Fentiman, Travis – Introduction to the Office of Teacher, 2014, 27 paragraphs, with four Appendices of 44 more paragraphs.
Here is a comprehensible introduction to the historic, Reformation view and that of the Westminster Assembly, showing the Biblical warrant for the Office of Teacher. Further resources are suggested in the article for further study.
Myers, Andrew – Office of Doctor, 2009, 34 paragraphs
This is an anthology of excerpts from 14 reformation era creeds, books of discipline and documents demonstrating that the Office of Doctor was the universal view and practice of the Reformation and post-reformation eras. Read here to see how these godly divines understood the particulars of the office, including its Biblical warrant and functions.
This is the best short work arguing for the office from scripture.
Henderson, Robert – The Teaching Office in the Reformed Tradition: a History of the Doctoral Ministry, Buy 1962, 277 pages
This is an invaluable, exhaustive dissertation on the history of the Office of Doctor in the historic, Reformed Church, though it is not exegetical and does not cover many of the Biblical arguments. He very clearly distinguishes the different conceptions and practices of the Office of Doctor in the Middle Ages, Calvin’s Geneva, the Scottish Church, the French Church, the Dutch Church, the English Church (including the Westminster Assembly), and in the puritan Congregational churches.
More Quotes (in addition to those in Myers’ article)
The Synod of Dort 1619, this quote was compiled by Trent Still
“The offices are of four kinds: of the Ministers of the Word, of the Professors of Theology, of the Elders, and of the Deacons.”
Samuel Rutherford 1642
Peaceable and Temperate Plea for Paul’s Presbytery in Scotland, 1642, London
Ch. 20, Whether or not the government of the Church of Scotland can be proved by God’s Word to be lawful?
Article 2, Officers of the Church
The ordinary officers of our Church are Pastors, to whom belongeth the word of exhortation, 1 Tim. 3:1-3; 2 Tim. 1:7,8, Doctors, who in schools expound the word of God, and convince gainsayers, Rom. 12:7,8; Eph. 4:11; 1 Cor. 12:28, Governors, or governing Elders who rule well, Rom. 12:8; 1 Cor. 12:28; 1 Tim. 5:17; Acts 15:23, and Deacons who care for the poor, Acts 6:2-4; 1 Tim. 3:8-12.
Article 5, Pastor’s Duty
The doctors’ way is doctrinal, to inform the mind and defend the truth against gainsayers (Rom. 12:7).
Article 10, Schools and Doctors
There are with us Doctors of Divinity who teach in schools and Universities, men tried to be holy and learned, and then put in office, as 1 Tim. 3:10, under whose instruction are students aiming at the holy ministry called expectants, as in the Jewish Church in their colleges, were young prophets, or sons of the prophets, as 1 Sam. 10:5; 2 Kings 2:7; 2 Kings 4:1; 1 Kings 20:35. These Doctors and also the teachers of human literature, who train up children in the nurture and admonition of the Lord, Prov. 22:6; Eph. 6:4, if they aim at the ministery, prophecy in our presbyterial meetings, 1 Cor. 14:29.
James Fergusson, Commentary on Eph. 4:11. This quote was compiled by Andrew Myers.
“The other two are ordinary office-bearers, pastors and teachers; I say two, though the disjunctive particle “some,” be not cast in between them; for they are distinguished, Rom. 12:7, 8, and the exercise of their respective offices is distinguished also, 1 Cor. 12:8; so that by pastors are meant those who, besides their ability to open up the text of Scripture in some measure, are chiefly gifted with the word of wisdom, wisely and powerfully to apply the word for working upon the affections, as the matter requires; and the teacher is he who is gifted with the word of knowledge, or ability to open up the mind of God in Scripture, establishing truth, and confuting error, without insisting much upon particular application; which office, because of the church’s poverty, is confined to the schools, and the ordinary exercise of it before the people left upon the pastor.”
Paul Baynes, Commentary on Eph. 4:11. This quote was compiled by Andrew Myers.
“Pastors, that is, ministers that labored in the word of exhortation, and ministering the sacraments.
Teachers. Ministers that labored in the word of doctrine or knowledge; for as the persons are here distinguished, so the gifts elsewhere.”
George Gillespie, An assertion of the Government of the Church of Scotland, ch. 2:
“But they differ, in that the pastor labors in the word of exhortation, that is, by the gift of wisdom applies the word to the manners of his flock, and that in season and out of season, as he knows their particular cases to require. The doctor labors in the word of doctrine, that is, without such applications as the pastor uses; by simple teaching he preserves the truth and sound interpretation of the Scriptures, against all heresy and error. The ruling elder doth neither of these, but labors in the government and policy of the church only. The Apostle has distinguished these three sorts of elders, 1 Tim. 5.17, “Let elders that rule well be counted worthy of double honor, especially they who labor in the word and doctrine.” Where, as [Theodore] Beza notes, he distinguished the word, which is the pastor’s part, from doctrine, which is the doctor’s part. Even as Rom. 12:7,8, he distinguishes teaching from exhortation; and 1 Cor. 12:8, puts “the word of wisdom,” and “the word of knowledge,” for two different things. Now, besides those elders which labor in the word, and those which labor in doctrine, Paul speaks to Timothy of a third sort of elders, which labor neither in the word nor doctrine, but in ruling well. Hence it appears how truly the Book of Policy, ch. 2, says, That there are four ordinary, perpetual, and necessary offices in the church, the office of the pastor, the doctor, the elder, and the deacon; and that no other office, which is not one of these four, ought to be received, or suffered in the church.”
Edward Leigh, was a member of the Westminster Assembly
Annotations on the New Testament, 1650
…so that this should be the meaning, I [Jesus] have behaved Myself humbly and lovingly amongst you, and have discharged the office of Teacher, now the course of my calling being finished, I will depart, and you shall not enjoy Me hereafter…
Jesus stood. When otherwise the custom of that age carried it, that the teachers sat, even as Christ also often did, but here He stood that He might signify that He would seriously execute the great Office of Teaching.