A Lesson in Ethics: on Material Cooperation with Evil

Have you ever bought clothes or shoes originally made in a sweatshop in a third-world country?  Do you ever take Tylenol or Aspirin, which has used research from the fetal cells of aborted babies in its continued development?

It is nearly impossible to avoid all forms and degrees of material cooperation in the immoral actions of others in modern society, and Jesus and Paul have yet told us not to go out of the world.  The topic of what may be lawful and what not, in which circumstances, is one of the hardest in ethics, and yet it is massively relevant to our daily lives.  The issues become most personal and pertinent when immorality is being pushed upon us, as is increasingly happening in our culture.

Yet there are solid principles that have been hammered out through Church history on this topic that will give you a sure foundation and be a safe guide in finding clear answers in seeking to please the Lord in these difficult matters.  Read the Extended Introduction on this new page of resources (a one of its kind) and grow in the Christian life, that we might be like Zacharias and Elisabeth who “were both righteous before God, walking in all the commandments and ordinances of the Lord blameless.” (Lk. 1:5-6)

On the Ethics of Material Cooperation with, & Associations with Evil

Praying & Worshipping Together, Apart

The Orthodox Presbyterian Chuch in America has called for today, Saturday, August 21, 2021, to be a day of prayer and fasting that “we might lament our distress and unworthiness before the Lord, confess our sin, and commit ourselves anew to the faithful service of the Lord our God…”  This could not be more appropriate and necessary for the times.

Though churches and famillies are separated by great distance and circumstances, yet the OPC has called for this “that the whole church may pray as one people, and call upon the Lord with one voice..”

This principle, that Christians who are separated by great distance and are not meeting together in one assembly, or possibly in any assembly, yet pray together, and offer to God one public worship (as opposed to each offering simply their own separate, individual worship, unconjoined to the rest), is thoroughly Scriptural and historically reformed.  When the early Church was spread throughout Jerusalem, divided by geography and walls, not being able to see each other, and Peter was in prison (the news being spread by mouth), “prayer [singular] was made without ceasing of the Church [singular] unto God for him.” (Acts 12:5)

Needless to say, the same principle is very relevant for churches still meeting online (of necessity) to publicly worship under COVID restrictions.  Grow in your knowledge of Scriptural and historic, reformed principles of worship and the mystical communion of the saints through our one Mediator in Heaven with the resources on this page:

On Holding Public Worship & Church Courts by Distance Through Technology, & on Using Satellite Churches, under Necessity & for Edification

Reference Lists of Commentaries on the Books of the Bible

If you are looking for recommended commentaries on the books of the Bible, we have a page of Recommendations for Bible Commentaries.

However, if you desire to take it to the next level, and look into the important commentaries on a book of the Bible from all of Church history, we have created just a webpage for you:

Bibliographies of Commentaries on the Books of the Bible

At one time such lists of commentaries would have been of little value to most people, as those commentaries would be very hard to come by.  However, since most of them are now online, the Lord has made thine cup to run over (Ps. 23:5).

Search the Scriptures to your heart’s content (Jn. 17:17; Acts 17:11) and bless the Lord!

Textual Indices on the Bible

One of the greatest resources and blessings is an index that gives resources on every chapter and verse of the Bible.

While the Sermon & Textual Index at RBO is the largest, reformed index with links online, yet there are a number of other indices available, both in print and online, with many more references to quality resources.  For your benefit, we decided to collect them all together!

Textual Indices on the Bible

Have a passage or verse of the Bible you desire to look into further?  Through this collection of textual indices you will be able to find a great number of quality resources on it.  Blessings in the Lord.


“He giveth meat in abundance.”

Job 36:31

Then shalt thou lay up gold as dust…
Yea, the Almighty shall be thy defence, and thou shalt have plenty of silver.”

Job 22:24-25

The Civil Government’s Authority about the Church

The Reformation and puritan era’s teaching on the Church-State relationship, derived from the Word of God in accord with the light of Nature, has been all but lost today.  The term for it was circa sacra; it means that the magistrate has authority, not in, but ‘around the sacred aspects’ of religion and the Church.

While the civil government does not have formal authority over the Church, as Christ is her only Head, yet the magistrate does have civil authority over the material Church in legitimate civil matters that pertain equally in principle to civil society.

As all people are to seek first the Kingdom of God with the natural power they have (Mt. 6:33), so likewise the civil government ought to use its natural, God-given, civil power for the good of Christ’s Kingdom, the Church (Isa. 49:23; 60:10,12,16), including in civilly professing, protecting and promoting the True Religion, and civilly establishing it in the land.

We need to reform ourselves and our nations to the Word of God.  This newly written Extended Introduction to circa sacra outlines in detail the older view of the original Westminster Confession (1646) and reformed orthodoxy, and is a gateway into puritan literature on the subject.  The paper also explains the differences between the Reformation view of circa sacra and the later ‘Establishment Principle’ of the 1800’s Free Church of Scotland.

Appended to the work is a section from the London presbyterian ministers’ Divine Right of Church Government (1646) on circa sacra: the most readable, systematic and brief setting forth of the older view of circa sacra (with most of its numerous necessary distinctions) from the Scriptures in English that the webmaster is aware of.

Take the time to build your life on solid doctrine.

Fentiman, Travis & London Presbyterians – The Civil Government’s Authority about Religion & the Church, Circa Sacra:  An Extended Introduction & a Section from the English Presbyterians’ Divine Right  (1646; ReformedBooksOnline, 2021)  123 pp.


“Be wise now therefore, O ye kings:
be instructed, ye judges of the earth.
Serve the Lord with fear, and rejoice with trembling.”

Ps. 2:10-11

On the Affections of God

Does God have emotions?  People often respond to sincere inquirers with a blanket “No”, and end up ignoring or denying as much truth as they affirm.

The reformed orthodox terms were that God has affections and perfections.  The affections that are attributed to God in Scripture, they held, were metaphors, which were not wholly characteristic of God, and yet were in some respect, having an eternal foundation in his nature, or perfections.  The perfections of God, those proper properties of his nature, are infinite and never change.

Git rekt by the reformed scholastics on this often neglected, though very important topic:

On the Affections of God

A few years ago Dr. Scott Oliphint put forward the thesis that God, upon creation, assumed certain ‘covenantal properties’.  We believe both he, and his controverters on the other side, did not describe the issues as accurately and in as much of an orthodox manner as the reformed orthodox did in the now-lost distinction between God’s Absolute & Relative Attributes.

Further, what does God ‘desiring’ the conversion of his sinful creatures in the Gospel call mean?  All sides, we believe, will be satisfied by the dominant reformed scholastic answer of Rollock, Rutherford and Pictet, On God’s Expressions of Desire.  There is a new translated excerpt from Rutherford’s Treatise on Providence.

And lastly, see why it is that many through Church history have taught That Wrath & Hatred are Not Properly in God.  May God bless you with a greater sight of Himself.

Latin Dictionaries

85% of reformed theology, and the best of it, is still in Latin.  Most of it will never be translated.  If you desire the gold, you have to learn how to read Latin.

To help everyone to that end, we have compiled a collection of Latin dictionaries online.  Digital meta-dictionaries are exponentially more efficient, powerful and valuable than anything in print, all upon a few clicks of the mouse.

This collection of dictionaries and parsing guides will be of great help to the beginner, and a resource second-to-none for the scholar.

Latin theological and philosophical dictionaries are included too, which will be invaluable to the student of reformed orthodoxy.

Latin Dictionaries


Calvin & Beza on Providence: Translated by Knox

Two brief but valuable pieces on Providence by Calvin and Beza were translated from French and Latin by John Knox.  However as they have laid in the midst of Knox’s massive volume on Predestination in very old and difficult English (even in the latest reprint of Knox’s Works), few people it seems are aware of them.

Few people are also aware of Calvin’s writings against the ‘hyper-Calvinists’ of his day: the Libertines.  The Libertines held to what is known in philosophy as a form of Occasionalism, that all events that occur are directly and immediately worked by God.  True secondary causation is eliminated.  One main problem with this is that it makes God the Author of Sin, something that the Libertines expressly affirmed.  Calvin here not only repudiates this blasphemy, but he also lays out three ways (and only three ways) in which God brings all things to pass through his providence, herein establishing true secondary causation.

Beza provides 29 propositions on providence from his work against Sebastian Castellio, touching upon similar themes as Calvin.  Both Calvin and Beza’s pieces, while making some basic distinctions, expound the Lord’s providence in a way that is easy to grasp with illustrations from Scripture and human life.  May we grow in our love and trust of our great and good God, who directs all things to the eternal good of those who trust in Christ our Savior.

Calvin, John & Theodore Beza – ‘Calvin & Beza on Providence: Translations by Knox’  trans. John Knox  (1545, 1558, 1560; 2021)

On the 5 Spurious Sacraments of Rome

Romanism has five more sacraments than protestants do:

Extereme Unction (or a Last Anointing)

As Romanists can cite verses in the New Testament for each of these things (Acts 9:17Lk. 3:8Mt. 19:5-6Acts 13:2-3James 5:14), why are they not sacraments?

We have collected some standard reformed treatments on these subjects clearly answering this question and proving the Biblical view in detail.  In case you think that this subject is rather elementary, a bit below your interest level, we collected these resources, in fact, precisely for the profound issues delineated in these discussions, which correct the modern reformed Church in multiple ways.  For instance:

See standard, reformed divines argue (1) that marriage is entered into through the mutual consent of a man and a woman unto the institution, (2) that the laying on of hands was a natural, cultural sign which is not necessary, religiously significant or normative in ordination, (3) that elders anointing sick persons with oil was likewise a natural practice for refreshment and is not a means of grace, and (4) see the divines argue under Confirmation and Extreme Unction for Cessationsim (which teaching and arguments are not otherwise easy to locate in their writings).

On the 7 Sacraments of Romanism

Blessings and fare ye well.

How Church Rulings Do & Do Not Bind, & of Breaking Them

If the Church is not neglected today, it is often idolized; if Church authority is not disregarded, it is frequently turned absolute.

The Biblical and historically presbyterian position is that Church authority is conditional, and can only confirm the truth and what is good; it binds only insofar as God’s moral law binds antecedently within the situation itself.  To decline a positive order of Church government, apart from giving scandal and contempt of rightul authority, does not incur guilt.

Hence there is as much freedom in Christ’s House as God’s Law allows, and the Church’s government cannot with God’s authority turn into a capricious bear-trap.

Learn the ins and outs of when it is right to obey the Church, and when it is wrong; your welfare may depend on it.  You won’t find this essential subject for the Christian life treated in such solid detail anywhere else.

How Church Rulings Do & Do Not Bind, on Guilt & Innocence in Breaking Them, & on Contumacy

How Far the Church may Speak to Civil Issues

From Covid regulations to getting Woke with social justice and activism, this could not be a more needful question to have accurate, Biblical and solid answers to.  One ‘conservative’ reaction to the politicizing of the Church, in contrast also to the later full-blown liberal, social gospel, was the 1800’s, American, Southern presbyterian doctrine of the ‘spirituality of the Church’, which in fact was a reduction of preaching the whole counsel of God.  Today a similar mindset is held by much of fundamentalist baptist America, following in line with the Pietist and Anabaptist traditions.

Turn, however, to the Reformation and puritan eras, not because of the stature of those men, but because you will find that they hammered out this topic in more precise and accurate detail faithful to the Word of God than any other era in history.  The Rock of God’s Word does not move or change.

Find the Truth, and be steadfast in it for the rest of your life.  Start with Gillespie, who concisely outlines the puritan doctrine, reformed accoring to the Word of God, and take every thought captive to the obedience of Christ.

How Far the Church May Speak to Civil Issues

Seeking the Peace & Purity of the Church

One of the main aims of Church discipline, which should also be the aim of all Christians, is to seek the peace and purity of Christ’s Church.

It is not always readily clear however, what that principle calls for in particular situations; and the phrase is often readily misused by those who have little care for the purity of the Church, or her peace.  If all parties are seeking the peace of the Church in purity, and seeking the purity of the Church in peace, disputes and scandals can be resolved in a healthy manner.

Here are numerous historic resources that will help you and your Church in seeking the peace and purity of Christ’s Kingdom:

On the Peace & Purity of the Church

Calderwood Translation on Easter

In light of Easter coming up, we have translated a classic section from the Scottish presbyterian minister, David Calderwood, on this addition to God’s worship.

The observation of Easter was claimed to be indifferent by Scottish prelates (as it is often so claimed to be today by reformed ministers), it being imposed at the Perth Assembly in Scotland in 1618.  In 1623, Calderwood laid out these propositions in Latin on indifferent things and ceremonies about God’s worship, which precisely delineate the Biblical and classical presbyterian view on the subject.

As such, these propositions are timeless.  Please enjoy them and share them with your friends, and remember to keep the Lord’s Day holy.

Calderwood, David – ‘Propositions on Indifferent Things & Ceremonies in Worship’  trans. T. Fentiman  (1623; RBO, 2021)

On Scandal

The topic of scandal may seem obscure, until one finds oneself in the midst of dealing with one; scandals, in fact, are all around us.

Where does one go for help?  Until now there has not been an abundance of reformed resources on the topic.  These resources will be especially helpful for Church officers who not infrequently must handle and seek to heal these commotions.

Scandal is not simply displeasing people; it is any word or action, or lack thereof, which tends towards hindering others in the path of righteousness.

If you are committed to doing what is right and morally necessary in situations when it is not popular (as God calls and obliges us to do), you will need a thorough and detailed understanding of this topic in order to seek to maintain the line of righteousness in difficult situations.

On Scandal & Offenses

Podcast on Schizophrenia & Demonic Possession

Is some schizophrenia actually demonic possession?

That is the subject of a new podcast at the Holy Happy Hour (#60), featuring Travis Fentiman, MDiv, LPN, the webmaster of ReformedBooksOnline.  The discussion reflects Fentiman’s recent article on the subject from his experience in psychiatric nursing, which answers the question in the affirmative.

If you desire to learn more about this interesting and important subject, or desire to get to know the webmaster more, have a listen!

The Simplicity of Worship

Anyone who reads the book of Acts will be struck with how simple that standard of apostolic worship was, which is forever a rule to the Christian Church.

The more simple the worship is, the more spiritual it will be shown to be, when persons have nothing else to cling to in it but the Word of God laid bare, in the praying, the singing, the reading and the preaching of the Word.

The simplicity and spirituality of Christian worship, in contradistinction to most evangelical and even reformed worship today, used to be a well-known doctrine of the Reformation and of presbyterians.  Recover a heart for Biblical worship by studying the resources on this page:

On the Simplicity & Spirituality of Worship

George Gillespie:

“That the [Anglican] Ceremonies are a great hinderance to edification appears, first, in that they obscure the substance of religion and weaken the life of godliness by outward glory and splendor, which draws away the minds of people so after it that they forget the substance of the service which they are about…  departing from the apostolical and most ancient simplicity, and for adding ceremonies unto ceremonies in a worldly splendor and spectability, whereas the worship of God ought to be pure and simple…

Secondly, the Ceremonies are impediments to the inward and spiritual worship, because they are fleshly and external…” – English Popish Ceremonies (1637), pp. 19-20

Demonic Possession Today

This is a personal topic for myself, Travis Fentiman, MDiv., LPN.  Until I became a nurse, I never had any first-hand experience with demonic possession.

But since then, after talking to and observing many persons who hear ‘voices’ in their head, I have become persuaded that most schizophrenics, who hear such malevolent voices, are demon possessed.  This means that more people than we have imagined today are possessed by demons, and are around us in some number in society (about 1%).

These webpages were born out of need.  When a person is being tormented in front of you in tears and despair, how does one help them?  Can one deliver them?

I have written a personal account of my experience and clinical observations with these things, and hope it may be helpful and eye-opening.  See the Introduction on this new page:

On Demonic Possession

I wish I had time to write an introduction to the following page as well, giving the results of my investigations into Scripture, reformed theology and history, but I have not.  Nonetheless, this might be the only collection of historic, reformed resouces available on the topic:

On Exorcism

Polemical Theologies

Polemical Theology is Scriptural theology that is organized around refuting false doctrines and religions.  The brilliance of the light is often most clearly seen in contrast to the darkness of error.

Little is it known that nearly every single theological or practical question about Christianity today has already been hammered out by the reformed in near exhaustive detail and length during the 1500’s & 1600’s.

If one can find out which erroneous sect erred on the issue during that time, then you will find a wealth of literature proving the Scriptural position in detail in the many reformed, polemical writings against that sect.

Hence, as a gateway into this literature, we have compiled all the important reformed handbooks of polemical theology since the Reformation that we could find.  Most of them are in Latin.

Polemical Theologies

This is just a beginning.  We hope to fill out the webpages against the sects in much greater detail in the future, and hope, if the Lord wills, to build a system of literature, reformed according to the Word of God, on every last aspect of Christianity.  May the Lord see it through.


“Sanctify them through thy truth: thy word is truth.”

Jn. 17:17

What Constitutes the Fundamentals of Christianity & How Bad are Errors Beyond Them?

What precisely must one believe to be saved?  Given the variety of people’s background, understanding and what is told them of Christianity, even as exampled in Scripture, that is not an easy question to answer.

If people profess serious errors that seem to overturn the fundamentals of Christianity, though they yet profess to believe in those fundamental teachings of the True Faith, will they be saved?  Are they professing Christians?  May we have fellowship with such a Church?

The topic of the fundamental and secondary teachings of Christianity is at once a profoundly basic issue, and yet it is incredibly complex with many real world implications.  Should a baptist be allowed to be a member of a church reformed according to the Word of God?  Should an Arminian?

Little is it known that there was a large, reformed consensus in these issues amongst the presbyterians in the puritan era, even in the minute details, and that not simply from human agreement, but as it was proved by the Word of God and the light of nature.

You will learn a lot.  See especially Witsius.  And, as usual, git wrekt by Rutherford:

Of Fundamental, Secondary & Tertiary Matters of Christianity, of Errors Therein & of Communion, Discipline & Separation Thereabout

More Writings of the Westminster Divines

Around Thanksgiving we had over 890 online writings of the Westminster divines collected on our site.  Realizing there were some that we had missed, we kept digging, searching and scurrying.

We are glad to announce that, by the blessing of God, we have been able to cull together for you 1,118 volumes of the divines that are freely available online, for a total of 1,260 referenced on our page:

All of the Writings of the Westminster Divines in English Online

This is currently the largest collection (by far) on the net.  You may be wondering why we do this: it is not an antiquarian interest; it is our livelihood.

We hope within several months to add all of the sermons of the divines to our Sermon & Textual Index (which is currently the largest print, textual index with links on the net).


“For the earth shall be full of the knowledge of the Lord,
as the waters cover the sea.”

Isa. 11:9