Adoption

“But as many as received him, to them gave he power to become the sons of God, even to them that believe on his name.”

John 1:12

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Subsection

God is Father to All People by Creation

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Articles

1800’s

Buchanan, James – ‘The Spirit’s Work as the Spirit of Adoption’  being Part 3, ch. 2 of The Office and Work of the Holy Spirit (Edinburgh, 1842), pp. 454-488

Girardeau, John – ‘The Doctrine of Adoption’  being the last chapter of his Discussions of Theological Questions  Buy  see the Buy link for the table of contents of the whole book.

Girardeau’s contribution to the discussion throughout church history regarding the Doctrine of Adoption is worth the price of the book.  Girardeau is persuasive in arguing that Adoption is a distinct act from Justification and that Adam was naturally a son of God by creation (as well as unbelievers), following Thomas Crawford in his prominent Scottish debate with Robert Candlish over the Fatherhood of God.  For a systematic exposition and Biblical defense of Girardeau’s doctrine of Adoption, see this article by Travis Fentiman.

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1900’s

Murray, John – ‘Adoption’  29 paragraphs

Trumper, Tim J.R. – ‘The Theological History of Adoption’  in Scottish Bulletin of Evangelical Theology

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2000’s

Fentiman, Travis – ‘John L. Girardeau’s Doctrine of Adoption: a Systematic and Biblical Defense’  2014  20 pp.

This is a systematic exposition and Biblical defense of Girardeau’s doctrine of Adoption.  It argues that Adoption is both distinct from Regeneration and Justification, that Adam was by creation naturally a son of God (Luke 3:38), and that unbelievers are as well (though not spiritually), as God is the Father of all people by creation (Heb. 12:9, Eph. 3:15).

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Books

1800’s

Crawford, Thomas – The Fatherhood of God: Considered in its General and Special Aspects And Particularly in Relation to the Atonement  1868  392 pp.

Crawford, of the Church of Scotland, debated the Fatherhood of God with Robert Candlish of the Free Church of Scotland.  Crawford was for God’s Fatherhood towards man by Creation and Candlish was not.

Kennedy, John – Ch. 1, p. 21-38, Ch. 2, point 2, p. 50-52 & Ch. 4, section 3 of Man’s Relations to God  Buy  (1869), pp. 147-175

Kennedy, a famed minister of the Free Church of Scotland in the Highlands, here discusses whether Adam was by creation a son or not in the Garden in chapter one and whether this relation remains under the fall or not in chapter two.  In chapter four Kennedy expounds the grounds of our Adoption in Christ, its relation to justification and its relation to Christ’s unique Sonship.

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1900’s

Webb, R.A. – The Reformed Doctrine of Adoption  Buy  (1947)

Webb was a Southern Presbyterian and theological professor.  He was the son-in-law of John L. Girardeau.  Both of these men took the basic view of Crawford above, though refined it.

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2000’s

Beeke, Joel – Heirs with Christ: the Puritans on Adoption  Buy  (RHB)

Includes an extensive puritan bibliography on the subject.

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Related Pages

God is Father to All People by Creation

Justification