘mega’ churches, ‘meta’ church, and the Church Growth Movement.  In the words of Dr. Robert Preus: ‘There is no question that after the Loci Theologici of Chemnitz and Gerhard (who was his uncle) the Systema of Quenstedt ranks as the greatest dogmatics book ever written by a Lutheran.” – Repristination Press

Baier, John William – Compendium of Positive Theology  1685

‘The Compendium Theologiae Positivae (1685), is largely, as its title indicates, a compend of the theology of Musaeus (Baier’s father-in-law, born 1613, professor at Jena, died 1681), and ‘many other orthodox theologians.’  A accurate acquaintance with the history of the controversies of the preceding periods, is a necessary prerequisite to the successful study of this much valued and widely received text-book.’ – H. Schmid

‘…great completeness combined with compact brevity, exclusion of all extraneous material, exquisite selection, and, above all, accurate exegesis of scriptural proof-passages, critical comparison, and employment of the labors of his predecessors within the department of dogmatics, and, in addition to Lutheran fidelity in doctrine, the expression of a living heart faith, and of a mild, pious sensibility.’ – Professor Walther

von Pufendorf, Samuel  1632-1694

The Divine Feudal Law: or, Covenants with Mankind, Represented. Together with means for the uniting of Protestants. In which also the Principles of the Lutheran Churches are Stated and Defended  365 pp.

Of the Nature and Qualification of Religion, in Reference to Civil Society

Of the Law of Nature and Nations

The Whole Duty of Man according to the Law of Nature

Breithaupt, Joachim Just

In Latin

Theological Instructions in Two Books, the First: What ought to be Believed, or Articles of Faith; the Second: What Ought to be Done, or Morals…  (Zeitleri, 1694)

Breithaupt (1658-1732) was a German, Lutheran theologian, preacher and hymn writer .

Nakskow, Petrus –  The Articles of Faith of the Holy Evangelical Church: According to the Word of God and the Ausburg Confession  d. 1695  468 pp.

Bechmann, Frederick 

Rich Annotations on the Compendium of Theology by Leonard Hutter  1696

Polemical [Controversial] Theology  1702

Theological Institutes  1706

Annotations on Dieterich’s Catechetical Institutes  1707

Pfeiffer, August – Anti-Calvinism  d. 1698  458 pp.




Hollaz, David 

Examen Theologicum Acroamaticum  1707

‘His Examen… recapitulates with great clearness and compactness the results attained by his predecessors, under the form of questions and answers.  It is ‘especially happy in its definitions,’ but in addition to some of the faults of the scholasticism of Quenstedt, it possesses already some of the characteristics of the succeeding period.’ – H. Schmid

The Order of Evangelical Grace in the Economy of Salvation, 4 Dialogues upon matters of the highest importance  

Buddeus, Johann Franz

In Latin

Instructions in Dogmatic Theology, Illustrated in Various Observations  (Frankofurt & Leipzig,1741)

Buddeus (1667-1729) was a German professor of ethics at Halle and a professor of theology at Jena.

Instructions in Moral Theology, Illustrated in Various Observations  (Leipzig, 1727)

Pontoppidan, Erik – Explanation of Luther’s Small Catechism  d. 1764  128 pp.

The Danish Pontoppidan was involved in the Pietist tradition.  See Wiki.




Knapp, Georg – Lectures on Christian Theology  1825

Knapp was a professor of theology in the Lutheran pietist tradition.  See Wiki.

Schmucker, S.S. – Elements of Popular Theology, with Special Reference to the Doctrines of the Reformation as Avowed Before the Diet at Augsburg in 1530  1834

Schmucker (February 28, 1799 – July 26, 1873).  This work is laid out like a systematic theology.  Schmucker, as might be inferred from the title, argues that Christians, and Lutherans in specific, ought not to be bound by the Augsburg Confession, or any other detailed confession, but only the fundamentals of Christianity.

While it is true that membership in Christ’s Church ought to be founded on a credible profession of faith, including belief in the fundamentals of Christianity, it is an error to believe that, thus, the teachers of the Church need only to hold and teach the fundamental articles of Christianity.  Rather the obligation that Scripture lays upon elders of the Church is that they are able to teach the whole counsel of God, refute false teachings, and build up the saints in knowledge to a mature stature in Christ (which goes beyond the simple milk of the fundamentals).

Lohe, Johann – Aphorisms On the New Testament Offices and their Relationship to the Congregation—On the Question of Church’s Polity  Buy  1849  99 pp.  

‘The 1849 and 1851 Aphorisms constitute Löhe’s two most significant detailed studies on the Office of the Holy Ministry…    Löhe’s substantial involvement in ministry and mission in the North America (including founding Concordia Theological Seminary-Fort Wayne, and providing support for American missions) highlight the importance of his thought for confessional Lutherans.’ – Repristination Press

Krauth, Charles 

The Conservative Reformation and its Theology as Represented in the Augsburg Confession, and in the History and Literature of the Evangelical Lutheran Church  1871  870 pp.

For Krauth’s life, see Wiki.

Infant Baptism and Infant Salvation in the Calvinistic System, a Review of Dr. Hodge’s Systematic Theology  1874  79 pp.

Schmid, Heinrich – Doctrinal Theology of the Evangelical Lutheran Church  Buy    1875  690 pp.   

This is an anthology of extended quotes from the older Lutheran writers (mostly on this webpage) organized in systematic fashion, akin to what Heinrich Heppe did for the older reformed writers in his Reformed Dogmatics.  Most of what Schmid translated from the older Lutherans cannot be found anywhere else in English.   This is the place to go for reading historic, orthodox Lutheranism.

Luthardt, Christoph  d. 1902

Kompendium der Dogmatik  1865  425 pp.

For Luthardt’s life, see Wiki.

Apologetic Lectures on the Moral Truths of Christianity  1872  435 pp.

History of Christian Ethics Before the Reformation  1889  444 p.

Dorner, Isaac 

A System of Christian Doctrine, vols. 1, 2, 3, 4

Dorner was a ‘mediating’ theologian, that is, not fully confessional and orthodox, but was very important for his work in historical theology.  See Wiki for his life.

History of Protestant Theology, Particularly in Germany, viewed according to its fundamental movement and in connection with the religious, moral, and intellectual life, vols. 1  1871

History of the Development of the Doctrine of the Person of Christ, vols. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5

Jacobs, Henry 

Elements of Religion  Buy  1894  255 pp.

‘This volume is comparable to Voigt [1916].  It consists of short chapters on each major theological topic.’ – Rev. Jordan Cooper

‘…’Elements of Religion’ was written by Dr. Henry E. Jacobs (1844–1932) as a one volume introduction to dogmatic theology.  Jacobs was Norton Professor of Systematic Theology at the Lutheran Theological Seminary in Philadelphia, and he is still well-known within the Evangelical Lutheran Church for his translation of ‘The Book of Concord’ and his ‘History of the Lutheran Church in the United States.” – Repristination Press

A Summary of the Christian Faith  1905  660 pp.

‘This is Jacobs’ second work of systematic theology.  It’s a lot more in-depth than ‘Elements of Religion’, and its written in a catechetical question and answer format.’ – Rev. Jordan Cooper

Weidner, Revere Franklin  d. 1915

Theological Encyclopedia and Methodology, vols. 1, 2  1898

‘Weidner is one of the greatest systematicians of the nineteenth century. He released several volumes on systematic theology, though died before being able to write on the sacraments and eschatology.’ – Rev. Jordan Cooper

An Introduction to Dogmatic Theology, based on Luthardt  1888

Theologia, or the Doctrine of God, outline notes based on Luthardt  1902

A System of Christian Ethics, based on Martensen and Harless  1891

Ecclessiologia, or the Doctrine of the Church, outline notes based on Luthardt  1903

Pneumatlogy, or the Doctrine of the Work of the Holy Spirit, outline notes based on Luthardt and Krauth  1915

Biblical Theology of the Old Testament, based on Oehler  1896

Biblical Theology of the New Testament  1891




Voigt, Andrew – Biblical Dogmatics  1916

‘Basic – This is a great introductory book.  It’s very short, and yet quite comprehensive for its size.  This book is a summary of Voigt’s systematic theology lectures.’ – Rev. Jordan Cooper

Lindberg, Conrad – Christian Dogmatics and Notes on the History of Dogma  1922  616 pp.

‘Lindberg’s book is not long, but packs a lot of theology into each chapter. This work is heavy on the use of latin, and is largely a repristination of seventeenth century dogmatics.’ – Rev. Jordan Cooper

Pieper, Francis 

Christian Dogmatics, vol. 1 (Prolegomena, God, Creation, Providence, Angels, Man), 2 (Grace, Christ, Application of Salvation), 3 (Sanctification, Perseverance, Means of Grace, Law & Gospel, Baptism, Supper, Church, Ministry, Eternal Election, Last Things), 4 (Index)  Buy  (1917-1924; Concordia, 1950)  ToC 1, 2, 3

Pieper’s massive, detailed and definitive work of orthodox Lutheran theology is something akin to Francis Turretin’s and Herman Bavinck’s systematic theologies on the Reformed side.  This work is standard amongst the seminaries of the Lutheran Missouri Synod.

The Pieper Lectures  Buy

Stump, Joseph – The Christian Faith, a System of Christian Dogmatics  Buy  1932  462 pp.

‘This is a single volume which is quite comprehensive yet highly readable. It’s highly indebted to Lutheran scholasticism.’ – Rev. Jordan Cooper

Mueller, John – Christian Dogmatics  Buy  1934  687 pp.

Mueller’s work is a one volume synopsis of Pieper’s.  This is the first Lutheran dogmatic that one should buy.  It gives all the major historic, theological categories of orthodox Lutheranism, and in this respect, and in many others, is akin to Louis Berkhof’s systematic theology on the Reformed side.

Muller, Richard – Dictionary of Latin and Greek Theological Terms  Buy  1985  337 pp. 

Muller is one of the world’s leading reformed historians.  Here he gives a dictionary of the primary theological terms and categories used during the 1500’s and 1600’s by Lutheran and Reformed theologians.  These very careful and impartial definitions are useful not only to clearly understanding the theological issues, but also in order to precisely understand where the point of difference lies between Lutheran theology and Reformed theology. 

Preus, Robert   1924-1995

The Theology of Post-Reformation Lutheranism, 2 vols.  Buy

For the life of Preus, see Wiki.  See here for a bibliography of Preus’ writings.

Getting into the Theology of Concord: A Study of the Book of Concord  Buy

Justification as Taught by Post-Reformation Lutheran Theologians  n.d.  20 pp.

Justification and Rome  Buy

The Inspiration of Scripture: a Study of the Theology of the 17th Century Lutheran Dogmaticians  Buy

Doctrine is Life: The Essays of Robert D. Preus on Scripture  Buy

Doctrine is Life: The Essays of Robert D. Preus on Justification and the Lutheran Confessions  Buy

The Doctrine of the Call in the Confessions and Lutheran Orthodoxy  Buy

Luther: Word, Doctrine and Confession  HTML

Hoenecke, Adolph – Evangelical Lutheran Dogmatics  Buy  1999

‘This series is about the same size as Pieper, consisting of four volumes. It’s written by the greatest theologian to come from the Wisconsin Synod [which is to the right of the Missouri Synod], and is very thorough and scholastic in its treatment.  This is my personal favorite multi-volume systematic available in English.’ – Rev. Jordan Cooper



Since 2000

Lange, Lyle – God So Loved the World: A Study of Christian Doctrine  Buy  2005

‘This book is extensive in its treatment, but written in a simple style, without extensive academic theological terminology.  This is, in my opinion, the best modern one volume treatment of systematic theology.’ – Rev. Jordan Cooper

Various – Confessional Lutheran Dogmatics, various volumes  Buy  2015  including volumes on: Law and Gospel and the Means of Grace, Baptism, Christology, The Church and her Fellowship, Ministry and Governance, The Lord’s Supper, and Eschatology




Related Pages

Systematic Theologies

Every Reformed Systematic Theology Online


The Sacraments

The Decrees of God