“Study to shew thyself approved unto God, a workman that needeth not to be ashamed, rightly dividing the word of truth.”
2 Tim. 2:15
Scripture’s Accommodated Language
Order of Contents
History of Biblical Interpretation 1
Rules of Interpretation
Legitimate Allegories 2
‘A Confutation of Unwritten Verities’ in The Works of Thomas Cranmer, 2 vols. (Cambridge: 1844-46), 2:1-67
‘A Prologue or Preface made by the Most Reverend Father in God, Thomas, Archbishop of Canterbury, Metropolitan and Primate of England’ in The Works of Thomas Cranmer, 2 vols. (Cambridge: 1844-46), 2:118-25
‘A Fruitful Exhortation, to the Reading and Knowledge of Holy Scripture’ in Certain Sermons, or Homilies, appointed by the King’s Majesty, to be declared and read, by all persons,vicars, or curates, every Sunday in their churches, where they have cure Ref (London: 1547)
On Acts ch. 8, vv. 28-31
On Gal. ch. 4, v. 22
On 1 Cor. ch. 2, vv. 10-16
Epistle Dedicatory to the Book of Romans
Preface to Isaiah
‘Of the Gift of Interpretation’ in A Most Godly and Learned Discourse of the Worthiness, Authority, and Sufficiency of the Holy Scripture: also of the Clearness and Plainness of the Same and of the True Use Thereof trans. John Tomkys (London: 1579), fols. 77v-82r, xvii
‘Of the Sense and Right Exposition of the Word of God, and by what Manner or Means it may be Expounded, the Third Sermon’ in The Decades of Henry Bullinger ed. Thomas Harding, trans. H. I. 4 vols. (Cambridge: 1849-52), 1:70-80
Whitaker, William – 1st Controversy, Question 5, ‘Concerning the Interpretation of Scripture’, pp. 402-496 in A Disputation on Holy Scripture, Against the Papists... (1588; Parker Society, 1849)
“…I will divide the whole course of this question into two parts, treating, first, of the authority and supreme tribunal for interpreting Scripture, with whom it is lodged [that is the Scriptures themselves and the Holy Spirit, ch. 8]; next, of the means to be used in the interpretation of Scripture [ch. 9]. But first we must premise something in the way of prolegomena [chs. 2-3]…” – p. 403
Bucanus, William – Body of Divinity or Institutions of Christian Religion
trans. Robert Hill (London: 1606; 1659), IV.20-23, pp. 45-46
Leigh, Edward – Bk. 1, ‘Of the Scriptures’, ch. 9, ‘Of the Interpretation of Scripture’ in A Treatise of Divinity, consisting of Three Books (London, 1646), pp. 171-192
Hall, Thomas – ‘Rules to be Observed for the Right Interpretation of Scripture’ in Vindiciæ Literarum, the Schools Guarded... (London, 1655), pp. 71-146
Hall (1610–1665) was an English, presbyterian, puritan minister who was ejected at the Great Ejection of 1662.
Bridge, William – ‘Sermon III’ in Scripture-Light, the Most Sure Light in Works 1.441 ff. on 2 Pet. 1:19
Turretin, Francis – Institutes, vol. 1, 2nd Topic, ‘The Holy Scriptures’
Question 19, The Sense of the Scriptures, ‘Whether the Scriptures have a fourfold sense: literal, allegorical, anagogical and tropological. We deny against the papists.’, pp. 149-154
Question 20, The Supreme Judge of Controversies & Interpreter of the Scriptures, ‘Whether the Scriptures (or God speaking in them) are the supreme and infallible judge of controversies and the interpreter of the Scriptures. Or whether the church or the Roman pontiff is. We affirm the former and deny the latter against the papists.’, pp. 154-162
Cunningham, William – Theological Lectures (1878)
ch. 45, ‘Nature, Difficulties & Necessity of Searching the Scriptures’, p. 551 ff. 7 pp.
ch. 47, ‘Right of Private Judgment & the Necessity of Personal Study of Scripture’, p. 569 ff. 10 pp.
chs. 48-49, ‘Scripture its own Interpreter & the Historical & Grammatical Sense’, p. 580 ff. 20 pp.
Terry, Milton – ‘Hermeneutics & the Higher Criticism’ in The Old Testament Student, vol. 4 (1885) pp. 204-209
Steinmetz, David C. – ‘The Superiority of Pre-Critical Exegesis’ in The Theological Interpretation of Scripture: Classic & Contemporary Readings in Blackwell Readings in Modern Theology (Blackwell, 1997), pp. 26-38
Steinmetz is a Romanist professor and here argues for the superiority of the common Medieval hermeneutic of distinguishing multiple levels of meaning in the text. This is here for reference and is not endorsed.
Haines, David – ‘Biblical Interpretation & Natural Knowledge: A Key to Solving the Protestant Problem’ in Reforming the Catholic Tradition: The Whole Word for the Whole Church ed. Joseph Minich (Davenant Press, 2019)
Cartwright, Thomas – A Confutation of the Rhemist’s Translation, Glosses and Annotations on the New Testament, so Far as They Contain Manifest Impieties, Heresies… (W. Brewster, 1618)
Byfield, Nicholas – Directions for the Private Reading of the Scriptures wherein besides the number of chapters assigned to every day, the order and drift of the whole Scriptures is methodically set down: and choice rules (that show how to read with profit) are likewise given: the use whereof is showed in the preface (London: 1618)
White, John – A Way to the Tree of Life: Discovered in Sundry Directions for the Profitable Reading of the Scriptures: wherein is described occasionally the Nature of a Spiritual Man… (London, 1647) ToC
White (1575–1648) was a puritan.
Boyle, Robert – Some Considerations Touching the Style of the Holy Scriptures: a Treatise (London: 1663; 1825)
Boyle (1627-1691) was a devout and pious Anglican and Anglo-Irish natural philosopher, chemist, physicist, and inventor. Boyle is largely regarded today as the first modern chemist (a title some give to 8th century Islamic scholar Jabir ibn Hayyan) and one of the pioneers of modern experimental scientific method. He is best known for Boyle’s law, which describes the inversely proportional relationship between the absolute pressure and volume of a gas.
Lukin, Henry – An Introduction to the Holy Scripture, Containing the Several Tropes, Figures, Proprieties of Speech used therein, with other Observations, necessary for the right Understanding thereof (London, 1669) 222 pp. The preface ‘To the Christian Reader’ is by John Owen.
Lukin (1628-1719) was a puritan.
Brown of Haddington, John
A Brief View of the Figures: & Explication of the Metaphors, contained in Scripture GB (1782)
An Introduction to the Right Understanding of the Oracles of God (d. 1787; Edinburgh, 1793)
Beck, Christian Daniel – Monogrammata Hermeneutics of the Books of the New Covenant (1803) tr. Charles Hodge in Biblical Repertory: a Collection of Tracts in Biblical Literature (Princeton Press, 1825), pp. 1-122 This appears to only be a portion of Beck’s work. Here is the whole first part of the Latin.
Beck (1757–1832) was a German philologist, historian, theologian and antiquarian, one of the most learned men of his time. This work seems to have been in some manner endorsed by Charles Hodge, the translator.
Stuart, Moses – Elements of Interpretation (Andover, 1822) ToC
Stuart (1780–1852) was a congregationalist minister and a professor and biblical scholar at Andover Theological Seminary in Massachusetts. Stuart has been called the father of exegetical studies in America. Stuart was a preterist regarding prophecy. The foreign missionary and skilled translator, Adoniram Judson, was a student of his.
Fairbairn, Patrick – Hermeneutical Manual, or, Introduction to the Exegetical Study of the Scriptures of the New Testament (Edinburgh, 1858) ToC
Fairbairn was a reformed professor in the Free Church of Scotland.
Gaussen, Louis – Theopneustia. The Bible: Its Divine Origin and Inspiration Deduced from Internal Evidence and the Testimonies of Nature, History and Science Buy 1867 422 pp. It is also here on HTML
While the topic of this book is the inspiration of the Bible, it also contains many principles of hermeneutics. One highlight among many is Gaussen responding to the objection against inspiration that the NT writers often misquote the OT. Gaussen lists and superbly analyzes the dozen or so ways in which the NT writers reference the OT (literally, in paraphrase, summarizing, interpreting, applying, giving the spirit of, combining the teachings of, etc.).
Terry, Milton – Biblical Hermeneutics: a Treatise on the Interpretation of the Old & New Testaments (NY: [c. 1890]) ToC
Terry (1840-) was a Methodist minister and professor at Garrett Biblical Institution, Illinois. He is known for this standard, conservative textbook on Biblical Hermeneutics. He was an evangelical and something of a forerunner of fundamentalism in that he had a certain Biblicism and an emphasis on Christian fundamentals. He was not reformed.
Berkhof, Louis – Principles of Biblical Interpretation Buy (1950) 169 pp.
A classic introduction to Biblical hermeneutics by a reformed theologian. Filled with Biblical references and examples.
Ramm, Bernard – Protestant Biblical Interpretation; a Textbook of Hermeneutics for Conservative Protestants (Boston, 1956) 290 pp. ToC
Ramm (1916-1992) was an American baptist theologian and apologist within the broad evangelical tradition, and a prolific author. During the 1970’s he was widely regarded as a leading evangelical theologian as well known as Carl F.H. Henry. Most of his academic teaching took place at the American Baptist Seminary of the West in California.
eds. te Velde & Visscher, Correctly Handling the Word of Truth: Reformed Hermeneutics Today Pre (Lucerna; Wipf & Stock, 2014)
te Velde has been a professor of Church history and polity in the Theological University of the Reformed Churches in the Netherlands. Visscher has been a professor of New Testament in the Canadian Reformed Theologial Seminary in Ontario, Canada.
Dictionary of Biblical Interpretation, vol. 1 (A-J), 2 (K-Z) ed. John H. Hayes (Abingdon Press, 1999) Very Liberal
Dictionary of Biblical Criticism & Interpretation ed. Stanley E. Porter (Routledge, 2007) 410 pp. Liberal
Hilary of Poitiers
On the Trinity 1.18
“. . . he is the best student who does not read his thoughts into the book, but lets it reveal its own; who draws from it its sense, and does not import his own into it, nor force upon its words a meaning which he had determined was the right one before he opened its pages.
Since then we are to discourse of the things of God, let us assume that God has full knowledge of Himself, and bow with humble reverence to His words. For He Whom we can only know through His own utterances is the fitting witness concerning Himself.”
As quoted in Jean Le Clerc, A Supplement to Dr. Hammond’s Paraphrase and Annotations on the New Testatament… (London: Buckley, 1699), p. 341
“That in things obscure and remote from our senses, if so be we read any thing in Holy Scripture, which may without endangering the faith we profess, be made to comply with different opinions, we should not rashly espouse any of them; or if we do, yet not so as to resolve not to change our judgment whatever light be offered to us afterwards, or to contend not so much for the sense of the Holy Scriptures, as our own opinion, as the true sense of the Scripture, when it is our own, whereas we ought rather to make that to be ours which is the assertion of the Scripture.”
On Old Testament Exegesis
Chisholm Jr., Robert B. – From Exegesis to Exposition: A Practical Guide to Using Biblical Hebrew (Baker, 1999) 304 pp.
“Evangelical guidance for translating Hebrew data from the Bible to a meaningful sermon.” – Denver Seminary Journal (2009), 4.5 stars
Stuart, Douglas – Old Testament Exegesis: A Handbook for Students & Pastors 3rd ed. (Westminster John Knox Press, 2009) 224 pp. ToC Blurb
“Important principles and a guide to other studies for interpreting the Hebrew text and applying it to sermons.”.- Denver Seminary Journal (2009), 4.5 stars
Noonan, Benjamin J. – Advances in the Study of Biblical Hebrew & Aramaic: New Insights for Reading the Old Testament (Zondervan, 2020) 336 pp. Blurb
On the History of Biblical Interpretation
Simon, Richard – Bk. 3, chs. 5-24 ToC in A Critical History of the Old Testament (1682)
Simon (1638–1712) was a French priest, a member of the Oratorians, who was an influential biblical critic, orientalist and controversialist. Simon represented the height of Romanist Bible scholarship in the early modern era.
“Moreover, he presents to his readers an astoundingly complete history of biblical exegesis, Jewish and Christian alike, from its beginnings to his own day.” – Marius Reiser, Oxford Handbook of Early Modern Theology, p. 81
Barr, James – The Semantics of Biblical Language (Oxford Univ. Press, 1961) 332 pp. ToC
Cotterell, Peter – Linguistics & Biblical Interpretation (InterVaristy Press, 1989) 345 pp. ToC
Grelot, Pierre – The Language of Symbolism: Biblical Theology, Semantics & Exegesis (Hendrickson, 2006) 245 pp. ToC
Rules of Interpretation
Antoine de Chandieu
Theological Works… (St. Andrew’s, 1593), Preface, pp. 704-5 trans. Michael J. Hunter Chandieu was reformed.
On Legitimate Allegories
The Art of Prophesying: or a Treatise concerning the Sacred & Only True Manner & Method of Preaching (London, 1607), pp. 30-31
“The Church of Rome makes four senses of the Scriptures, the literal, allegorical, tropological and anagogical, as in this her example: Melchizedek offered bread and wine. The literal sense is that the King of Salem with meat which he brought, refreshed the soldiers of Abraham being tired with travel. The allegorical is that the priest does offer up Christian ye Mass. The tropological is therefore something is to be given to the poor. The Anagogical is that Christ in like manner being in heaven, shall be the bread of life to the faithful. But this her device of the fourfold meaning of the Scripture must be exploded and rejected.
There is one only sense, and the same is the Literal. An allegory is only a certain manner of uttering the same sense. The Anagoge and Tropology are ways whereby the sense may be applied.”
About Andrew Rivet
Willem van Asselt in Theology of the French Reformed Churches (RHB, 2014), p. 261
“Accordingly, Rivet rejected the medieval quadriga [four-fold interpretation] and argued that the source of all theological conclusions was the literal sense of the text ([Isagogue] chap. 14[:1; C.f. 15:20]).
At the same time, he recognized that the literal sense of Holy Scripture included various figures and types; yet allegories, tropes, and anagogy he understood as false readings when they were imposed on the text rather than being identified as integral to it.”
On the Psalms
Allix, Pierre – The Book of Psalms, with the Argument of Each Psalm & a Preface Giving Some General Rules for the Interpretation of this Sacred Book (London: 1701)
Allix (1641-1717) was a French, Protestant pastor and author.
Calvin, John – ch. 9, ‘That Authority which the Libertines may Attribute to the Most Holy Scripture’ in An Instruction Against the Fanatical & Furious Sect of the Libertines, which Call Themselves ‘The Spiritual Ones’ in The Smaller Works of John Calvin… (1563), pp. 163-169
On the literal sense against the allegorical senses of the Libertines.
Polanus, Amandus – Some Investigations on the Interpretation of Sacred Scripture, Explained by Theses (Basil, 1603) 9 pp.
Beck, Sebastian – Theological Theses on the Interpretation & True Sense of Sacred Scripture & on the Judgment of Religious Controversies (Basil, 1613) 9 pp.
Reichel, Friedrich – A Diatribe on the Interpretation of Sacred Scripture in which Questions on the Use of the Light of Reason, the Authority of the Church… the Judgement of Private Discretion in the Interpretation of Sacred Scripture are Shaken Down [Discutiuntur] by the Spirit of the Truth, the Author of the Sacred Scruptures, Breathing (1644) 50 pp.
Reichel (1608-1653) was a doctor of theology and professor of sacred languages on the faculty of philosophy at Frankfurt.
Hyperius, Andreas – On How Sacred Sermons Ought to be Formed, or on the Popular Interpretation of the Scriptures, in 2 Books… (1553; Basil, 1573) 204 pp.
Polanus, Amandus – A Tract on the Rule of Reading Authors, especially Sacred, with Fruit, & Discerning in them Propositions, Themes & Arguments, to which is appended a Logical Analysis & Theological Exegesis of Thirteen Psalms… (Basil, 1603) 605 pp. no ToC Indices: Subject, Scripture Errata
Rivet, Andrew – A General Introduction to the Sacred Scripture of the Old & New Testament (Leiden, 1627) 519 pp. ToC
Rivet (1572-1651) was a French Huguenot theologian who was called in 1620 to be a professor of theology and Old Testament Exegesis at Leiden, Netherlands.
“His most famous work in this field [of OT exegesis] was his Isagogue… which, according to Honders, may be considered a precursor to modern Biblical hermeneutics. This work was based on his lectures on the doctrine of Holy Scripture, and comprised thirty chapters in which he discussed questions brought forward by Roman Catholic controversialists regarding the status of Scripture.” – Theology of the French Reformed Churches (RHB, 2014), p. 259 See there for an outline of the work in English.
Strang, Johann – On the Interpretation & Perfection of Scripture… (Rotterdam, 1663) ToC
Nethenus, Matthias – A Tract on the Interpretation of Scripture, or a Critique of the Book of Ludwig Wolzogen… Containing First the Orthodox Doctrine on the Interpreter & Interpretation of Scripture… (Herborne, 1675) 312 pp.
Sohn, Georg – On the Word of God & its Handling, in Two Books, in which is Discussed the Word of God Written & Not Written, the translations of Scripture, the Scholastical & Ecclesiastical Interpretation of the Same, the Method of Theology & of Theological Disputations; a [23 pp.] Methodical Delineation of Universal Theology is Added at the End. (Heidelberg, 1688) 99 pp.
Sohn was a reformed doctor of theology and professor at the academy in Heidelberg.
de Raey, Johannes – Thoughts on Interpretation, in which the Nature & Right Use of the Human Sermon are Vindicated: in Viewing its Use in the Common Life & in Disciplining unto Life, & in Philosophy from the Error & Confusion of this World (Amsterdam, 1692) 676 pp. ToC
de Raey (1622-1702) was a Dutch reformed professor of philosophy at Leiden and Amsterdam and an early, dedicated and pioneer Cartesian.
Turretin, Jean Alphonse – A Tract on the Interpretation of Sacred Sctripture, Put Forth in Two Parts (Frankfurt, 1776) 408 pp. No ToC
This is not recommended. Jean was the son of Francis Turretin in Geneva, but he went in a latitudinarian and rationalist direction, being a fore-runner of the enlightenment.
Latin: Lutheran Works
The following works were recommended by the reformed, Campegius Vitringa, Sr. (Doctrine of the Christian Religion, vol. 1, pp. 7-8).
Opitius, Henric – Exegetical Theology set forth by an Analytical Method & Succinctly Comprehended in Ten Tables… (Kilon, 1704) 18 pp. no ToC
Roescheli, Joann Baptist – On the Nature & Constitution of Exegetical Theology (Wittenberg, 1709) 24 pp. no ToC
Chladenius, Martin – Exegetical Institutions: Taught by the Most Clear Rules & Observations & Illustrated by Most Copious Examples 2nd ed. (Wittenburg, 1740) 602 pp. ToC
Zenckel, Georg Peter – Elements of Sacred Hermeneutics set forth by a Natural Method (Jena, 1752) 520 ToC
Sytsma, David – A Bibliography of Pre-Critical Protestant Hermeneutics, ca. 1520-1750 (2019) 57 pp.