by Samuel Rutherford
Christ Dying and Drawing Sinners to Himself
Places of Scripture seeming to favor universal Atonement vindicated
For the fourth particular, and the clearing of places alleged; we are, 1. To consider if the place, John 3.16, prove anything against us. 2. If all men, and all the world that are said to be redeemed, be concluded against us. 3. There be some particular places to be considered.
1. The Greek word “kosmos”, “world,” must be a figurative speech, the whole for the part; otherwise in its latitude it comprehends the angels, Acts 17:24; Rom. 3:6; 1 Cor. 6:2; Rom. 1:20; John 17:5. Now ’tis certain, God hath not so loved angels good and bad, that he hath given his only begotten Son for them, Heb. 2:16, therefore it must sometime signify, a great part of the “world;” as John 12:19, The world goes after him. 1 John 5:19, The whole world lies in evil. The adversary yields, that the “world” here, is not all, and every one of mankind, without exception. I deny not but it signifies so [in] Rom. 3:13, That all the world may become guilty before God. But the Arminians take on them a hard task, duram proviciam, to prove that it is so taken here. For,
(1) The Greek word houto, God so loved the world, is the highest love that even was above God’s love to the angels, Heb. 2:16. So [according to Arminians] God must carry the most superlative love, that is, than which there is none greater, John 15:13, such a love as is manifested to us, to the beloved John the Apostle, and all the saints, 1 John 4:9, to Cain, Judas, and all the heathens [too]; and God’s love giving his Son, differences men from angels, but not one man from another; the contrary of which Paul says, Gal. 2:20, and must Paul say no more? Who loved me, and gave himself for me, than Judas, Pharaoh, all the lost heathen, who never heard of Christ, can and may say? believe it who will, it sounds not like Christ’s love.
(2) They have two sorts of love in Christ’s dying for men, to make out two redemptions:
 one general, one potential, or half a redemption, where life is purchased, never applied, standing with the eternal destruction of the greatest part of mankind;
 another special, in which men are redeemed from sin, preached to few, applied to far fewer.
(3) Two reconciliations, two non-imputations of sin; one, 2 Cor. 5, another Rom. 4; and so two justifications; one Rom. 5, and two blessednesses, two salvations, or deliveries from wrath, and the curse of the law.
(4) This giving love, with which God must give all other things, faith, the Gospel, Rom. 8.32, must be bestowed on heathens, that never heard such a thing.
(5) God by this must intend life eternal, as an end, to all the heathen; faith as a mean, which are clearly intended to this loved world; and yet God forbids Paul and his Apostles to preach the word of faith to them, Acts 16:6,7, Matt. 10:5, and contrives businesses so, that the hearing of the word of faith, and of this highest love, and rarest gift, and given Redeemer, shall be simply impossible to them.
(6) Therefore better by the world to understand the elect of Jews and Gentiles, opposed everywhere in the New Testament, to the narrow Church of Judea; the Gospel world, the Messiah’s world, larger than the little world of Moses; yea, all nations, Matt. 28.19, every creature, that is, most of all the nations, Mark 16.15, all the world, the hearing world, almost all the nations, Col. 1.6, sure not every individual person; as they would have this loved world to include.
Objection: “But (Greek pas) that every one that believes, etc., These words limit and draw narrow the world, and so divide it in believers, and non-believers; and by your exposition, some of the elect world believes, and are saved; some believers not, and perishes, which is absurd; therefore the world must be comprehensive of all, elect, and reprobate.”
I shall deny that (Greek: pas) whosoever, is here a distributive or dividing particle: If he had said (Greek: hostis or hoste) as Gal. 5:4; 1 Cor. 11:27, there had been some color for this; but I deny that (Greek: pâs orpântes) all must be restrictive here, more than:
2 Thess. 2:11,12, God gave them over to the efficacy of error to believe a lie, that (Greek: hinà pántes) that all those might be damned, that believed not the truth, but have pleasure in unrighteousness. If follows not, that (Greek: pantes) here, that all, or whoever believe not the truth, should be fewer in number than those that are given over to the efficacy of error: Yea, the number of the one and the other is equal;
so John 5:22, The Father judgeth no man, but hath committed all judgment to the Son, verse 23, (Greek: hina pantes) That all men should honor the Son, as they honor the Father who sent him. I see no ground to say, that some may honor the Father, and be raised from the Dead and quickened, as verse 21, who do not honor the Son:
And therefore it ought not to be translated, God so loved the world, etc., that whosoever believes should not perish; but far more agreeable to the original, God so loved the world, that every one believing should not perish, as in multitude of places it is translated, unusquisque, non quicunque: And therefore faith is not set down here so much ad modum conditionis, as ad modum medii, as a condition, as a means to bring this loved world to glory: As if ye would say, He so loves letters, as all learned are dear to him; so God so loved his chosen world, that he gave his Son to die for them, (now this love is eternal) that all these believing, in their own time, might never be lost, but have eternal Life.
Nor can Arminians take the word “world” for all and every one of mankind, for they exclude all Infants dying so, as incapable of faith; and they say, these words contain God’s special decree of election, and reprobation; to wit, John 3:16, God decreed to save all that believe, and God decreed all that believe not should perish. Now, from election and reprobation, they exclude all the heathen, and all their Infants, and all Infants whatsoever, and such as never heard the Gospel: So I fear they make as narrow a world here, as we do; let them see to it: Whereas Arminians say, that the word “world,” never signifies in scripture the elect only; what then? Let me answer,
(1) Their world of elect and reprobate, excluding the best part of mankind, all infants, all that never heard the Gospel, sure, is not in the scripture, nor speaks it of such a world.
(2) This is a begging of the question; for, John 1:29, The world whose Sins the Lamb of God takes away; the reconciled world, to whom the Lord imputes no sin, (Greek me logizómenos autôis ta poraptômata autôn) ’tis the same word that is ascribed to Abraham’s believing, Rom. 4:3-5, and that David speaks of, Psalm 32:2, Rom. 4:6, The imputing of righteousness, and of faith to righteousness; that in which blessedness coming through Christ consists, Rom. 4:8-11. This world is the only believing elect world, the loved world, John 3:16, the world saved, verse 17, the world of which Christ is Savior, John 4:42, the world that Christ gives his life unto, John 6.33, and for whose life he gives his life, verse 55, the world of which Abraham, but much more Christ, is heir, Rom. 4:13, the reconciled world, occasioned by the Jews falling off Christ, Rom. 11:15. All these are the elect, believing, and redeemed world; this they can never disprove.
The other ground of our answer to all the places on the contrary, is, that the Hebrew word col, and Greek word pantes, Christ died for all, doth never signify all and every one of mankind, by neither scripture, nor the doctrine of adversaries: but is, as all divines say, to be expounded according to the subject in hand, secundum materiam substratum.
Hence our first rule, “all,” often signifies, the most part, Mark 1:64, (Greek: pantes) They all condemned him to be guilty of death; (Greek: holon) the whole counsel, Matt. 26:59, yet Joseph of Arimathea consented not to his death, Luke 23:51, and the flood destroyed (Greek: hapantes) them all, Luke 17:27, yet eight persons were saved; so all Judah, Jer. 13:19, (Hebrew: cullah) was carried into saptivity (Hebrew: col), “all” is often the same with many, all the sheep of Kedar shall be gathered to thee, (Hebrew: col) that is, many: And Gen. 41, (Hebrew: vecol) and all the land came to Egypt: when the matter bears a clear exception, and other scriptures expound it; then sure Christ’s dying for all, must be expounded for his giving himself a ransom for many, Matt. 20:28, compared with 1 Tim. 2:6, (Greek: antilútron hupér panton) is here, and there (Greek: lutron antipollon) So the Law says, All do that which the most part do; men’s will do not limit what God speaks; but let the text itself be diligently considered, Ex. 9:6, All the cattle of Egypt died, that was in the field.
Christ gave himself a ransom for all, capable of a ransom; Arminians say, that the finally obdured, those that sin against the Holy Ghost, and infants of heathen, or any dying infants, cannot be ransomed by Christ, Ex. 32:26, All the sons of Levi came to Moses: not all without exception; many adhered Aaron in his idolatry, verse 29, Deut 33:9. So Matt. 3:5, Then went out to him Jerusalem, and all Judea, and all the country near to Jordan.
Now, this signification being applied to our use, Christ giving himself a Ransom for all Men; his dying for all, can be no larger than the saving of all, the believing of all flesh, and the blessing of all nations in Christ: But, Gen. 18:18, all, In him (Hebrew: col gojei) all the nations of the earth shall be blessed. Gen. 22.18, In thy seed all the nations of the earth shall be blessed. The whole world, that John says Christ is a propitiation for, 1 John 2:1, cannot be larger than this; now, this cannot carry any tolerable sense, that all and every man of the nations are actually blessed in Christ, more than all and every one are redeemed, reconciled, received in favor within the Covenant of Grace:
and therefore Arminians have as good reason from col and pantes, all that are said to be ransomed, are actually saved, and Hell shall be empty and to no purpose; as to contend for an universal redemption. As a wicked pamphlet printed of late says, All the creation of God, men and angels, are redeemed, and shall at length be saved in Christ.
Now, we can undeniably prove, that all and every nation, and all and every man descended of Abraham, are not blessed in Christ.
(1) Rom. 9.7, Because they that are the seed of Abraham, they are not all children; but in Isaac shall thy seed be called. Verse 8, They which are the children of the flesh, are not the children of God, but the children of the promise, are counted for the seed.
(2) Now, Christ hath a spiritual seed of a more narrow compass than all the nations of the earth. Isaiah 53:10, He shall see his seed. Christ marries not with the cursed seed; and many nations, such as for many generations never heard of Christ, are under the Law, and under a curse,
but the nations are blessed, and all nations (say they) quantum ad Deum, in God’s intention, in the Covenant of Grace that God made with all the nations, if they would embrace and receive Christ; but that they are not actually blessed, fully redeemed and saved in Christ, is their fault.
(1) The scripture expounds scripture better than Arminians; and the Apostle, Heb. 6, resolves us, that all the nations of the earth, verse 17, are the heirs of the promise, those who have fled for refuge to lay hold on the hope set before them, who have anchored their souls by hope within the vail, and have Jesus for their Forerunner, verses 17-20.
(2) He expounds the blessing of Abraham and of his seed, not of any conditional and far-off intention of God, but of God’s actual blessing of Abraham and his spiritual seed whom the Lord multiplied, verse 14. Nor was it ever fulfilled in all the nations of the earth, they were never heirs of the promise; our exposition is made good, and by it the promise and oath of God fulfilled, and his Covenant accomplished; not by the Arminian gloss.
(3) Paul expounds Abraham’s Seed, Gal. 3.16, to be Christ and his seed, Rom. 11:26, So all Israel shall be saved, this was the Israel, to whom the Covenant by oath and promise was made. For the Redeemer shall come out of Zion, and shall turn away ungodliness from Jacob. Verse 27, For this is my Covenant unto them, when I shall take away their sins. Acts 4.33, great grace was on them all, yet not on Ananias and Sapphira who were of that visible number. Isaiah 40:5, And the glory of the Lord shall be revealed, and all flesh shall see it. Psalm 86.9, All nations whom thou hast made, shall come and worship before thee, and shall glorify thy name, O Lord: That is expounded, Isa. 2:1, All nations shall flow to the mountain of the Lord’s House. What? All nations without exception? No, verse 2, Many people shall say, Come ye, and let us go to the mountain of the Lord’s House. Haggai 2:7, And the Desire of all Nations shall come; did all nations quantum in se, so far as lay in them, desire Christ? no such thing.
All skilled in the mother-languages, and all divines say, that the particle “all” is taken pro singulis generum, vel pro generibus singulorum; all and every one of kinds, and for the kinds of all, though not absolutely excluding any kind.
1. The word “all,” is, in material necessaria, in a necessary matter, taken for all, and every one. God made all nations of one blood, Acts 17:26. He knows the hearts of all men, Acts 1:24, Rom. 3:12. All have sinned, Rom. 5:12; 2 Cor. 5:10; 1 Tim. 4:10; James 1:5; Phil. 2:10,11.
2. All, without exclusion of particular Men, in a contingent matter sometime so taken, Matt 26:33, Though all be offended. Luke 6:26; Rev. 4:26.
3. When all is spoken of God’s works for men, or in men, especially works of mere grace, opposite to men’s works; All men, then, is not taken in the largest sense, as Mr. Moor imagines: So our text; I, when I am lifted up from the earth, will draw all men to me, cannot be meant of all men without exception.
(1) Because ’tis a clear restriction of calling of multitudes, under the Messiah’s Kingdom, after his death, and cannot but speak against an universal drawing in the times of the Old Testament.
(2) Christ draws not all to himself by the Gospel, because thousands hear not of him; not virtually, for we read of no calling or drawing of Christ, lifted up on the cross, and crucified, by the works of nature: So God blesses all nations, not all and every one; God saves all Israel, and turns away iniquity from Jacob, and forgives the sins of Israel; and God only saves, and only pardons believers. But will Mr. Moor say, “God saves and pardons all, and every man in Israel?”
There is hence a third rule, That many is placed for all the elect, as Matt. 10:28, He gave himself a ransom for many. Mark 14:14, This is my blood of the New Testament, that is shed for many; as Rom. 5:15, Through the offence of one, many were dead, that is, all were dead: So the sheep of Christ, John 10:11; the scattered sons of God, John 11:52; His people, Matt. 1:21; His brethren, Heb. 2, that he died for, must be exclusive of those that are not his sheep, not his brethren, not his people, not the sons of God.
When there is mention of a singular privilege bestowed on friends, whom Christ is to make friends, John 15:13, though it be bestowed on them in regard of their present ill-deserving, when they are enemies, Rom. 5:10; sinners, 1 Tim. 1:15; unjust, 1 Pet. 3:18; lost, Luke 19.10, as the necessity of the prerogative of redemption and ransom of free-grace clears; as, In thy seed shall all the nations of the earth be blessed. Paul expounds it exclusive, in thy seed only, Gal. 3:16. So, Deut. 10:20, Thou shalt fear the Lord thy God, and serve him. Christ expounds it, Luke 4.8, exclusively, Thou shalt serve only the Lord, because ’tis the prerogative of God, to be worshipped, as ’tis a prerogative of grace, to be the ransomed and redeemed of God, Deut. 21:8, and 7:8; Ex. 15:15; Luke 1:68; Gal. 3:13; 1 Pet. 1:18; Rev. 5:9, and Rev. 14:4; Isa. 1:24, and 44:23, and 35:10, and 51:10; Jer. 31:11. And the manner of Christ’s dying, in regard of application, is exclusive, by confession of party, as is clear, Luke 2:11, and 1:68-70; Luke 2:30,31; Heb. 2:17; Rom. 8:34; Rev. 5:9.
In the matter of our redemption, especially in the New Testament, and prophecies of the Old of the same subjects, Christ died for all pro generibus singulorum, for men of all nations, some of all kinds.
1. Because God speaks so of our salvation, as Joel 3:28, which was fulfilled, Acts 2:17, And it shall come to pass in the last days, (says God,) I will pour out my Spirit on all flesh; that is, people of all nations, as verse 9, Parthians, and Medes, and Elamites, and the dwellers in Mesopotamia, and Judea, Cappadocia, etc., and of all sexes, verse 17, sons and daughters. Of all ages, young and old. All conditions, servants and handmaids. Verse 5, And there were dwelling at Jerusalem Jews, devout Men, out of every Nation under Heaven; nor will this include all and every Nation without Exception.
Erasmus would ask of those that will not admit an Hyperbolic in Scripture, If there were English and Scots there? Ye tithe every herb, that is, herbs of all kinds, Luke 11.42. Christ cured every disease, Matt. 4.23. Ye shall eat of every tree of the garden, Gen. 2:16. (Hebrew: micol) all his Master’s good are in his hand (Hebrew: vecol-tob) Gen. 24:10. Now, thus God will have all to be saved, and Christ is the Mediator of all men, 1 Tim. 2, which is not to be understood of all and every man, but of kings and low men, and all conditions of men; the word (Greek: pantes) is thrice used in the text.
(1) We are nowhere, but in this place only, commanded to pray for all men; but if for the eternal salvation of all and every one without exception, is the doubt. You shall not find a warrant in the Word to pray that all mankind may be saved absolutely; for God hath revealed in his Word, that he hath decrees of election and reprobation of men.
(2) And hath expressly forbidden to pray for their salvation, that sin to death, 1 John 5.16. And what faith have we to pray for such? For the salvation of magistrates, in that notion only, we may pray; for the peace of Babylon, and for peace of heathen princes, the Church being under them.
(3) God will have all men to be saved, no otherwise than he will have all to come to the knowledge of the truth, that is, of the Gospel. Now, how he will have all men without exception to come to the knowledge of the Gospel, since this natural, antecedent, and conditional will to save all, was in God toward the fallen angels and the Gentiles in the time of the Old Testament, when the Law of God, and his will touching salvation, through the Messiah to come, was only revealed to the Jews, Deut. 7:7, Psalm 147:19,20, let Arminians see; for sure the Gospel is not, and hath never been preached to all and every rational creature, and to all men, yet he wills all men (by Arminians’ grounds) to come to the knowledge of the Gospel.
Now, we know not how God, who hath this natural will eternally in him, as they say, wills the heathens to come to the knowledge of the Gospel, except he send Apostles with the miraculous gift of tongues, to them, to preach in their language.
(4) He instances in a specie of the “all” he spoke of, verse 1, in magistrates, though heathen. [Then, according to Arminians] Thanksgiving here for all and every man must also be commanded, as well as prayer, even for Julian and the greatest scourges and bloody scorpions, that lay heaviest stripes on the back of the Church: sure we have no faith to believe this, in reference to their salvation.
(5) Paul must here speak of the Lord’s effectual will. Whom he saves, and will have to be saved, and to hear the Gospel, they must be saved. So, the Apostle, 2 Peter 3:9. The Lord is long suffering, (Greek eis hemâs me boulomenos tinàs apolesthai alià pantâs) to us, willing none (of us, to whom he is long-suffering) to perish, but will have all us to whom he extends this long-suffering, to come to repentance.
For, he gives a reason why the Day of Judgment comes not so quickly, but is so delayed, that lustful men scoff at it; because God waits till all the elect be gathered in; they should perish, and should not come to the knowledge of the truth, if the Lord should hasten that Day, as Matt. 24, For the elect’s Sake, the ill days are shortened; not for the reprobate.
So, for this reason, Paul, verse 7, is appointed a preacher of the gentiles in faith and truth; this must be the Gentiles that believe, and come to the knowledge of the truth: nor did Paul bear this testimony to all and every one of the Gentiles; yet Arminians say, God will have all and every one of Jews and Gentiles saved and ransomed: As also, he restricts the peaceably and godly life to the Church, taking in himself, (Greek: hia-diagomen) etc., that we may lead, etc.,
(6) His reason; There is one God: So much as of all orders in the Christian-Church, there is one God. The King and magistrate, as touching his office, hath not one God, and the poor another God; the Jews have not one God, and these I preach to, the gentiles, verse 7, another; the husband has not one God, and the wife another; for these three orders, magistrates, and these that are under them, Jews, gentiles, husband, wives, are in the text.
And if that poor argument of Mr. Moor’s had blood or nerves, because there is one God; and because he names (Greek: anthropos) men, therefore God will save all; and the ransom must be as wide and spacious as the reason, God is God to all, and every one, and all and every man is a man; it may prove, that these that blaspheme and sin to death, these of Bythinia, and Samaria, and all the gentiles, that the Lord winked at, and did not invite to repentance, Acts 14:17, they left off to be men; and God was not a God in relation to them, as to the work of his hands: For, sure, God is not in covenant with all and every one of mankind; for thousands, that are men, are without the Covenant.
I demand of this universal will of God, to save all and every one, and the ransom for all and every one, was it ever heard of, in one letter in the Old Testament, except by prophesying what was to be under the New? Never.
Now, was there not one one God, and one Mediator, in the Old as in the New? And natural and universal desires and wills in God to save men as men, and that God should save men as one God, do not rise and fall in God; but sure his will, called his command, and revealed in the Gospel, is larger under the Gospel, nor [than] it was before the Messiah’s time; otherwise, God no otherwise willed all men to be saved, amongst the Jews, as their God, in Covenant with them, than he willed all the gentiles, and every man of the heathen to be saved; which contradicts Old and New Testament broadly; for, in the time of the Old Testament, God willed not Moab, Ammon, Tyre, Sidon, Philistines, Egyptians, to come to the knowledge of the truth, and Gospel, 2 Sam. 7:23, Deut. 4:34, Psalm 147:19.
(7) God no more wills all and every man to be saved, and come to believe, so they will all and every one believe; than he wills all and every one to be damned, so they believe not and refuse the Gospel: The one will is as universal as the other.
(8) It is no justice, that the ransom should be paid for all and every one, and the captives remain in prison eternally: It is against the Law, Ex. 21:30, Ex. 30:12,15. Yea, the Lord’s ransomed, Isa. 35:9,10; must obtain everlasting joy in Zion. Isa. 51:10,11, They shall obtain joy and gladness, and sorrow and mourning shall fly away. And, Hos. 13:14; 1 Cor. 15:54, They are ransomed from the grave. Let them find in all the Old or New Testament, any ransomed of the Lord, and ransomed from the grave, cast in utter darkness, where there is weeping and gnashing of teeth: They are redeemed from all iniquity, purified as a peculiar people, Titus 2:14; 1 Peter 1:18; Gal. 1:4; 1 Peter 2:24.
(9) This ransom is to be testified in due time, or as 1 Pet. 1:20,21, was manifest in these last times, (Greek: di hemâs tous de autu pisteuóntas) for you (the elect of God) that believe by him.
The Hebrew col, or Greek pantes, is undeniably expounded of all that are saved only; and is restrictive: Such a physician cured all the city; that is, no man is cured but by him. Ex. 28:1, Jethro said to Moses, What is this that thou do? that you sit alone, (Hebrew: vecol-hagnam nitzab) and all the people stand by thee, from morning till evening (for judgment), The scope of Jethro is to condemn Moses, in wearing out his Spirit, and taking the burden of judging all the people himself alone, Num. 11:13. And his words bear not that all the people without exception came for judgment, that had been impossible; but because there was then no other judge, but Moses, the sense is clear, all that were to be judged, they were to be judged by no other, but by Moses only. Rev. 13.8, And all that dwell in the Earth worshipped the Beast; that is, all seduced to Popish idolatry, were seduced by the beastly Vicar of Christ, and his limbs.John 11:48, If we let him alone, all will believe in him; that is, none will believe in us, nor follow us; and all seduced men shall be seduced by him. John 3.26, John’s disciples, a little emulous, that Christ drew all the water from their Master’s mill; say, Behold he baptizes, and (Greek: pantes) all Men come to him; that is, there be now no comers, nor followers of men, but such as follow this Jesus.
That Christ in this sense should be the Savior of all men, that he should have a negative voice in the salvation of all, that all the ransomed ones should come through his hands, is no other thing than Peter says, Acts 4:11, That there is no other name under Heaven, by which men may be saved, and none comes to the Father but by him, John 14:6. Then all that come to God, come by him only. Christ is the heir of blessings, and in him all the kindred of the earth are blessed, Acts 3:25, but it follows, as well all and every mortal man are glorified as redeemed, by this Logic; out of his fullness, we all, (Greek: pantes) all that receive, do receive from him, John 1:16.
Upon this is grounded the common nature of all that Christ assumed, that no man should be saved, but by a man. Hence, (say Arminians) “Look how far the nature of man extends, the ransom extends as far: But (saith Mr.Moor) the nature is common to Adam’s sons, all and every one, as men contra-distinguished from angels, Heb. 2:9,16.” But there is a wide difference between the fitness and aptitude that Man should die for man, not an angel for a man, and the intention and good-will of God; that Christ should either take on him the nature, of man to die for mankind, rather than for angel kind, Heb. 2.16.
And why he should die for this man Peter, or John, not that man Pharaoh or Judas: The reason of the former was the infinite Wisdom of God, seeing a congruity of justice in it, that the nature that sins should suffer for sin. Whether Christ, having a soul of a spiritual nature as angels, might have fitly been a suffering Savior for them, (which may be thought possible) is another question.
But the reason of the other [his dying for some men and not others,] is only the grace of God. Who could give a hire, or a price to Christ, to move him to die for you, and effectually, and savingly, by gifting you with faith, and not for another? All the Jesuits, Arminians, Papists, Socinians, for themselves, if provoked, shall not answer, except there be a fountain-will, that solves all, touching men and angels; He hath mercy on whom he will, and hardens whom he will; and who hath given to him first, and it shall be recompensed?
And with as good reason; because Christ is glorified at the right-hand of God, in man’s nature, common to all Adam’s sons, may they infer, that all and every man is risen again from the dead with Christ; as Col. 3:1,2, and all, and every man, is set with Christ in heavenly places, Eph. 2:6, and so all and every man must be glorified with Christ. For, as Christ died, in a nature common to all men; so, in a nature common to all, he rose again, ascended to Heaven, is glorified at the right-hand of God. But, the truth is, Christ assumed that nature that is common to all men, but not as common to all men, but as the seed of Abraham, Heb. 2.16, as the flesh and blood of the children, verse 14, of his brethren, not according to the flesh, but according to the Spirit, that are, or were to be born again.
And it is true, Jesus, Heb. 2.9, is made a little lower than the Angels. I hope, the Comparison is not with all and every one of the angels; He was never made a little lower than all the angels, even evil angels. Nor has he tasted of death for every man; that is, for all and every son of Adam.
(1) We know no grace as common to all and every one of Adam’s sons, as nature.
(2) Because the Scripture makes nature, wrath, sin, death, common to all. Rom. 5:14-21; Rom. 3:9-15; Job 14:4; Psalm 51:5; Eph. 2:1-3; Heb. 9:27. But for grace, the word of the Covenant, a Covenant of Grace, reconciliation into grace and favor with God, justification; we know no such things common to all and every one of Adam’s sons; for then all must be born, the Covenanted, justified, reconciled, beloved with the greatest love that is, John 15:13, ransomed, redeemed in Christ’s blood, a people near in the beloved, chosen as a peculiar to God, as well as heirs of wrath.
(3) That some sins against the first Covenant are taken away in Christ, and not all, as 1 John 1:8, or some half-redeemed in Christ’s blood, not wholly, we know not.
(4) That Christ should taste death for all, it being as good, as if all in person had not only sipped, but drunken death out to the bottom, and yet, that the greatest part must drink death to the bottom again, is no Gospel-truth.
(5) Nor is the Apostle’s argument of weight to exalt Christ, as he intends, Heb. 2, to say, Christ so tasted death for all, as all and every one, notwithstanding many never have, either saving faith, or fruit of his death, but eternally perish; Whereas, clear it is, that these (Greek: pantes) all that he died for, are the many sons he actually brings to glory, verse 10, these who are one with him, as the sanctifier Christ, and the sanctified, verse 11; His brethren, whom he is not ashamed to own, verse 11; The Church, verse 12; The children that God hath given him, verse 13; The children partakers of flesh and blood, verse 14; These for whom he, through death, which he tasted for all, destroyed him that had the power of death, that is, the Devil; If the Devil reign in the sons of disobedience, Eph. 2:2; If they be born of the Devil, John 8:44; taken captives at his will, 2 Tim. 2.26, let Arminians see how Christ, by tasting death for them, as they fancy, Heb. 2.9, has for them, by death, destroyed the Devil, verse 14; loosed his works, 1 John 3:8; triumphed over devils, Col 2.15; judged and cast out the devil, John 12:31, John 14:30. Yea, these “all,” these are delivered from bondage of death, Heb. 2.15; The seed of Abraham, verse 16; His brethren, that he is made like to in all things, except sin, Heb 2:17; His people, verse 17; the tempted, that Christ succours, verse 18. I defy any divine to make sense of that chapter, as Arminians expound tasting of death for all men.
And the second Adam must come short of the first Adam, Rom. 5, by the Arminian exposition; and the comparison must be as the legs of a cripple, both here, and 1 Cor. 15, for:
1. by the first Adam many be dead. What be these many? All and every one of mankind, that are the natural heirs coming forth of the loins of the first Adam: Then, who be the (Greek: polloi) many to whom the grace of God hath abounded? Verse 15. Sure the second Adam is no dry tree, no eunuch; the scripture says, He has a seed, Isa. 53:10, many sons, Heb. 2:10, children that God hath given him, that are for signs and wonders, Isa. 8:18; Heb. 2:13. A seed in Covenant with God, David’s spiritual seed, who shall never fall away, Psalm 89:28-37. Then, as all the first Adam’s sons and heirs were through his offence dead; so all Christ’s spiritual seed and heirs have grace communicated to them, verse 15.
This is far from grace abounding to all and every one of the heirs of the first Adam. Then, as the first Adam killed none but heirs naturally descended of him; so the second Adam derives grace, and the gift of life, to none but to his spiritual heirs. Make a union by birth, between the first Adam and all his, and between the second Adam and all his, and stretch the comparison no farther than Paul, and let Arminians enjoy their gain by this argument.
2. Verse 16. Sin and judgment to condemnation, not intended only, but real and efficacious, came on all by the first Adam; for all that live, incur sin, and actual condemnation by the first Adam; but the free gift is of many unto justification: Then justification, not intended only, which may never fall out, but real; not virtual, or potential, or conditional, if their fore-fathers have not rejected the Covenant; but efficacious and actual, came upon all the heirs and seed of the second Adam.
3. Paul compares verse 15, the offence (Greek: tû henos) of one, the first Sin of Adam that came on all, with the justification (Greek: ek pollôn paraptomaton) from many offences. The justification spoken of here, which we have in the second Adam, is not a pardon of sin original, and of a breach of the first Covenant; so as we begin to sin, and God reckons with us on a new score: But the justification here, is from many offences, and the blood of Jesus purges us from all sins, 1 John 1:8. This justification runs not up from the womb, as the offence of Adam does, For,
(1) Where are there two justifications in Christ’s blood?
(2) Where is there in scripture a righteousness of all and every one, a justification in Christ’s blood, by nature, or from the belly, and that of Turks, Indians, Americans, and their seed, and of all infants, in all the scripture?
4. Verse 17. By one man’s offences, there was a cruel King, Death the King of Terrors, who hath a black scepter, set over all and every man without exception. Here we grant an universal King, the first and second Death; as when a conqueror subdues a land, he setts over them a little king, a lieutenant in his place: Now, the other part of the similitude, and the anti-type, is, So much more, they that receive abundance of grace, and of the gift of righteousness, shall reign, shall be kings in life (eternal) through one Jesus Christ, verse 17.
(1) See, the heirs and sons of the second Adam are, not all and every one of the mortal stock of Adam, redeemed, reconciled, saved, but (Greek: hoi lámbanóntes tèn perisseian tès cháritos) these that receive abundance of grace, and of the gift of righteousness, only. I appeal to the conscience of Arminians, if Turks, Jews, Tartarians, Americans, Indians, all heathen, and all infants come in as (Greek: lambanóntes) and as these that for the present are under the fat drops of the second Adam, and receive abundance of grace and righteousness: For their universal righteousness is poor and thin, and may be augmented.
(2) If they receive it conditionally, so they believe, then it is not universal.
(3) Then they are not (Greek: lambanóntes) all are not Believers by nature, all are not, by this, within the new Covenant actually: They have but a far-off venture, and a cast of abundance of grace. Farther, Paul, by this [interpretation], makes glory as well as grace universal, and all and every one must be born heirs of Heaven; for Paul saith of the heirs of the second Adam (Greek: Basileúsousin en zoê), here be kings for a King; there was one catholic Tyrant, Death, set over all men; But there be here heirs of the second Adam made kings of life and glory through Jesus Christ, verse 18.
(4) If it be said, It is life conditionally, if they believe; consider then, if the second Adam be not weaker than the first: The first indeclinably, really, without a miss, transmitted death to all his: The second Adam cannot transmit life to the thousandth part of his; but as he misses in the far greatest part of his heirs (if all mortal men be his heirs) he may miss in all, if free-will so think good.
Arminius (against Perkins) says, “Constare potuit intiger fructus mortis, etc., The fruit of the second Adam’s death might stand entire, though all and every one of mankind were damned.” If this be a potential justification, it is good, it is not Paul’s justification, Romans 8, Whom he justified, them he also glorified. Nor speaks the scripture of any such justification, but of such as makes the party justified, blessed, Rom. 4:6,7, as has faith joined with it, Rom. 3:26, Rom. 5:1, as cleanses us from all our sins, 1 John 1:8.
(5) The reconciled shall much more be saved, Rom. 5:10, they are friends, not enemies, (enemies and reconciled are opposed in the text) and then they cannot be strangers, nor far off, but built upon the foundation of the prophets and Apostles; who of enemies are reconciled, Eph. 2; Col. 1:19,20, and so shall far more be saved by the life of Christ: But all and every one of mankind shall not much more be saved by the life of Christ.
(6) There is an all men under condemnation, and an all men justified: Let any of common sense judge, if ye ought not in equity to compare the heirs, sons, seed, of the first and second Adam together; and then let the two “all”s run on equal wheels, and see what Arminians gain by this:
For, if ye compare all in the loins of the first Adam on the one side, with all in the loins of the second and yet never in the second Adam, but as great strangers to Christ, as those that are out of Christ, enemies, sons of the bond-woman, strangers to Christ, without God and Christ in the world, on the other side; the sides are unequal, and beside the Holy Ghost’s mind; except ye shew us a second birth, a communion supernatural of justification, of free-grace, of sonship, of redemption, of mercy, between Jesus Christ, and all and every one of mankind, heathens, Jews, Gentiles: This, I fear, must send all the Arminians in Europe to their book, to seek what cannot be found.
And it is as easy to answer, 1 Cor. 15, for as many in number as die in Adam, are not, by that text, made alive in the second Adam; for (Greek: pantes) “all” notes not equality of number: but, as the heirs of the first Adam have death in heritage by him, so the heirs of the second Adam have life by him; and “all” in each, notes all of each quality, not of each number; for the “all” quickened by Christ,
(1) Are the fallen asleep in Christ, that are not perished, verse 18.
(2) The “all,” whose faith is not in vain, and are not in their sins, verse 17.
(3) The “all,” that have not hope in this life only, but in the life to come, verse 19.
(4) Such as are the first fruits, of the same kind of dead with Christ; for Christ, and all his, are as one corn-field of wheat gathered into one barn, verse 23.
(5) They are quickened with the same Spirit, that Christ was quickened withal; but in their own order, life comes to the head first: And if Paul’s mind be, that Christ as head and Redeemer raises all the elect and reprobate by this text, then sure the reprobate must be a part of the field, whereof Christ is the first sheaf, else the text shall not run; but, for Paul’s purpose, it was enough to prove the resurrection of believers principally.
The place, 1 John 2:1, The world and the whole world, is the world that hath an Advocate established in Heaven; for
1. if we sin, we have an Advocate, who is a propitiation, not for us Jews only, to whom I write, but for the sins of the whole world, both Jews and Gentiles: For the propitiation and advocation are of the same circumference, and sphere; else the argument should be null: But the advocation of our High Priest, in the Holy of Holiest, at the right-hand of God, is:
for the people of God only, Heb. 9.24. For us, as the High Priest carried only the Iniquity of the people of Israel, and their names engraven on his breast: For those, for whom he hath purchased an eternal redemption, with the sprinkling of blood, to purge the conscience from dead works to serve the living God, verses 12-14; For those, to whom he left peace in his testament, and the promise of eternal inheritance, verses 15-17; and for those, that look for Christ’s second appearing to salvation; and for those, for whose faith he prays, Luke 22:31-33, and for whom he prays the Father, that he may send the Holy Spirit, John 14:16,17, and 16:7; For all these, Christ doth as our High Priest (Heb. 9:10) intercede.
2. It is clear, the persons cannot be so changed, If we sin, we have a propitiation; if we confess, the blood of Jesus shall cleanse us from all sins: And by the sins of the whole world, he understands all that did, or should believe of Jews or Gentile, Rom. 11:15; 2 Cor. 5:19; John 1:29, and 3:16, the whole world, loved, pardoned, reconciled, to whom sins are not imputed, and so blessed and justified, Psalm 32:1-4.
And whereas the Apostle ascends, and not for our Sins only, etc., it is not to extend propitiation, further than advocation, confession, knowing that we know him: That is petitio principii, for John does not conclude a comfort of Christ’s advocation, which is undeniably peculiar and proper only to those that have fellowship with the Father and Son, and have believed in the word of life, are purged from all their sins, from a general propitiation, common to those that are eternally damned, and which may have its full and entire fruit, though all the world were eternally damned:
It were a poor comfort to weak ones, who sin daily and are liars if they should say, they have no sin, that there is no better salve in Heaven for their sin, than such an one, as they may no less perish eternally having it, than Pharaoh, Cain, Judas; it were better for them to want it, as have it.
2 Peter 2.1. Some false teachers deny the Lord that bought them; which is not so to be taken, as if Christ had redeemed those from their vain conversation, 1 Pet. 1:18, and from the present evil world, Gal. 1:4, for:
(1) then he should have redeemed them from apostasy, and the power of damnable heresies, which he did not; but in their profession they were bought, and so the Apostle more sharply convinces them, for they were teachers in profession, but really wolves that devoured the flock, but professed themselves to be shepherds sent to seek the lost.
(2) They were heretical teachers, and brought in damnable heresies, and therefore nominal Christians and professed Christ to be their Lord; for if they had been without, and open enemies, they could not bring in heresies.
(3) They did it covertly and privily, teaching and doing one thing, and professing another. They professed the Lord to be their Redeemer who bought them; but that they were hypocrites, is clear, verse 1, (Greek: parisáxousi hairéseis) they shall bring in heresies in the by, at a side, privily. Verse 2. By reason of them the way of truth shall be blasphemed; enemies shall speak ill of the Gospel, because these men profess the Redeemer who bought them, but yet they are covetous men, verse 3. Verse 3. They buy and sell you (Greek: plastoîs logios) with decked-up and well-combed fair words, O our Redeemer that bought us, our Savior! O free grace! O free redemption! as Libertines now do; and yet they that deny sanctification, deny Christ, who in their profession bought them.
And ’tis ordinary for scripture to affirm things of men, as they speak and profess; as the Scripture calls wolves, prophets, Jer. 23, because they so profess themselves; Christ called Judas friend, but he was but a face-friend, and a real enemy; so Pharisees are styled by the Holy Ghost, Matt. 9.12-13, whole and righteous, just persons that need no repentance, Luke 15:7; such as need not the Physician, Mark 2:17, because they are such only in their own conceit and vain opinion, not really. If any man say, Christ bought these, in regard that by his death he purchases a dominion over elect and reprobate, that all knees should bow to him, men and angels, Rom. 14:8,9, etc., Isa. 45:23; Phil. 2:9-11; John 5:27; Acts 17:31, so that there is a difference between buying as conquerors, and buying from our vain conversation:
—I think it hath truth in it, Christ by his Death hath acquired a dominion; but I much doubt, if in that sense scripture say, Christ has bought the reprobate by his blood; for so, by his blood he hath bought angels, devils, all things, and all knees in Heaven and earth, and under the earth; for by his death and resurrection he hath acquired this dominion, Rom. 14. God is the Savior of all men, 1 Tim. 4.10. ’Tis not spoken of Christ as Mediator, but of the living God the Savior of all men, Psalm 106:8,10; Matt 8:25; Neh. 9:27; Psalm 36:6, (Hebrew: jaschang) is here; and the living God is given indefinitely to God as One with all the Three, but God in Christ is specially the Savior of believers.
Other places for universal grace, and the apostasy of the saints, I pass here.
Gratefully excerpted, punctuated and reformatted for your ease of reading from True Covenanter