“Therefore disputed he in the synagogue with the Jews, and with the devout persons, and in the market daily with them that met with him.”

Acts 17:17



Historic Articles

Alexander, Arhibald – Introduction to A Rational Defence of the Gospel  1831, 10 pp.  The book is by Isaac Watts.

Cunningham, William – General Revelation and the Evidences of Christianity  1878  145 pp.  being chapters 10-20 of his Theological Lectures, p. 124 ff.

Girardeua, John – What is a Miracle?  A Reply to Dr. Martin, around 1888, p. 57, 8 pages, an Appendix to Dr. Girardeau’s Anti-Evolution: the Logic of his Reply, from the Christian Observer.  Dr. Girardeau had originally written an article in the Presbyterian Quarterly on the supernatural character of miracles.  Martin criticized this work in four successive articles in theSouthern Presbyterian.  Here is Girdeau’s reply to Martin’s criticisms.  Girardeau’s Anti-Evolution: the Logic of His Reply is Martin’s response to this piece by Girardeau.



Modern Articles

Minich, Joseph – ‘A Review of: Covenantal Apologetics by K. Scott Oliphant’  2014, 63 paragraphs

A helpful critique of Presuppositional VanTillianism in general, by a reformed writer.

Muller, Richard – Aquinas Reconsidered, pt. 1, 2, 3  on Reformation21  being a review of Scott Oliphint’s book, Thomas Aquinas




Alexander, Archibald –  Evidences of the Authenticity, Inspiration, Canonical Authority of the Holy Scriptures  1906  326 pp.  This is a later expanded edition that includes A Brief Outline of the Evidences of the Christian Religion, 1825, and parts of The Canon of the Old and New Testaments Ascertained, 1833.

Buchanan, James

Modern Atheism: compared to Faith in God in their essential natures, theoretic grounds, and practical influence  1855  510 pp.  by James Buchanan.  This is volume 1 of Buchanan’s two volume work on Atheism.

This book consists of three parts, (1) arguments for the existence of God from general revelation, (2) an examination of such proofs, and (3) a critique of the theories that underly Atheism.  “Modern Atheism” refers to the specific stripe of atheism that was rising in Buchanan’s day, though it is hardly different than the atheism of our own day.

Modern Atheism: under its forms of Pantheism, Materialism, Secularism, Development and Natural Laws  1857  423 pp.  Here is an HTML version, by James Buchanan.  This is volume two of Buchanan’s two volume work on Atheism.  The first two chapters (128 pages) are the same as section three in the first volume.

Buchanan initially entered the Free Church college in 1845 as professor of Apologetics.  These two volumes reflect his competency and work in that field.  Here he takes on the prevailing secular worldviews of his day, most of which are the same as in our own day.  

Cunningham, William – Theological Lectures: on subjects connected with natural theology, evidences of Christianity, the canon and inspiration of Scripture  Buy  1878  625 pp.

This collection of lectures in its subject matter forms an extended exposition of the first chapter of the Westminster Confession.  Cunningham “had bestowed much care and labor upon their composition and revision, and that he had attached a special value to them as the first-fruits of his professional labors.”

Dabney, Robert – The Sensualistic Philosophy of the Nineteenth Century Considered  Buy  1875  369 pp.

Here is Dabney’s major interaction with the popular philosophies (or “worldviews” in contemporary language) of his day.  See here for a review.

Girardeau, John

Discussions of Philosophical Questions  1900  532 pp.

A modern title to this book would be “Conflict of Worldviews”

Discussions of Theological Questions  Buy  534 pp.  see the Buy link for the table of contents.

Wallace Marshall – Puritans and Natural Theology  Buy  2012  205 pp. being his PhD dissertation for Boston College

This excellent work surveys the natural theology of the puritans, which was their undergirding for apologetics.




John ‘Rabbi’ Duncan

“Time was when I was so sunk in atheism that once on seeing a horse I said to myself, ‘There is no difference between that horse and me.'”

“It [Christianity] is a great historical fact; if we reject it we must explain it to vindicate the rejection; we must find its source in natural causes, and this you cannot do.”




Related Pages