“This is my beloved Son, in whom I am well pleased; Hear ye Him.”

Matt 17:5




Christ in the Old Testament

On the Person & Human & Divine Natures of Christ

Offices of Christ: Prophet, Priest & King

On Union with Christ & the Fruits of the Fellowship Ensuing Therefrom

The Life & Times of Christ  26+
.       Incarnation  1
.       Temptation of  7+                   
.       Beatitudes  3+
.       Sermon on Mount  13+
.       Lord’s Prayer  63+
.       Miracles  6+
.       Parables  8+
.       Transfiguration  1
.       Passion to Ascension  18
.             The Descent into ‘Sheol’



Order of Contents

Historical Theology  2
Whether & in What Way Christ was Under the Law?
Could Christ have Gotten Sick?





Aquinas, Thomas

chs. 16-24  of Contra the Errors of the Greeks

Summa Theologica, 3rd Part, Treatise on the Incarnation  What follows are some of the more interesting and helpful sections, however see the whole Treatise as well.

Question 1, ‘Of the Fitness of the Incarnation (6 Articles)

(2) Whether it was necessary for the restoration of the human race? [Yes & No, takes the hypothetical necessity view, quoting Augustine]
(3) Whether if there had been no sin God would have become incarnate? [No, quoting Augustine]

Question 2, Of the Mode of Union of the Word Incarnate (12 Articles)

(1) Whether the union of the Word Incarnate took place in the nature? [No]
(2) Whether it took place in the Person? [Yes]
(3) Whether it took place in the suppositum or hypostasis? [Yes]
(4) Whether the Person or hypostasis of Christ is composite after the Incarnation? [Yes & No]

(6) Whether the human nature was united to the Word accidentally? [No]
(7) Whether the union itself is something created? [Yes & No]
(8) Whether it is the same as assumption? [No]

Question 3, Of the Mode of Union on the Part of the Person Assuming (8 Articles)

(1) Whether to assume is befitting to a Divine Person? [Yes]
(2) Whether it is befitting to the Divine Nature? [Yes & No]

(4) Whether one Person can assume without another? [Yes & No]

Question 4, Of the Mode of Union on the Part of the Human Nature (6 Articles)

(1) Whether human nature was more capable of being assumed than any other nature? [Yes, in contrast to animals & angels]
(2) Whether He assumed a person? [No]

Question 5, Of the Parts of Human Nature which were Assumed (4 Articles)

(1) Whether the Son of God ought to have assumed a true body? [Yes]
(2) Whether He ought to have assumed an earthly body, i.e. one of flesh and blood? [Yes, as opposed to a heavenly body]
(3) Whether He assumed a soul? [Yes]
(4) Whether He assumed an intellect? [Yes]

Question 13, Of the Power of Christ’s Soul (4 Articles)

(2) Whether the soul of Christ had omnipotence with regard to corporeal creatures? [Yes & No]
(3) Whether the soul of Christ had omnipotence with regard to His own body? [Yes & No]

Question 15, Of the Defects of Soul Assumed by Christ (10 Articles)

(3) Whether there was ignorance? [Yes & No]
(4) Whether His soul was passible? [Yes, but not exactly as ours]

(7) Whether there was fear? [Yes]
(8) Whether there was wonder? [Yes & No]

Question 16, Of Those Things which are Applicable to Christ in his Being & Becoming (12 Articles)  All.  On the Communication of Properties

Question. 18 – Of Christ’s Unity of Will  (6 Articles)

(1) Whether there are Two Wills in Christ? [Yes]
(2) Whether in Christ’s human nature the will of sensuality is distinct from the will of reason? [Yes, though joined]

(4) Whether there was free-will in Christ? [Yes]
(5) Whether Christ’s human will was always conformed to the Divine will in the thing willed? [Yes & No]
(6) Whether there was any contrariety of wills in Christ? [No]

Question 19, ‘Of the Unity of Christ’s Operation [Energy] (4 Articles)

(1) Whether in Christ there was one or several operations [energies] of the Godhead and Manhood? [Two energies, though the human an instrument of the divine]
(2) Whether in Christ there were several operations of the human nature? [No, but a diversity of effects]

Question 46, The Passion of Christ (12 Articles)

(12) Whether Christ’s Passion is to be attributed to His Godhead? [To his Person in the human nature, but not to his divine nature]

Question 50 – Of the Death of Christ (6 Articles)

(2) Whether His death severed the union of Godhead and flesh? [No]
(3) Whether His Godhead was separated from His soul? [No]

Question 51 – Of Christ’s Burial (4 Articles)

(3) Whether His body was decomposed in the tomb? [No]
(4) Concerning the length of time He lay in the tomb [1 day & 2 nights]



Rijssen, Leonard – ch. 11, ‘Christ’  in  A Sum of Didactic & Elenctic Theology, out of Our Theologians, Especially out of Francis Turretin’s Institutes of Theology, so Augmented & Illustrated  (Bern, 1676; 1690), pp. 111-26



Binnie, William – ‘Christ in the Psalms’  ToC  being bk. 2, chs. 1-3 in The Psalms: their History, Teachings & Use  (London, 1870), pp. 155-218

Binnie was a professor in the Free Church of Scotland.

Hodge, Charles

‘Christianity Without Christ’  in Princeton Review  (Apr., 1876), vol. 5, issue 18, pp. 352-362

‘God in Christ’, being ch. 13  in his Essays & Reviews  (1857), p. 433 ff.  39 pp.



Berkhof, Louis – Systematic Theology  (1950)

‘The Doctrine of Christ in History’  14 paragraphs

‘The State of Humiliation’  24 paragraphs

‘The State of Exaltation’  27 paragraphs



Fentiman, Travis – ‘Jesus the Friend of Sinners’  (2014)  10 paragraphs

Is Jesus friendly to the unconverted?  The Bible says Yes.




Kennedy, John – The Saviour  Buy  (Reformation Press, 1992)  130 pp.

A review exists of this work by Rev. Sherman, which will wet your desire to read it.





Hyperius, Andreas – bk.2, ch. 15, ‘Of Christ’  in Of Theology, or of the Reason for the Study of Theology  (Basel, 1559; 1582), pp. 198-207



Historical Theology

On the 1500’s

Lindholm, Stefan – Jerome Zanchi (1516-90) & the Analysis of Reformed Scholastic Christology  in Reformed Historical Theology  Buy  (2016)



Whether & in What Way Christ was Under the Law?  (Mt. 17:24-27; 21:38; Gal. 4:4-5; Heb. 1:2)


Campos, Junior, Heber Carlos – Part III, Ch. 7.3, ‘The Person of Christ in Relationship to the Law’, pp. 275-85  in Johannes Piscator (1546-1625) and the Consequent Development of the Doctrine of the Imputation of Christ’s Active Obedience  PhD diss.  (Calvin Theological Seminary, 2009)

As to a final synthesized answer on the question, we recommend the answer and distinctions that Turretin makes on pp. 283-4, from his Institutes, vol. 2, 14th Topic, Question 13, on Active Obedience, sections 15-16, pp. 449-50.



Peter van Mastricht

Theoretical Practical Theology (RHB), vol. 3, bk. 3, ch. 12, section 9, ‘Was it [the CoW] also entered into with the second Adam?’

“Certainly from one perspective, as a creature and as man, it seems that He [Christ] cannot be exempted from the moral government of God, nor otherwise could He as a man have merited anything for Himself.  From another perspective, if He were in Adam under the covenant of nature, then it would seem that in and with Adam who sinned, He violated that same covenant, which is beyond absurd.

Therefore it seems most safe to state: although as a rational creature He cannot be exempted from moral government with respect to his natural duties, yet He could have been withdrawn by God from the same moral governance in the positive duties, such as the commandment not to eat of the forbidden fruit (upon the transgression of which the sin of the human race



The Covenant of Redemption (which obliged Christ to fulfill the law for his elect by way of covenant).

Whether Christ Merited Glory for Himself



Could Christ have Gotten Sick?


Aquinas, Thomas – Summa Theologica, pt. 3, a Treatise on the Incarnation

Question 14, Of the Defects of Body Assumed by the Son of God (4 Articles)

Aquinas doesn’t here answer this specific question, but the thrust of his answers leans towards: Yes.

(3) ‘Whether His body was decomposed in the tomb? [No]’  in Question 51 – Of Christ’s Burial (4 Articles)

“It is written (Ps. 16:10): “Nor wilt Thou suffer Thy holy one to see corruption”: and [John the] Damascene (De Fide Orth. iii) expounds this of the corruption which comes of dissolving into elements….

…It was not fitting for Christ’s body to putrefy, or in any way be reduced to dust…  Christ’s death ought not to come from weakness of nature, lest it might not be believed to be voluntary: and therefore He willed to die, not from sickness, but from suffering inflicted on Him, to which He gave Himself up willingly.”


Peter van Mastricht

Theoretical Pratical Theology  (RHB), vol. 4, bk. 5, ch. 4, section 28, 29 & 31




Murray, David – ‘Was Jesus Ever Ill?’  (2017)  15 paragraphs

Murray makes distinctions, gives Biblical support for his position, and quotes Smeaton, Spurgeon and Goodwin to a like effect.



William Perkins

An Exposition of the Symbol or Creed of the Apostles…  (Cambridge, 1595), p. 152

“Secondly, infirmities be either general, or personal; general, which appertain to the whole nature of man, and are to be found in every man that comes of Adam: as to be born unlearned, and subject to natural affections, as sorrow, anger, etc.  Personal, are such as appertain to some particular men, and not to all, and arise of some private causes and particular judgments of God, as to be born a fool, to be sick of an ague, consumption, dropsy, pleuresy, and such like diseases.

Now the first sort be in Christ, and not the second: for as He took not the person of any man, but only man’s nature, so was it sufficient for Him to take unto Him the infirmities of man’s nature, though He took not the private infirmities of any man’s person.  And the reason why Christ would put on not only the substance and faculties of a true man, but also his infirmities, was that He might show Himself to be very man indeed, also that He might suffer for us both in body and soul, and that he might give us an example of patience in bearing all manner of evil for God’s glory and the good of our neighbor.”


John Owen

Works, vol. 3, Pneumatologia, or a Discourse Concerning the Holy Spirit, bk. 2, ch. 3, p. 167

“Although he took on him those infirmities which belong unto our human nature as such, and are inseparable from it until it be glorified, yet he took none of our particular infirmities which cleave unto our persons, occasioned either by the vice of our constitutions or irregularity in the use of our bodies.

Those natural passions of our minds which are capable of being the moans of affliction and trouble, as grief, sorrow, and the like, he took upon him; as also those infirmities of nature which are troublesome to the body, as hunger, thirst, weariness, and pain,—yea, the purity of his holy constitution made him more highly sensible of these things than any of the children of men;—but as to our bodily diseases and distempers, which personally adhere unto us, upon the disorder and vice of our constitutions, he was absolutely free from them.”




Ayres, Samuel Gardiner – Jesus Christ our Lord: an English Bibliography of Christology, comprising over 5,000 Titles Annotated & Classified  (NY, 1906)  ToC

Ayres (1865-1942) was a librarian at Drew Theological Seminary and was in the American methodist tradition.  See other works of his here.




Related Pages

Christ in the Old Testament

On the Person & Human & Divine Natures of Christ

Offices of Christ: Prophet, Priest & King

The Life & Times of Christ