“And a superscription also was written over Him in letters of Greek… ‘This Is The King Of The Jews.'”
“And as Paul was to be led into the castle, he said unto the chief captain, ‘May I speak unto thee?’ Who said, ‘Canst thou speak Greek?'”
Pronunciation, Accents, Ligatures
Order of Contents
. Beginner 10+
. Intermediate 16+
. Verbal Aspects 4
. Morphology 4
Medieval & Early Modern 3
Scripture Index 1
Classical Greek Grammars
Camden, William – A Greek Grammar for the Use of Westminster School (1595; London: Ginger, 1833) 170 pp. no ToC
Camden (1551-1623) was an English antiquarian, historian, topographer, and herald, best known as author of Britannia, the first chorographical survey of the islands of Great Britain and Ireland, and the Annales, the first detailed historical account of the reign of Elizabeth I of England.
According to Wikipedia, this Greek grammar “remained a standard school textbook for over a century.” See also on Westminster School.
Bullions, Peter – The Principles of Greek Grammar, comprising the Substance of the Most Approved Greek Grammars Extant for the Use of Schools & Colleges 20th ed. rev. (NY: Pratt, 1851) Index Ligatures
Goodell, Thomas D. – A School Grammar of Attic Greek (NY: Appleton, 1902) 345 pp. ToC
Kaegi, Adolph – A Short Grammar of Classical Greek… for Highschools, Academies & Colleges trans. James A. Kleist 10th ed. (St. Louis: Herder, 1914) 270 pp. no ToC
Pharr, Clyde – Homeric Greek: a Book for Beginners (Heath, 1920) 425 pp. ToC
Funk, Robert W. – A Beginning-Intermediate Grammar of Hellenistic Greek, vol. 1 2nd ed. (Sight, Sound, Nominal, Verbal System), 2 (Syntax), 3 (Appendices, Paradigms, Index) (Scholars Press, 1982) ToC 1, 2, 3
* Jones, Peter – Learn Ancient Greek (London: Bloomsbury, 1998) 215 pp. ToC
* Morwood, James – The Oxford Grammar of Classical Greek (Oxford University Press, 2002) 275 pp. ToC
Intermediate to Advanced
Matthiae, Augustus – A Copious Greek Grammar, vols. 1, 2 trans. Edward Blomfield 5th ed. rev. John Kenrick (London: John Murray, 1832) no ToC
* Buttmann, Phillip – Intermediate or Larger Greek Grammar trans. ed. Charles Supf. 3rd ed. (London: Whittaker, 1848) 500 pp. ToC
Goodwin, William W. – Syntax of the Moods & Tenses of the Greek Verb (London: 1889) HTML
Goodwin was a professor of Greek at Harvard; this was his masterpiece.
“The grammar has a simple basic structure: apart from the two chapters on the use of the tenses and on the use of the moods there are separate chapters on the infinitive, the participle, the particle ἄν and the verbal adjectives on -τέος (-τέον)… Although the focus is on classical Greek, Homeric Greek is discussed as well.”
Goodwin, William W. – A Greek Grammar rev. (Boston: Ginn, 1900) 475 pp. ToC
This is “an expanded version of his ‘Elementary Greek Grammar, published in 1870, [and] is influenced by his more scholarly masterpiece ”Syntax of the Moods and Tenses of the Greek Verb”, but remains essentially a handbook for students, in spite of its 470 pages. It is very complete, covering phonology, word formation, morphology, syntax as well as versification, and focuses on Attic Greek.”
Gildersleeve, Basil L. – Syntax of Classical Greek (NY: 1900) HTML
“…this syntax is especially fit for advanced students and scholars. Also, it is noticeable for its numerous original examples.”
* Smyth, Herbert Weir – Greek Grammar rev. Gordon Messing (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1956) 805 pp. ToC Author Index Biblio
Rydberg-Cox, Jeffrey A. – Overview of Greek Syntax (2000)
This grammar was written for online use and is very easy to navigate online. One can navigate the material in various ways through using the “View Text” box on the left.
“…contains a short description of the elements of Greek Syntax that most students will encounter in first and second year Greek. It lists the various uses of the cases, the tenses, the voices and the moods.”
Pedalion (2016) HTML “Pedalion” means “rudder”.
Pedalion is a modular grammar, especially devoted to syntax.
The Pedalion project set out to develop a tool enabling students in Leuven to navigate efficiently through the syntax of Ancient Greek, inspired by the blended learning approach. The course material consists, among other things, of a dynamically consultable syntax and online exercises, aimed at training both morphology and syntax.
* Boas, Rijksbaron, Huitink, de Bakker – The Cambridge Grammar of Classical Greek Pre (Cambridge University Press, 2019) 790 pp. ToC
* Palmer, Darryl – Intermediate Ancient Greek Language (Canberra: ANU Press, 2021) 402 pp.
“…a series of Lessons and Exercises intended for students who have already covered most of an introductory course in the ancient Greek language. It aims to broaden and deepen students’ understanding of the main grammatical constructions of Greek. Further attention is given to grammatical forms to illustrate their functions. In the Lessons, tragedy, comedy, historiography, oratory and philosophy are sources for dramatic material… Throughout the book, the author relies on genuine Greek sources for the passages in the Lessons and Exercises.”
On the Grammar of the Septuagint
Fresch, Christopher J. – “The Septuagint & Discourse Grammar” in The T&T Clark Handbook of Septuagint Research Pre (T&T Clark, 2021), pp. 79-93
Conybeare, F.C. & St. George Stock – A Grammar of Septuagint Greek (1905; Zondervan, 1980) 75 pp. ToC
This only concisely highlights the unique characteristics of the grammar of the Septuagint. For a more positive and fuller presentation of its grammar, see those below.
eds. Conybeare & St. George Stock – Grammar of Septuagint Greek ToC in Selections from the Septuagint, according to the Text of Swete in College Series of Greek Authors (Boston: Ginn, 1905), pp. 25-97
Thackeray, Henry St. John – A Grammar of the Old Testament in Greek according to the Septuagint, vol. 1 (Intro, Orthography, Accidence), 2 (Cambridge University Press, 1909) 340 pp. ToC
Muraoka, T. – A Syntax of Septuagint Greek Ref (Peeters, 2016) 904 pp. Blurb
“This is the first ever comprehensive analysis of the morphosyntax and syntax of Septuagint Greek. The work is based on the most up-to-date editions of the Septuagint. Though this is a synchronic grammar, and though not systematic, comparison with Classical Greek, the Greek of contemporary literature of the Hellenistic-Roman period, papyri and epigraphical data, and New Testament Greek has often been undertaken.” – Blurb
New Testament Grammars: Beginner & Basic
* Strong, James – Greek in a Nutshell: an Outline of Greek Grammar with Brief Reading Lessons, Designed for Beginners in the New Testament (Nelson & Phillips, 1876)
* Machen, J. Gresham – New Testament Greek for Beginners 2nd ed. (1923; Upper Saddle River, NJ: 2004) 390 pp. ToC See also the Answers.
Machen was a founder of Westminster seminary and the Orthodox Presbyterian Church. He was also a master of Greek.
Robertson, A.T. & W. Hersey Davis – A New Short Grammar of the Greek Testament, for Students Familiar with the Elements of Greek 10th ed. (NY: Harper & Brothers, 1933) 460 pp. ToC
Greenlee, J. Harold – A Concise Exegetical Grammar of New Testament Greek (Eerdmans, 1963) 82 pp. ToC Biblio
Mills, Watson E. – New Testament Greek: an Introductory Grammar (NY: Edwin Mellen Press, 1985) 200 pp. ToC
* Mounce, William D.
Basics of Biblical Greek Grammar 3rd ed. (Zondervan, 1993) 445 pp. ToC Cheat Sheet See also the Workbook and Graded Reader.
This is a first year grammar. Mounce seeks to teach the patterns and rules of Greek endings (in contrast to sheer rote memory) so as to be able to pick up the language quicker.
Biblical Greek: a Compact Guide Pre (Zondervan, 2011) ToC
This is a second year grammar.
Swetnam, S.J., James – An Introduction to the Study of New Testament Greek, vol. 1, 2 (Morphology. Key, Lists, Paradigms, Indices) 2nd ed. Ref 1, 2 (Rome, Pontifical Biblical Institute of Rome, 1998)
* Wenham, J.W. – The Elements of New Testament Greek, based on the Earlier Work of H.P.V. Nunn (Cambridge University Press, 2001) 270 pp. ToC Here is Nunn, A Short Syntax of Attic Greek.(1948).
Gatchell, Christine – Elementary Greek: Koine for Beginners: Year Two, with Daily Lesson Plans for a 30 Week Course (Albuquerque, NM: Open Texture, 2005) 185 pp. ToC
During first year Greek one is introduced to the alphabet, pronunciation and is given a once-through of the whole gamut of grammar. In second year Greek that gamut of grammar is cemented and delved into in further depth.
Croy, N. Clayton – A Primer of Biblical Greek (Eerdmans, 2007) 280 pp. ToC
* Hewett, James A., C. Michael Robbins & Steven R. Johnson – New Testament Greek: a Beginning & Intermediate Grammar (Baker Academic, 2017) 340 pp. ToC Accents Tables
“…the text was written with the intention that a person, using the Key to Exercises to evaluate his or her exercises, could readily progress to competent exegetical studies without professorial help.” – p. xvii
New Testament or Koine Grammars: Intermediate to Advanced
Winer, George B. – A Treatise on the Grammar of New Testament Greek trans. W.F. Moulton 3rd ed. rev. (Edinburgh: T&T Clark, 1882) 880 pp. ToC
* Green, Samuel G. – Handbook to the Grammar of the Greek Testament… rev. ed. (Revell, 1885) 600 pp. ToC
* Robertson, A.T. – A Grammar of the Greek New Testament in the Light of Historical Research 4th ed. (NY: Hodder & Stoughton, 1923) 1540 pp. ToC
Robertson was a professor at Southern Baptist Theological Seminary. He accepted the Critical Texts of the New Testament.
Moule, C.F.D. – An Idiom Book of New Testament Greek (Cambrdige, University Press, 1953) 250 pp. ToC
* Moulton, James H. – A Grammar of New Testament Greek, vol. 1 (Prolegomena), 2 (Sounds, Writing, Accidence, Word Formation), 3 (Syntax) (Edinburgh: T&T Clark, 1906, 1957) ToC 1, 2, 3 Biblio There is also a fourth volume on Style (1976).
Dana, H.E. & J.R. Mantey – A Manual Grammar of the Greek New Testament (Macmillan, 1957) 380 pp. ToC
* Blass, F. & A. Debrunner – A Greek Grammar of the New Testament & Other Early Christian Literature trans. rev. Robert W. Funk (University of Chicago Press, 1961) 360 pp. ToC
Zerwick, Maximilian – Biblical Greek, Illustrated by Examples rev. Joseph Smith (Rome, 1963) 200 pp. ToC
Brooks, James A. & Carlton L. Winbery – Syntax of New Testament Greek (University Press of America, 1979) 180 pp. ToC
Chamberlain, William D. – An Exegetical Grammar of the New Testament (Baker, 1979) 250 pp. ToC Biblio
Vaughan, Curtis & Virtus E. Gideon – A Greek Grammar of the New Testament: a Workbook approach to Intermediate Grammar (Broadman Press, 1979) 230 pp. ToC
Porter, Stanley E. – Idioms of the Greek New Testament Pre (Continuum, 1992) 340 pp. Blurb
* Young, Richard A. – Intermediate New Testament Greek: a Linguistic & Exegetical Approach (Nashville, TN: Broadman & Holman, 1994) 300 pp. ToC Indices: Subject Scripture Biblio
See the back-cover.
* Wallace, Daniel – Greek Grammar Beyond the Basics: an Exegetical Syntax of the New Testament (Zondervan, 1996) 825 pp. ToC Abbr Syntax Summaries Cheat Sheet Scripture Index Abridgment
Wallace (b. 1952) has been a professor of New Testament studies at Dallas Theological Seminary. This is “the first textbook to systematically link syntax and exegesis of the New Testament for second year Greek students.” See the back-cover.
Stevens, Gerald L. – New Testament Greek Intermediate: from Morphology to Translation Pre (Cascade Books, 2008) 638 pp. ToC
* Merkle, Benjamin L. – Exegetical Gems from Biblical Greek: A Refreshing Guide to Grammar & Interpretation Pre (2019) 192 pp. ToC Blurb
“To demonstrate the insight that knowing Greek grammar can bring… Merkle… summarizes thirty-five key Greek grammatical issues and their significance for interpreting the New Testament. As Merkle presents exegetical insights from the Greek New Testament, he offers a strategic and refreshing way to review the essentials of Greek grammar.” – Blurb
* von Siebenthal, Heinrich – Ancient Greek Grammar for the Study of the New Testament (Oxford: Peter Lang, 2020) 750 pp.
“…is a tool for theologians and others interested in interpreting the Greek New Testament. It is a reference grammar that systematically covers all areas relevant to well-founded text interpretation including textgrammar. Combining accuracy with accessibility was one of the main objectives… The information it provides is based on the best of traditional and more recent research in the study of Ancient Greek and linguistic communication.
Differences between classical and non-classical usage are regularly indicated… Aiming at both a professional quality of content and user-friendly presentation, a tool was produced that aims to be of service to novices and more experienced exegetes alike.”
On Verbal Aspects, Tenses, Moods, etc. in New Testament Greek
Campbell, Constantine R. – Basics of Verbal Aspect in Biblical Greek Pre (Zondervan) 150 pp. ToC
Intermediate to Advanced
* Burton, Ernest De Witt – Sytnax of the Moods & Tenses in New Testament Greek 3rd ed. (Edinburgh: T&T Clark, 1955) 240 pp. ToC
Fanning, Buist – Verbal Aspect in New Testament Greek Ref (Oxford, 1991)
Campbell, Constantine R. – Verbal Aspect, the Indicative Mood, & Narrative: Soundings in the Greek of the New Testament Pre (NY: Peter Lang, 2007) 280 pp. ToC
On the Morphology of Koine Greek
Mounce, William D. – The Morphology of Biblical Greek Ref (Zondervan, 1994) no page numbers
Stevens, Gerald L. – New Testament Greek Intermediate: from Morphology to Translation Pre (Cascade Books, 2008) 638 pp. ToC
Mussies, G. – The Morphology of Koine Greek (Brill, 1971) 400 pp. ToC
Brooks, James A. & Carlton L. Winbery – A Morphology of New Testament Greek: a Review & Reference Grammar (Lanham, MD: University Press of America, 1994) 475 pp. ToC
On Medieval & Early Modern Greek
Holton, David & Io Manolessou – ‘Medieval & Early Modern Greek’ in ed. Egbert J. Bakker, A Companion to the Ancient Greek Language (Wiley-Blackwell, 2010), pp. 539-64
Wikipedia – ‘Medieval Greek’
eds. Holton, Horrocks, et al. – The Cambridge Grammar of Medieval & Early Modern Greek, vol. 1 (Phonology), 2 (Nominal Morphology), 3 (Verb Morphology), 4 (Syntax) Pre 1, 2, 3, 4 (Cambridge University Press, 2019) ToC
Helps for Studying Greek especially vocabulary
Get better at Bible Study
Mounce, William – Greek for the Rest of Us: Mastering Bible Study without Mastering Biblical Languages (Zondervan, 2003) 310 pp. ToC
Mounce, William D. – ‘Cheat Sheet’ for Basics of Biblical Greek Grammar 3rd ed. (Zondervan, 1993)
Hewett, James A. et al. – ‘Tables’ in New Testament Greek: a Beginning & Intermediate Grammar (Baker Academic, 2017), pp. 269-76
Metzger, Bruce M. – Lexical Aids for Students of New Testament Greek 3rd ed. (Edinburgh: T&T Clark, 1990) 100 pp. ToC
Has lists of Greek words in the New Testament according to their frequency (for words that occur at least 10 times) and root, as well as other helps. For words below 10 times, which are very many, see Trenchard, p. 150 ff.
Trenchard, Warren C. – The Student’s Complete Vocabulary Guide to the Greek New Testament… (Zondervan, 1992) 340 pp. ToC
Includes a listing of all the Greek words in the New Testament down to one occurance. Great for making flashcards.
There are many more Greek readers (mostly classical) at Internet Archive.
Moss, Charles M. – A First Greek Reader with Notes & Vocabulary rev. (Boston: Allyn, 1887) 170 pp. ToC
The best way to learn Koine Greek is to learn classical Greek first, and not to just learn some things about it, but to thoroughly learn the language itself. This long term goal is often best accomplished in a similar way to how a native child learns, through being guided through interesting readings, such as in this volume.
Dr. Noe and Latin per Diem has built a self-paced course around this reader, which is highly recommended.
“Anyone who has attempted to learn Greek from the leading textbooks available today… can easily see for themselves how little actual Greek language the majority of them contain. Most of these textbooks… contain only a small amount of actual Greek, and mostly explain rules and grammar.
Make no mistake, the understanding of grammar and constructions, learning forms and rules and applying them, is essential to a strong knowledge of Greek. But these skills arise from working with Greek and must not be learned in isolation.
In this way, The Moss Method is quite different: the student begins reading simple, connected Greek prose on the first day and continues to do so until the end of the course.”
Beginner, Intermediate & Advanced
McLean, B.H. – Hellenistic & Biblical Greek: a Graduated Reader (Cambridge University Press, 2014) 760 pp. ToC
This is desgined for persons who have completed one or more years of Greek. It offers 70 selections from a wide variety of styles, genres, provences, and purposes, including the New and Old Testaments, and non-canonical texts, arranged by difficulty. Beginner texts are first, then intermediate, then advanced.
Merry, W. Walter – Selections from Herodotus… (Clarendon Press, 1892) 130 pp. ToC
Sidgwick, Arthur – Easy Selections from Plato (Longmans, 1900) ToC
Joint Association of Classical Teachers’ Greek Course – Reading Greek: Text & Vocabulary Pre (Cambridge University Press, 2007) 290 pp. ToC
“…prepares students to read mainstream fifth- and fourth-century Attic, Homer and Herodotus.”
Colvin, Stephen – A Historical Greek Reader: Mycenaean [1400 BC] to the Koine (Oxford University Press, 2007) 310 pp. ToC
eds. Conybeare & St. George Stock – Selections from the Septuagint, according to the Text of Swete in College Series of Greek Authors (Boston: Ginn, 1905) 310 pp. no ToC Includes an introduction to the Septuagint and a grammar of it
Includes selections of the stories of Joseph, the Exodus, Balaam and Balak, Samson, David and Goliath, Elijah and Hezekiah and Sennacherib. The clear Greek text at the top of the page is commented on by way of footnotes.
Decker, Rodney J. – Koine Greek Reader: Selections from the New Testament, Septuagint & Early Christian Writers (Kregel Academic, 2007) 300 pp. ToC
Decker has been a professor at Bible Baptist Seminary. The volume is for persons who have completed one year of Greek. It includes selections from the NT, Septuagint, Apostolic Fathers and the Early Creeds. It has vocabulary charts and other tools as appendices.
A New Testament Scripture Index to New Testament Greek Grammars
Owings, Timothy – A Cumulative [NT Scripture] Index to New Testament Greek Grammars (Baker: 1983) 200 pp. ToC Abbrev
Look up your New Testament verse of interest, and this Index will give you references to where your verse is discussed in upper-level grammars on this webpage.
For a further introduction to the great benefits of the programs of these websites, and yet why they will likely never fully replace intermediate and advanced print grammars, such as on this webpage, see the ‘Start Here’ section on our page, ‘Biblical & Rabbinic Hebrew Grammars’.
This site’s method appears to be based on Duolingo, but is for the Biblical languages: Hebrew and Greek. It is very high-quality, in some ways more than DuoLingo, and seeks to teach through using the language.
The site combines video tutorials, with visual learning, reading, hearing and speaking the language, with active sentence construction and other methods, which multi-faceted integration deeply engrains the material into you for quick acquisition and lasting retention. And it is a bit fun and easy to get hooked, whether for adults or kids.
It provides instruction for all levels of Hebrew learning, from beginner to expert. One can graphically see and track their consistency of usage, hours of learning, etc. One can easily progress more quickly using this self-paced program than in a classroom setting.
There is a ten day free trial with no credit card. As of 2023 it is $14-40 a month depending on one’s plan. It is worth the investment in your life if you are able to afford it. Cut out your other bills and devote yourself to God’s Word. It is an investment you will not regret.
While the site teaches advanced content, it does not have anything like this webpage of intermediate and advanced grammars for reference and retrieval of techinical information.
DuoLingo has a free tier, and the upgrade is affordable, whether for yourself or with a family plan. The site teaches modern Hebrew, focused on travel, conversation and daily living, which overlaps enough with Biblical Hebrew to be very worthwhile.
The site’s method is interactive, combining passive and active learning through varied, repetitive, progressive practice with visual, reading, hearing and speaking methods. Much of the learning method is inductive, by figuring out how to say things through what one already knows, so it is interesting, engaging and serves longterm retention.
DuoLingo is modeled after gaming websites, reward systems and social networking, such that the site and course is a bit addictive, which is great for learning. It is self-paced and you can advance as quickly as you are able. The site is continually adding new material with higher levels of advancement in the language.
Robertson, A.T. – ‘List of Works most often referred to’ in A Grammar of the Greek New Testament in the Light of Historical Research 4th ed. (NY: Hodder & Stoughton, 1923), pp. lxiii-lxxxvi
Young, Richard A. – ‘Bibliography’ in Intermediate New Testament Greek: a Linguistic & Exegetical Approach (Nashville, TN: Broadman & Homan, 1994), pp. 281-90
Perschbacher, Wesley J. – New Testament Greek Syntax (Moody, 1995) 475 pp. ToC
Evangelical. There is a bibliography at the end of every section.
Wallace, Daniel – ‘Abbreviations’ in Greek Grammar Beyond the Basics: an Exegetical Syntax of the New Testament (Zondervan, 1996)
Greek-Language.com – ‘A Comprehensive Bibliography of
Hellenistic [Koine] Greek Linguistics’ (n.d.) Includes titles in multiple languages
“Works addressing Classical Greek are included where no parallel work discussing Hellenistic Greek is available… Works to be added to the bibliography must clearly demonstrate understanding of methods and assumptions common in the field of Linguistics (No preference is given to one model over others). Traditional treatises on grammar, while they may be enormously useful, are not included.”
Greek Dictionaries, Parsing Guides & Concordances
Hebrew Dictionaries & Parsing Guides of the Bible & Rabbinic Literature
New Testament Background, Survey, Authenticity & Introduction